Topical Collection "New Insights into Prostate Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment"

A topical collection in Current Oncology (ISSN 1718-7729). This collection belongs to the section "Genitourinary Oncology".

Editor

Dr. Sazan Rasul
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Interests: prostate cancer; breast cancer; neuro-endocrine tumor/carcinoma

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer and the third leading cause of oncology-related death in men in the high-income countries. Curative therapy for PCa is surgical radical prostatectomy and/or local radiation therapy; however, approximately 5% to 20% of men will continue to have detectable or persistent levels of the tumor marker prostate-specific antigen (PSA) after primary treatment, and 27% to 53% will develop a PSA increase 5 years later in terms of biochemical recurrence.

Depending on tumor stage, the 5-year survival rate for these patients varies from 100% in early tumor stage to only 30% in patients with advanced cancer. Therefore, it is important to detect and accurately assess the stage of the disease as early as possible.

In this respect, prostate-specific membrane antigen (abbreviated as PSMA), which is normally expressed in all types of prostate tissue, including inflammatory, benign, and malignant prostate tissue, has recently become the focus of research. Their levels in patients with PCa and especially those with aggressive types and metastatic as well as castration-resistant PCa increase up to 1000-fold their normal levels and negatively correlate with androgen levels. Thus, these receptors are an exceptionally attractive theranostics molecule for the diagnosis and therapy of prostate tumor and its related metastases. They have subsequently emerged as the target of numerous diagnostic and therapeutic studies, highlighting the critical role of these receptors in the further therapeutic management of patients with prostate cancer.

Dear colleagues, I look forward to your interesting contributions and your valuable experiences with PSMA in the field of PCa.

Dr. Sazan Rasul
Collection Editor

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Keywords

  • prostate cancer
  • prostate-specific membrane antigen
  • tumor staging
  • PET-CT/MRI
  • theranostics

Published Papers (7 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021

Communication
Nondetectable Prostate Carcinoma (pT0) after Radical Prostatectomy: A Narrative Review
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(3), 1309-1315; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29030111 - 23 Feb 2022
Viewed by 477
Abstract
(1) Background: Following radical prostatectomy (RP), the absence of a demonstrable tumor on the specimen of a previously histologically proven malignancy is known as the pT0 stage. The aim of our present study is to perform a narrative review of current literature in [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Following radical prostatectomy (RP), the absence of a demonstrable tumor on the specimen of a previously histologically proven malignancy is known as the pT0 stage. The aim of our present study is to perform a narrative review of current literature in order to determine the frequency and oncological outcomes in patients with pT0 disease. (2) Methods: A narrative review of all available literature was performed. (3) Results: The incidence of pT0 ranges between 0.07% and 1.3%. Predictors of the pT0 stage are only a single biopsy core with low-grade cancer, a cancer length not exceeding 2 mm and a high prostate volume. Biochemical recurrence ranges between 0 and 11%. (4) Conclusions: The absence of malignancy in the RP specimen despite a previous positive biopsy is a rare and unpredictable finding. Although the prognosis is considered to be excellent in most of the cases, a continued close follow-up is warranted. Full article
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Case Report
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenges in a Patient with Synchronous Very High-Risk Prostate Adenocarcinoma and Anal Carcinoma
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(1), 377-382; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29010033 - 15 Jan 2022
Viewed by 737
Abstract
A 79-year-old HIV-negative Caucasian man with a medical history of smoking 20 pack-years (quit 40 years prior), early-stage non-small cell lung cancer status post-lobectomy 13 years earlier at an outside hospital without evidence of recurrence, and benign prostatic hypertrophy was diagnosed with synchronous [...] Read more.
A 79-year-old HIV-negative Caucasian man with a medical history of smoking 20 pack-years (quit 40 years prior), early-stage non-small cell lung cancer status post-lobectomy 13 years earlier at an outside hospital without evidence of recurrence, and benign prostatic hypertrophy was diagnosed with synchronous very high-risk prostate adenocarcinoma and early-stage anal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. He proceeded to undergo concurrent treatment for these tumors, consisting of androgen deprivation therapy, external beam radiation therapy, and a brachytherapy boost for the prostate adenocarcinoma; for the anal carcinoma, he was treated with definitive chemoradiation. Over 3.5 years since the completion of radiotherapy, he remains in clinical and biochemical remission. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022

