Special Issue "Crystal Growth from Liquid Phase"

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Crystal Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 May 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Yasunori Okano
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Division of Chemical Engineering, Department of Materials Engineering Science, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531, Japan
Interests: crystal growth; computer simulation; fluid flow; heat transfer; mass transfer
Prof. Dr. Sadik Dost
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Crystal Growth Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada
Interests: crystal growth; computer simulation; fluid flow; heat transfer; mass transfer

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bulk single crystals of semiconductors, oxides, borides, halides, and biomaterials are mostly grown from the melt or solution known as the liquid phase. During crystal growth from the liquid phase, transport structures developing in the growth solution/melt, such as fluid flow, temperature, and concentration fields, significantly affect the quality of grown crystals. Therefore, such transport structures must be better understood and controlled for the growth of high-quality crystals. In this direction, the application of applied electric and magnetic fields and crystal/crucible rotations is considered. Microgravity conditions have also been utilized.

Recent developments in numerical simulations and experimental techniques shed light on the understanding of the relations between the transport structures developing in the growth melt/solution and the crystal quality. Various optimization techniques have been considered to obtain optimum growth conditions for the growth of high quality crystals. Even artificial intelligence (AI), such as neural networks, has been utilized for the optimization of growth techniques and the design of new functional materials.

This Special Issue aims at publishing research findings from various perspectives on bulk crystal growth from the liquid phase. We encourage the submission of original articles in this field by means of numerical simulations and/or experimental approaches, including novel design of growth process, by considering external applied fields and new approaches. Moreover, reviews and feature articles are also welcome. Topics for this issue may include:

  • Transport phenomena occurring during growth of bulk crystals from the liquid phase; numerical and experimental;
  • Study and control of transport structures in the melt/solution under external fields; numerical and experimental;
  • Development and utilization of new growth processes and systems for bulk crystal growth.

Prof. Dr. Yasunori Okano
Prof. Dr. Sadik Dost
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Crystals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bulk single crystal growth
  • Liquid phase
  • Melt and solution growth
  • Applied magnetic and external fields
  • Semiconductors
  • Oxides
  • Numerical simulations

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Numerical Study of Three-Dimensional Melt Flows during the TSSG Process of SiC Crystal for the Influence of Input Parameters of RF-Coils and an External Rotating Magnetic Field
Crystals 2020, 10(2), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10020111 - 12 Feb 2020
Abstract
Three-dimensional numerical simulations were conducted for the Top-Seeded Solution Growth (TSSG) process of silicon carbide (SiC) crystals. We investigated the influence of coils frequency and peak current, and an applied rotating magnetic field (RMF) on the melt flow developing in this system. Numerical [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional numerical simulations were conducted for the Top-Seeded Solution Growth (TSSG) process of silicon carbide (SiC) crystals. We investigated the influence of coils frequency and peak current, and an applied rotating magnetic field (RMF) on the melt flow developing in this system. Numerical simulation results show that the Marangoni flow in the melt becomes stronger at higher coils frequencies due to the decreasing coils-induced electromagnetic field strength. Results also show that the use of external RMF may improve supersaturation uniformity along the seed if it is properly adjusted with respect to the coils-induced electromagnetic field strength. Furthermore, it is predicted that the application of RMF and seed rotation in the same direction may enhance supersaturation below the seed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Growth from Liquid Phase)
Open AccessArticle
Homogeneous Nucleation Mechanism of NaCl in Aqueous Solutions
Crystals 2020, 10(2), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10020107 - 12 Feb 2020
Abstract
In this study, molecular dynamic simulations are employed to investigate the homogeneous nucleation mechanism of NaCl crystal in solutions. According to the simulations, the dissolved behaviors of NaCl in water are dependent on ion concentrations. With increasing NaCl concentrations, the dissolved Na+ [...] Read more.
In this study, molecular dynamic simulations are employed to investigate the homogeneous nucleation mechanism of NaCl crystal in solutions. According to the simulations, the dissolved behaviors of NaCl in water are dependent on ion concentrations. With increasing NaCl concentrations, the dissolved Na+ and Cl- ions tend to be aggregated in solutions. In combination with our recent studies, the aggregate of dissolved solutes is mainly ascribed to the hydrophobic interactions. Different from the two-step mechanism, no barrier is needed to overcome the formation of the aggregate. In comparison with the classical nucleation theory (CNT), because of the formation of solute aggregate, this lowers the barrier height of nucleation and affects the nucleation mechanism of NaCl crystal in water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Growth from Liquid Phase)
Open AccessArticle
A Linear Regression Model for Determining the Pre-Exponential Factor and Interfacial Energy Based on the Metastable Zone Width Data
Crystals 2020, 10(2), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10020103 - 11 Feb 2020
Abstract
A linear regression model is presented in this study to determine the pre-exponential factor and interfacial energy of the crystallized substance based on classical nucleation theory using the metastable zone width data. The nucleation event is assumed corresponding to a point at which [...] Read more.
A linear regression model is presented in this study to determine the pre-exponential factor and interfacial energy of the crystallized substance based on classical nucleation theory using the metastable zone width data. The nucleation event is assumed corresponding to a point at which the total number density of the nuclei has reached a fixed (but unknown) value. One equation is derived for any temperature-dependent functional form of the solubility. Another equation is derived for the van’t Hoff solubility expression. The pre-exponential factor and interfacial energy obtained from these two equations are found consistent for the studied systems, including glutamic acid, glycine, and 3-nito-1,2,4-triazol-5-one. The results obtained from these two equations are also compared with those obtained from the integral method and classical 3D nucleation theory approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Growth from Liquid Phase)
Open AccessArticle
Improvement of Growth Interface Stability for 4-Inch Silicon Carbide Crystal Growth in TSSG
Crystals 2019, 9(12), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9120653 - 07 Dec 2019
Abstract
The growth interface instability of large-size SiC growth in top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) is a bottleneck for industrial production. The authors have previously simulated the growth of 4-inch SiC crystals and found that the interface instability in TSSG was greatly affected by the [...] Read more.
The growth interface instability of large-size SiC growth in top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) is a bottleneck for industrial production. The authors have previously simulated the growth of 4-inch SiC crystals and found that the interface instability in TSSG was greatly affected by the flow field. According to our simulation of the flow field, we proposed a new stepped structure that greatly improved the interface stability of large-size crystal growth. This stepped structure provides a good reference for the growth of large-sized SiC crystals by TSSG in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Growth from Liquid Phase)
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Open AccessArticle
Growth of KDP: Fe3+ Crystals from Oversaturated Aqueous Solutions
Crystals 2019, 9(12), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9120646 - 05 Dec 2019
Abstract
The KH2PO4 solubility curves in pure water and in water with the addition of 50 ppm Fe3+ were refined. The KH2PO4 and KH2PO4: Fe3+ solutions stability to supercooling was evaluated by [...] Read more.
The KH2PO4 solubility curves in pure water and in water with the addition of 50 ppm Fe3+ were refined. The KH2PO4 and KH2PO4: Fe3+ solutions stability to supercooling was evaluated by polythermal studies of the width of metastable zone. It was shown that Fe3+ addition makes the solution more stable. A series of Fe3+ doped KDP crystals were grown at different temperature and hydrodynamic regimes at supersaturation level up to 0.45. Their real structure was studied by X-ray projection topography and, as a result, the most suitable growth conditions are chosen. The transmittance spectra of prism sectors with ferric iron concentrations CFe up to 102 ppm were obtained. It was found that KDP crystals with CFe >60 ppm can be used as optical filters for suppressing transmission in UV-C and UV-B ranges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Growth from Liquid Phase)
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Figure 1

