Novel Scintillator Crystals

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Inorganic Crystalline Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2022) | Viewed by 8677

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577, Japan
Interests: single crystal; scintillator; piezoelectric material; thermoelectric material; crystal growth

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Guest Editor
New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University, 2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577, Japan
Interests: solid scintillation detectors; aluminium compounds; cerium; crystal growth from melt; gadolinium compounds; luminescence; lutetium compounds; photoluminescence; scintillation; scintillation counters

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Scintillator single crystals have been developed for some applications using radiation detectors in medical, environmental and security fields to improve the sensitivity of radiation detection and spatial resolution. Novel radiation detectors have also been developed using the scintillator single crystals. In recent years, growth methods of scintillator single crystals have been improved, and various novel scintillator crystals have been developed using the methods. In addition, the developed growth technique of bulk single crystals and shape-controlled single crystals has contributed to the mass production of scintillator single crystals and the development of novel radiation detectors. Self-organized eutectic scintillator crystals grown by the unidirectional solidification and nanoparticle crystals of scintillator have shown great scintillation properties.

Therefore, this Special Issue focuses on the crystal growth and scintillation properties of novel scintillator crystals, and crystal growth techniques of scintillator crystals.

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Novel scintillator crystals (oxide, fluoride, halide and others);
  • Eutectic scintillator crystals;
  • Nanoparticle scintillator crystals;
  • Shape-controlled scintillator crystals;
  • Growth techniques for bulk single crystals of scintillator materials;
  • Growth techniques for shape-controlled single crystals of scintillator materials;
  • Fabrication techniques for nanoparticle crystals of scintillator materials;

Prof. Dr. Yuui Yokota
Dr. Takahiko Horiai
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • novel scintillator crystals
  • halide scintillator crystals
  • eutectic scintillator crystals
  • nanoparticle scintillator crystals
  • shape-controlled scintillator crystals
  • novel and modified growth method for scintillator crystals

