Special Issue "Challenge to The Dairy Industry and Human Nutrition"

A special issue of Dairy (ISSN 2624-862X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Young W. Park
Website
Guest Editor
Georgia Small Ruminant Research and Extension Center, Fort Valley State University, The University System of Georgia, Fort Valley, GA 31030, USA
Interests: dairy technology; dairy products development and quality evaluation research; goat milk
Prof. emer. George F. W. Haenlein
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
Interests: sheep milk; dairy goat farming; dairy cattle

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The dairy industry in the USA and worldwide is challenged from many sides, and this is reflected in the annual statistics of fluid milk consumption per person per year, which has been seriously declining for several years. This has been compounded by the tremendous increases in production and consumption of plant-based alternative milks in recent years, which have been a great threat to the sustainability of the dairy industry, with some dairy corporations and farmers having suddenly found themselves on the brink of bankruptcy. Vegetarians and vegans have had a role to play in this, having successfully promoted the benefits of plant-derived artificial milks against natural dairy milk.  

With respect to human nutrition, the dairy industry has long been challenged by other inherent nutritional, biochemical, and digestive implications, such as milk allergies and lactose intolerance in certain human populations, which have caused the rejection of dairy products in the market place. While alternative artificial milk products cannot really match the superior nutritional, flavor, rheological, and sensory values of natural dairy milk and its products in consumer acceptability and human health, new nutrition regimes, such as plant-based products, have still managed to make great strides through aggressive promotion and advertisement.

In the production of quality milk for betterment of human nutrition and wellbeing, the dairy industry has also faced many other challenges, including feeding management of dairy animals, enterotoxemia, helminthiasis, milk fat globules, food microbiology, whey protein utilization, consumers’ misunderstandings of milk allergy, lactose intolerance, and milk lipids, ignorance of small ruminant species milk, etc. For all these aforementioned integral issues, this proposed Special Issue will focus on and discuss many challenges and factors associated with the healthy growth of the dairy industry in order to better serve the global populations in terms of nutrition and wellbeing of humanity.

Prof. Dr. Young W. Park
Prof. emer George F. W. Haenlein
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Dairy is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dairy industry
  • sustainability
  • present and future challenges
  • plant-based alternative milks
  • cow milk allergy
  • lactose intolerance
  • cow milk versus goat milk
  • human nutrition and wellbeing
  • factors associated with dairy production