Article
Prospective Randomized Phase II Study of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) vs. Conventional Fractionated Radiotherapy (CFRT) for Chinese Patients with Early-Stage Localized Prostate Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(1), 27-37; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29010003 - 22 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1258
Abstract
Background: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has potential radiobiologic and economic advantages over conventional fractionated radiotherapy (CFRT) in localized prostate cancer (PC). This study aimed to compare the effects of these two distinct fractionations on patient-reported quality of life (PRQOL) and tolerability. Methods: In [...] Read more.
Background: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has potential radiobiologic and economic advantages over conventional fractionated radiotherapy (CFRT) in localized prostate cancer (PC). This study aimed to compare the effects of these two distinct fractionations on patient-reported quality of life (PRQOL) and tolerability. Methods: In this prospective phase II study, patients with low- and intermediate-risk localized PC were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to the SBRT (36.25 Gy/5 fractions/2 weeks) or CFRT (76 Gy/38 fractions/7.5 weeks) treatment groups. The primary endpoint of variation in PRQOL at 1 year was assessed by changes in the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) questionnaire scores and analysed by z-tests and t-tests. Results: Sixty-four eligible Chinese men were treated (SBRT, n = 31; CFRT, n = 33) with a median follow-up of 2.3 years. At 1 year, 40.0%/46.9% of SBRT/CFRT patients had a >5-point decrease in bowel score (p = 0.08/0.28), respectively, and 53.3%/46.9% had a >2-point decrease in urinary score (p = 0.21/0.07). There were no significant differences in EPIC score changes between the arms at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, but SBRT was associated with significantly fewer grade ≥ 1 acute and 1-year late gastrointestinal toxicities (acute: 35% vs. 87%, p < 0.0001; 1-year late: 64% vs. 84%, p = 0.03), and grade ≥ 2 acute genitourinary toxicities (3% vs. 24%, p = 0.04) compared with CFRT. Conclusion: SBRT offered similar PRQOL and less toxicity compared with CFRT in Chinese men with localized PC. Full article
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Article
Correlation of Urine Loss after Catheter Removal and Early Continence in Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 4738-4747; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060399 - 15 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 632
Abstract
Background: To determine the correlation between urine loss in PAD-test after catheter removal, and early urinary continence (UC) in RP treated patients. Methods: Urine loss was measured by using a standardized, validated PAD-test within 24 h after removal of the transurethral catheter, and [...] Read more.
Background: To determine the correlation between urine loss in PAD-test after catheter removal, and early urinary continence (UC) in RP treated patients. Methods: Urine loss was measured by using a standardized, validated PAD-test within 24 h after removal of the transurethral catheter, and was grouped as a loss of <1, 1–10, 11–50, and >50 g of urine, respectively. Early UC (median: 3 months) was defined as the usage of no or one safety-pad. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression models tested the correlation between PAD-test results and early UC. Covariates consisted of age, BMI, nerve-sparing approach, prostate volume, and extraprostatic extension of tumor. Results: From 01/2018 to 03/2021, 100 patients undergoing RP with data available for a PAD-test and early UC were retrospectively identified. Ultimately, 24%, 47%, 15%, and 14% of patients had a loss of urine <1 g, 1–10 g, 11–50 g, and >50 g in PAD-test, respectively. Additionally, 59% of patients reported to be continent. In multivariable logistic regression models, urine loss in PAD-test predicted early UC (OR: 0.21 vs. 0.09 vs. 0.03; for urine loss 1–10 g vs. 11–50 g vs. >50 g, Ref: <1 g; all p < 0.05). Conclusions: Urine loss after catheter removal strongly correlated with early continence as well as a severity in urinary incontinence. Full article
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Brief Report
Single-Center Comparison of [64Cu]-DOTAGA-PSMA and [18F]-PSMA PET–CT for Imaging Prostate Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 4167-4173; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28050353 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 574
Abstract
Introduction: the diagnostic performance of [64Cu]-DOTAGA-PSMA PET–CT imaging was compared retrospectively to [18F]-PSMA PET–CT in prostate cancer patients with recurrent disease and in the primary staging of selected patients with advanced local and possible metastatic disease. Methods: We retrospectively [...] Read more.