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

8 pages, 10760 KiB  
Article
Growth and Evaluation of Improved CsI:Tl and NaI:Tl Scintillators
by Rastgo Hawrami, Elsa Ariesanti, Abi Farsoni, Diane Szydel and Hamid Sabet
Crystals 2022, 12(11), 1517; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12111517 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2500
Abstract
Scintillators play an important role in radiation detection and imaging. Thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI:Tl) and sodium iodide (NaI:Tl) are two of the major scintillators that have been used for many applications for many decades. In this paper, we will present an improved scintillation [...] Read more.
Scintillators play an important role in radiation detection and imaging. Thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI:Tl) and sodium iodide (NaI:Tl) are two of the major scintillators that have been used for many applications for many decades. In this paper, we will present an improved scintillation performance of Bridgman method-grown CsI(Tl) and NaI(Tl) crystals developed by Xtallized Intelligence, Inc. (XI, Inc.), and we will compare the performance with commercially available CsI:Tl and NaI:Tl. In a preliminary testing using MicroFJ−60035−TSV silicon photomultipliers (ON Semiconductor), the newly developed and improved 12.5 × 12.5 × 6 mm3 CsI:Tl crystal has shown an energy resolution of 4.8% (FWHM) at 662 keV, compared to 7.2% obtained by a commercially available CsI:Tl with a size of 12.5 × 12.5 × 25 mm3. The energy resolution of 5.4% (FWHM) at 662 keV is obtained for the newly improved NaI:Tl crystal, compared to 7% obtained by a commercially available ∅1″ × 1″ NaI(Tl). The comparison of the photo peak channel locations shows that the improvements in both CsI:Tl and NaI:Tl, developed by XI, Inc., have produced much larger signal amplitudes (roughly double), when compared to the commercially available CsI(Tl) and NaI:Tl. Improved decay time constants are presented as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Scintillator Crystals)
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10 pages, 1790 KiB  
Article
Shape-Controlled Crystal Growth of Y3Al5O12:Ce Single Crystals with Application of Micro-Pulling-Down Method and Mo Crucibles, and Their Scintillation Properties
by Masao Yoshino, Atsushi Kotaki, Yuui Yokota, Takahiko Horiai and Akira Yoshikawa
Crystals 2022, 12(9), 1215; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12091215 - 28 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1669
Abstract
The technology to grow single crystals of the required shape directly from a melt has been researched extensively and developed in various industries and research fields. In this study, a micro-pulling-down method and a Mo crucible were applied to the shape-controlled crystal growth [...] Read more.
The technology to grow single crystals of the required shape directly from a melt has been researched extensively and developed in various industries and research fields. In this study, a micro-pulling-down method and a Mo crucible were applied to the shape-controlled crystal growth of Y3Al5O12:Ce (YAG:Ce). Three types of Mo crucibles with different die shapes were developed. Stable crystal growth of more than 50 mm in length was achieved with the same shape as the die, and scintillation light output of ~20,000 ph/MeV, which is comparable with those of the YAG:Ce crystal grown by Cz method, were obtained. The transmittance of grown crystals above 500 nm was above 70%. The standard deviation (σ) of the scintillation light output at each position of the 50-mm-long sample was found to be within ±16%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Scintillator Crystals)
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13 pages, 4156 KiB  
Article
Structural Properties of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet, Doped with Lanthanum
by Nurgul Zhanturina, Daulet Sergeyev, Zukhra Aimaganbetova, Abzal Zhubaev and Karlygash Bizhanova
Crystals 2022, 12(8), 1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12081132 - 12 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2476
Abstract
The results from simulation of the structural and optical properties of YAG pure, doped with two ions and four ions of lanthanum, are presented in this paper to investigate the effect of dopants on a crystal. The simulation was carried out in the [...] Read more.
The results from simulation of the structural and optical properties of YAG pure, doped with two ions and four ions of lanthanum, are presented in this paper to investigate the effect of dopants on a crystal. The simulation was carried out in the Quantum Espresso program. The band structure, density of states, the dielectric function, absorption, refractive index, energy loss function and reflectivity were calculated for different samples. It can be assumed that with a rise in concentration density of states, the impurity atom increases and the position of the most populated levels shifts to the right in the region of negative energies in the case of two atoms and to the left in the case of four atoms of lanthanum. We can draw conclusions about the transparency of the sample in the visible region, because the absorption spectra appear in the UV region. This transparent nature makes them perfect candidates for deep UV nonlinear optical materials. From the analysis of dielectric function, it is clear that in the case of YAG doped with two ions of lanthanum, two peaks appeared compared to the sample with one peak in pure and doped with four ions. Anisotropy is most pronounced with an increase in the degree of doping. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Scintillator Crystals)
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11 pages, 3999 KiB  
Article
Luminescence Efficiency of Cerium Bromide Single Crystal under X-ray Radiation
by Dionysios Linardatos, Christos Michail, Nektarios Kalyvas, Konstantinos Ninos, Athanasios Bakas, Ioannis Valais, George Fountos and Ioannis Kandarakis
Crystals 2022, 12(7), 909; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12070909 - 25 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1523
Abstract
A rare-earth trihalide scintillator, CeBr3, in 1 cm edge cubic monocrystal form, is examined with regard to its principal luminescence and scintillation properties, as a candidate for radiation imaging applications. This relatively new material exhibits attractive properties, including short decay time, [...] Read more.
A rare-earth trihalide scintillator, CeBr3, in 1 cm edge cubic monocrystal form, is examined with regard to its principal luminescence and scintillation properties, as a candidate for radiation imaging applications. This relatively new material exhibits attractive properties, including short decay time, negligible afterglow, high stopping power and emission spectrum compatible with several commercial optical sensors. In a setting typical for X-ray radiology (medical X-ray tube, spectra in the range 50–140 kVp, human chest equivalent filtering), the crystal’s light energy flux, absolute efficiency (AE) and X-ray luminescence efficiency (XLE) were determined. Light energy flux results are superior in comparison to other four materials broadly used in modern medical imaging (slope of the linear no-threshold fit was 29.5). The AE is superior from 90 kVp onwards and reaches a value of 29.5 EU at 140 kVp. The same is true for the XLE that, following a flat response, reaches 9 × 10−3 at 90 kVp. Moreover, the spectral matching factors and the respective effective efficiencies (EE) are calculated for a variety of optical sensors. The material exhibits full compatibility with all the flat-panel arrays and most of the photocathodes and Si PMs considered in this work, a factor that proves its suitability for use in state-of-the-art medical imaging applications, such as CT detectors and planar arrays for projection imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Scintillator Crystals)
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