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Survivability of Salmonella Pathogens and Physicochemical Characteristics of Powder Goat Milk Stored under Different Storage Treatment Regimens
Dairy 2020, 1(3), 269-283; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy1030018 - 24 Nov 2020
Abstract
Survivability of Salmonella pathogens in commercial powdered goat milk (PGM) under different storage treatments was investigated using three batches of PGM products stored at two temperatures (4 °C and 25 °C) and ten storage periods (0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 30, 60, 90, [...] Read more.
Survivability of Salmonella pathogens in commercial powdered goat milk (PGM) under different storage treatments was investigated using three batches of PGM products stored at two temperatures (4 °C and 25 °C) and ten storage periods (0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 days). A cocktail of three Salmonella serotypes (Salmonella agona, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella tennessee) was inoculated to the PGM samples and then survival of Salmonella counts was enumerated in the inoculated and non-inoculated control groups. Results showed that the initial Salmonella counts were 7.103 Log CFU (colony forming unit)/g at both temperatures. At the first 3 days, the viable Salmonella counts were reduced about 0.94 and 1.40 Log CFU/g at 4 °C and 25 °C, respectively, where the same levels were sustained for 14 days. Further reductions continued and at the end of 180 days storage, Salmonella survivability was 1.15 Log CFU/g higher at 4 °C than at 25 °C under the same water activity condition. As the storage period advanced, viable pathogen counts were gradually decreased. The pH of samples stored at 4 °C for 0 and 4 month were higher than those stored at 25 °C except for 2 months, while no differences were found in water activity (aw) between treatments of the PGM products. With regard to physicochemical characteristics, the samples stored at 25 °C showed higher POV (peroxide value) values than those stored at 4 °C for 2 and 4 month periods, indicating that the rate of lipid oxidation in the PGM was elevated by a higher storage temperature and a longer storage period. The basic nutrient compositions of the experimental PGM were similar to those reported in recent studies. Oleic acid (C18:1) was the highest, caprylic acid (C8:0) was the second highest, and behenic acid (C22:0) was the lowest concentration among all fatty acids identified in the PGM samples. Most of the fatty acid concentrations tended to decrease with advanced storage periods. This research indicates that the survivability of Salmonella pathogens in the PGM products stored at 4 °C for 180 days was higher than those stored at 25 °C under the same aw condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenge to The Dairy Industry and Human Nutrition)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Whey Proteins and Its Derivatives: Bioactivity, Functionality, and Current Applications
Dairy 2020, 1(3), 233-258; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy1030016 - 05 Nov 2020
Abstract
With the increased consumer demand for nutritional foods, it is important to develop value-added products, which will not only catch the attention of a wider consumer group but also provide greater benefits in terms of enhanced nutrition and functionality. Milk whey proteins are [...] Read more.
With the increased consumer demand for nutritional foods, it is important to develop value-added products, which will not only catch the attention of a wider consumer group but also provide greater benefits in terms of enhanced nutrition and functionality. Milk whey proteins are one of the most valued constituents due to their nutritional and techno-functional attributes. Whey proteins are rich in bioactive peptides, possessing bioactive properties such as being antioxidant and antihypertensive as well as having antimicrobial activities, which, when ingested, confers several health benefits. These peptides have the potential to be used as an active food ingredient in the production of functional foods. In addition to their bioactivities, whey proteins are known to possess enhanced functional attributes that allow them to be utilized in broad applications, such as an encapsulating agent or carrier materials to entrap bioactive compounds, emulsification, and in edible and active packaging. Hence, over the recent years, several whey protein-based ingredients have been developed and utilized in making formulations for a wide range of foods to harness their beneficial properties. This review highlights the bioactive properties, functional characteristics, associated processing limitations, and applications of different whey protein fractions and derivatives in the field of food formulations, encapsulation, and packaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenge to The Dairy Industry and Human Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
Lactic Acid Bacteria: Food Safety and Human Health Applications
Dairy 2020, 1(3), 202-232; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy1030015 - 29 Oct 2020
Abstract
Research on lactic acid bacteria has confirmed how specific strains possess probiotic properties and impart unique sensory characteristics to food products. The use of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in many food products, thus confers various health benefits to humans when they are [...] Read more.
Research on lactic acid bacteria has confirmed how specific strains possess probiotic properties and impart unique sensory characteristics to food products. The use of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in many food products, thus confers various health benefits to humans when they are frequently consumed in adequate amounts. The advent of functional food or the concept of nutraceuticals objectively places more emphasis on seeking alternatives to limit the use of medications thus promoting the regular consumption of fermented foods. Probiotic use has thus been recommended to fulfill the role of nutraceuticals, as no side effects on human health have been reported. Probiotics and lactic acid bacteria can boost and strengthen the human immune system, thereby increasing its resistance against numerous disease conditions. Consumer safety and confidence in dairy and fermented food products and the desire of the food industry to meet the sensory and health needs of consumers, has thus increased the demand for probiotic starter cultures with exceptional performance coupled with health benefiting properties. The potential of probiotic cultures and lactic acid bacteria in many industrial applications including fermented food products generally affects product characteristics and also serves as health-promoting foods for humans. The alleviation of lactose intolerance in many populations globally has been one of the widely accepted health claims attributed to probiotics and lactic acid bacteria, although many diseases have been treated with probiotic lactic acid bacteria and have been proven with scientific and clinical studies. The aim of our review was to present information related to lactic acid bacteria, the new classification and perspectives on industrial applications with a special emphasis on food safety and human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenge to The Dairy Industry and Human Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
Survivability of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 Pathogens and Food Safety Concerns on Commercial Powder Milk Products
Dairy 2020, 1(3), 189-201; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy1030014 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Milk and dairy products are susceptible to the incidence of foodborne illnesses by numerous pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Cronobacter (Enterobacter sakazakii) and Staphylococcus aureus. Annually Salmonella infections cause approximately [...] Read more.
Milk and dairy products are susceptible to the incidence of foodborne illnesses by numerous pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Cronobacter (Enterobacter sakazakii) and Staphylococcus aureus. Annually Salmonella infections cause approximately 93.8 million cases of gastroenteritis and 155,000 deaths worldwide. Including meat and poultry, dairy products are the most commonly contaminated foods by Salmonella. Studies show that Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes are among the top 5 pathogens causing hospitalization and life-threatening foodborne illnesses. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that annually around 1.2 million foodborne illnesses with more than 23,000 hospitalizations, 450 deaths and 130 outbreaks were attributed to Salmonella infection in the U.S. The Salmonella enteric in skim milk powder survived at three months storage, with water activity as low as 0.33. With respect to Escherichia coli O157:H7, it is capable of causing disease at a low dosage, ranging from 5–50 cells. Viable cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7 reportedly survive in infant formula powder for one year at 5 °C. The survivability of Escherichia coli in powder milk was significantly reduced with the synergistic effects of storage time and temperature. The U.S. Dairy Export Council recommends that milk powder should be stored in a cool and dry place, at a temperature not to exceed 27 °C, and a relative humidity not to exceed 65%. Reports have recommended that milk powder products need to be stored in light, oxygen, and moisture-proof containers. In this article, the survival of the major foodborne pathogens including Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in powdered milk products from common dairy species such as cow and goats are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenge to The Dairy Industry and Human Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
Fighting the Deadly Helminthiasis without Drug Resistance
Dairy 2020, 1(3), 177-186; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy1030012 - 14 Oct 2020
Abstract
Helminthiasis is a very costly management problem in the sheep and goat industry, because the gastrointestinal parasites develop resistance against all chemical products that are discovered and produced by the pharmaceutical industry. The use of natural herbal contents of tannin as especially in [...] Read more.
Helminthiasis is a very costly management problem in the sheep and goat industry, because the gastrointestinal parasites develop resistance against all chemical products that are discovered and produced by the pharmaceutical industry. The use of natural herbal contents of tannin as especially in Sericea Lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneate) is very promising. Utilizing genetic differences in resistance among the different goat and sheep breeds is a promising alternative, with limited success to date. Totally eliminating the offending parasites from re-infesting by plowing under affected pastures for some seasons, or scheduling rotational pastures, or feeding fresh (grazed) or dried forms of the perennial warm-season legume sericea lespedeza to the infected sheep and goats, or using elevated housing with slatted floors are the most promising alternatives to the ancient tradition of herding and managing ruminants by transhumance. An elevated slatted floor housing is desirable, and deserves wider attention because of its potential in controlling helminthiasis. Slatted floors are already used in the sheep and goat industries in Sweden, Norway, Malaysia and Guatemala. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenge to The Dairy Industry and Human Nutrition)
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