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Collaboration of Numerical and Experimental Studies on Crystal Growth

K. KAKIMOTO

Abstract: This paper reports some results of collaboration between numerical and experimental studies on crystal growth of silicon and SiC. The results contains impurity transfer during silicon crystal growth process, and dislocation analysis of silicon and SiC crystals during and after solidification.

 

Vertical Bridgman Growth of Various Kinds of Single Crystals

K. Hoshikawa

Abstract: Vertical Bridgman (VB) growth techniques for various kinds of single crystals are introduced and discussed. In the first approach, compound semiconductors of GaAs and InP are grown by the liquid encapsulated VB growth technique, using pyrolytic boron nitride crucibles, and the role of liquid boric oxide (B2O3) is discussed from the viewpoints of single crystal growth and the elimination of dislocations. In the second approach, various kinds of oxide crystals, such as LiNbO3, LiTaO3, La3Ga5SiO14, La3Ta0.5Ga5.5O14, and β-Ga2O3, are grown by the VB growth technique using platinum and platinum-based rhodium alloy crucibles, and the problems of adherence between the crucibles and crystals grown in them are discussed. In the third approach, α-Al2O3 (sapphire) and α-Al2O3/YAG:Ce eutectics are grown by the VB growth technique using iridium, molybdenum and tungsten crucibles, and the linear thermal expansion coefficients of the crystals grown and the crucibles used are discussed from the viewpoint of crystal release from the crucible and reuse of the crucible.

 

Defect Engineering in Bulk Crystal Growth Processes

T. DUFFAR

Abstract: Growth conditions directly control the crystal quality and it is of uppermost importance to understand the physical phenomena involved during the growth and how they affect the defect distribution inside the crystal. In this respect, process charts can be drawn in order to quickly define the growth condition for producing a given crystal. A further step forward concerns the precise design of the process for obtaining given crystals with a given quality. For this, devoted numerical simulation software, which are now commercially available at the industrial level, have been developed. Some examples show how numerical simulation can help solving real industrial crystal growth issues.

 

Application of artificial neural networks in crystal growth

N. Dropka, M. Holena

Abstract: In this review, we summarize the results concerning the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the crystal growth. The main reason for using ANNs is to detect the patterns and relationships in non-linear static and dynamic data sets which are common in crystal growth processes, all in a real time. The fast forecasting is particularly important for the process control, since common CFD simulations are slow and in situ measurements of key process parameters are not feasible. This important machine learning approach thus makes it possible to determine optimized parameters for high-quality up-scaled crystals.

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