Introduction: the diagnostic performance of [64Cu]-DOTAGA-PSMA PET–CT imaging was compared retrospectively to [18F]-PSMA PET–CT in prostate cancer patients with recurrent disease and in the primary staging of selected patients with advanced local and possible metastatic disease. Methods: We retrospectively selected a total of 100 patients, who were consecutively examined in our department, with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy or who had progressive local and possible metastatic disease in the last 3 months prior to this investigation. All patients were examined with a dedicated PET–CT scanner (Biograph; Siemens Healthineers). A total of 250 MBq (3.5 MBq per kg bodyweight, range 230–290 MBq) of [64Cu]-DOTAGA-PSMA or [18-F]-PSMA was applied intravenously. PET images were performed 1 h post-injection (skull base to mid-thigh). The maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of PSMA-positive lesions and the mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) of the right liver lobe were measured. Results: All but 9/50 of the patients (18%; PSA range: 0.01–0.7 µg/L) studied with [64Cu]-DOTAGA-PSMA and 6/50 of the ones (12%; PSA range: 0.01–4.2) studied with [18F]-PSMA had at least one positive PSMA lesion shown by PET–CT. The total number of lesions was higher with [64Cu]-DOTAGA-PSMA (209 vs. 191); however, the median number of lesions was one for [64Cu]-DOTAGA-PSMA and two for [18F]-PSMA. Interestingly, the median SUVmean of the right liver lobe was slightly higher for [18F]-PSMA (11.8 vs. 8.9). Conclusions: [64Cu]-DOTAGA-PSMA and [18F]-PSMA have comparable detection rates for the assessment of residual disease in patients with recurrent or primary progressive prostate cancer. The uptake in the liver is moderately different, and therefore at least the SUVs of the lesions in both studies would not be comparable. Full article
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Article
Renal and Salivary Gland Functions after Three Cycles of PSMA-617 Therapy Every Four Weeks in Patients with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 3692-3704; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28050315 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1051
Abstract
Background: [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 radioligand therapy (PSMA-RLT) could affect kidney and salivary gland functions in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical, renal, and salivary scintigraphy data and salivary [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 ligand PET scan measures such as metabolic [...] Read more.
Background: [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 radioligand therapy (PSMA-RLT) could affect kidney and salivary gland functions in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical, renal, and salivary scintigraphy data and salivary [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 ligand PET scan measures such as metabolic volume and SUVmax values of 27 mCRPC men (mean age 71 ± 7 years) before and 4 weeks after receiving three cycles of PSMA-RLT every 4 weeks. Twenty-two patients additionally obtained renal and salivary scintigraphy prior to each cycle. A one-way ANOVA, post-hoc Scheffé test and Cochran’s Q test were applied to assess organ toxicity. Results: In total, 54 PSMA PET scans, 98 kidney, and 98 salivary scintigraphy results were evaluated. There were no significant differences for the ejection fraction, peak time, and residual activity after 5 min for both parotid and submandibular glands prior to each cycle and 4 weeks after the last cycle. Similarly, no significant differences in serum creatinine and renal scintigraphy parameters were observed prior to each cycle and 4 weeks after the last treatment. Despite there being no changes in the metabolic volume of both submandibular glands, SUVmax values dropped significantly (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Results evidenced no alterations in renal function and only minimal impairment of salivary function of mCRPC patients who acquired an intense PSMA-RLT regimen every 4 weeks. Full article
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Systematic Review
Salvage Radical Prostatectomy for Radio-Recurrent Prostate Cancer: An Updated Systematic Review of Oncologic, Histopathologic and Functional Outcomes and Predictors of Good Response
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 2881-2892; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28040252 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1022
Abstract
A valid treatment option for recurrence after definite radiotherapy (RT) for localized prostate cancer (PC) is salvage radical prostatectomy (SRP). However, data on SRP are scarce, possibly resulting in an underutilization. A systematic review was performed using MEDLINE (Pubmed), Embase, and Web of [...] Read more.
A valid treatment option for recurrence after definite radiotherapy (RT) for localized prostate cancer (PC) is salvage radical prostatectomy (SRP). However, data on SRP are scarce, possibly resulting in an underutilization. A systematic review was performed using MEDLINE (Pubmed), Embase, and Web of Science databases including studies published between January 1980 and April 2020. Overall, 23 English language articles including a total number of 2323 patients were selected according to PRISMA criteria. The overall median follow-up was 37.5 months (IQR 35.5–52.5). Biochemical-recurrence (BCR)-free probability ranged from 34% to 83% at five years, respectively, and from 31% to 37% at 10 years. Cancer specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) ranged from 88.7% to 98% and 64% to 95% at five years and from 72% to 83% and 65% to 72% at 10 years, respectively. Positive surgical margins ranged from 14% to 45.8% and pathologic organ-confined disease was reported from 20% to 57%. The rate of pathologic > T2-disease ranged from 37% to 80% and pN1 disease differed between 0% to 78.4%. Pre-SRP PSA, pre-SRP Gleason Score (GS), pathologic stage after SRP, and pathologic lymph node involvement seemed to be the strongest prognostic factors for good outcomes. SRP provides accurate histopathological and functional outcomes, as well as durable cancer control. Careful patient counseling in a shared decision-making process is recommended. Full article
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