Special Issue "Surfaces and Interfaces for Renewable Energy"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Aránzazu Fernández-García
Website
Guest Editor
CIEMAT–Plataforma Solar de Almería, Ctra. de Senés, km. 4,5, 04200 Tabernas, Almería, Spain
Interests: renewable energy; concentrating solar thermal technology; materials for solar energy application

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The world-wide demand for electricity will grow to 50% in the next 20 years, mainly due to the increase in the world population, the generalisation of electric vehicles as a form of transport and the boom in the battery market. However, this huge increase will be covered almost completely by renewable energy sources. The durability of renewable energy systems depends to a large extent on their surfaces. The improvement of coatings is one of the great challenges of the engineering and material sciences applied to these systems. This Special Issue will focus on the developments in this particular domain.

In particular, the topics of interest include but are not limited to

  • Antireflective coatings
  • Antisoiling coatings
  • Corrosion resistance coatings
  • Increased optical properties (reflectance, absorptance, transmittance and emittance)
  • Surface treatment
  • Solar cells
  • Scanning electron microscopy
  • X-ray diffraction
  • Thin films
  • Polymers
  • Plastic coatings
  • Corrosion
  • Nanoparticles and nanotechnology
  • Titanium dioxide
  • Carbon nanotubes
  • Aluminum coatings
  • Paints
  • Composite materials
  • Environmental impact
  • Lifetime prediction
  • Accelerated aging methods
  • Optical measurement techniques

Prof. Dr. Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro
Dr. Aránzazu Fernández-García
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Surfaces and Interfaces for Renewable Energy
Coatings 2019, 9(12), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9120838 - 09 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Energy is a growing need in today’s world. Citizens and governments are increasingly aware of the sustainable use that must be made of natural resources and the great negative impact on the environment produced by conventional energies. Therefore, developments in energy systems based [...] Read more.
Energy is a growing need in today’s world. Citizens and governments are increasingly aware of the sustainable use that must be made of natural resources and the great negative impact on the environment produced by conventional energies. Therefore, developments in energy systems based on renewable energies must be carried out in the very near future. To ensure their sustainability, they must be made of durable materials, and for this, the study of coatings is extremely important. This is also vital in systems based on solar energy, where the optical properties of the materials must be preserved as long as possible, and to this must be added the fact that they tend to be installed in very aggressive environments from the point of view of corrosion. Therefore, this special issue aims to contribute to the development of this challenge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surfaces and Interfaces for Renewable Energy) Printed Edition available
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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Advanced Analysis of Corroded Solar Reflectors
Coatings 2019, 9(11), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9110749 - 11 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The corrosion of the reflective layer is one of the main degradation mechanisms of solar reflectors. However, the appropriate assessment of the corroded reflector samples is not accomplished by the current analysis techniques. On the one hand, the reflectance measurement protocol of non-damaged [...] Read more.
The corrosion of the reflective layer is one of the main degradation mechanisms of solar reflectors. However, the appropriate assessment of the corroded reflector samples is not accomplished by the current analysis techniques. On the one hand, the reflectance measurement protocol of non-damaged solar reflectors for concentrating solar thermal technologies is widely addressed in the SolarPACES reflectance guideline. However, this methodology is not adequate for reflectors whose surface is partially corroded by many kind of corrosion agents. In this work, a new measurement technique to properly assess corroded samples was developed. To check the usefulness of the method, several damaged samples (subjected to two accelerated aging tests) were evaluated with the conventional technique and with the improved one. The results showed that a significant discrepancy is observed between the two methods for heavily corroded samples, with average reflectance differences of 0.053 ppt. The visualization of the reflector images illustrated that the improved method is more reliable. On the other hand, both the corrosion products formed and the corrosion rates were identified after each corrosive test. The chemical atmosphere significantly affects the products formed, whereas the corrosion rates are influenced by the test conditions and the reflector quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surfaces and Interfaces for Renewable Energy) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Water Saving in CSP Plants by a Novel Hydrophilic Anti-Soiling Coating for Solar Reflectors
Coatings 2019, 9(11), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9110739 - 07 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this work, results of the outdoor exposure campaign of a newly developed hydrophilic anti-soiling coating for concentrated solar thermal power (CSP) mirrors are presented. The material was exposed for nearly two years under realistic outdoor conditions and the influence of two different [...] Read more.
In this work, results of the outdoor exposure campaign of a newly developed hydrophilic anti-soiling coating for concentrated solar thermal power (CSP) mirrors are presented. The material was exposed for nearly two years under realistic outdoor conditions and the influence of two different cleaning techniques was evaluated. Mirror samples were analyzed during exposure and their reflectance and cleanliness were measured. The performance of the anti-soiling coated mirror samples was compared to conventional uncoated silvered-glass mirrors. The coatings showed appropriate anti-soiling and easy-to-clean behavior, with a mean cleanliness gain of 1 pp and maximum values under strong soiling conditions of up to over 7 pp. Cleanliness of the coated samples stayed higher throughout the whole campaign before and after cleaning, resulting in lower soiling rate compared to the reference material. Taking into account these values and supposing a threshold for cleaning of 96%, the number of cleaning cycles could be decreased by up to 11%. Finally, the coated material showed negligible degradation, not exceeding the degradation detected for the reference material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surfaces and Interfaces for Renewable Energy) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Scale Formation and Degradation of Diffusion Coatings Deposited on 9% Cr Steel in Molten Solar Salt
Coatings 2019, 9(10), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9100687 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The employment of ferritic-martensitic steels e.g., P91, as structural materials in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants can significantly increase cost-efficiency. However, their application is strongly restricted by their lower corrosion resistance in molten nitrates, compared to austenitic steels or Ni-based alloys. In this [...] Read more.
The employment of ferritic-martensitic steels e.g., P91, as structural materials in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants can significantly increase cost-efficiency. However, their application is strongly restricted by their lower corrosion resistance in molten nitrates, compared to austenitic steels or Ni-based alloys. In this study, Cr-, Al-, and Cr/Al-diffusion coatings were deposited on P91 via pack cementation in order to improve its scaling behavior in molten solar salt (MSS). The corrosion behavior of coated specimens was investigated with respect to uncoated P91 in MSS at 600 °C for up to 1000 h. The exposure in MSS resulted in a thick, highly porous, and multi-layered oxide scale on uncoated P91 consisting of hematite, magnetite, and sodium ferrite. On the other hand, the scale grown on the chromized P91 comprised of a thin Cr-rich inner layer, which shifted breakaway to prolonged exposure durations. The aluminized specimens both formed very thin, highly protective alumina scales with localized protrusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surfaces and Interfaces for Renewable Energy) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Synthesis of a Superhydrophobic and Thermal Stable Silica Coating via Sol-Gel Process
Coatings 2019, 9(10), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9100627 - 28 Sep 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
A super-hydrophobic surface at a high temperature (400 °C) using the sol-gel method with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) as precursors has been obtained. The effects of the coatings’ ages, deposited times and thicknesses on the hydrophobicity of the silica coatings have been [...] Read more.
A super-hydrophobic surface at a high temperature (400 °C) using the sol-gel method with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) as precursors has been obtained. The effects of the coatings’ ages, deposited times and thicknesses on the hydrophobicity of the silica coatings have been analysed. The morphology, chemical composition, thermal degradation and hydrophobicity of the resulting surfaces have been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transfer infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), Thermogravimetry (TGA) and water contact angle (WCA) measurement. The results show that an average water contact angle of 149° after been cured at 400 °C for a coating aged for 5 days, and four deposition cycles using a dipping rate of 1000 mm/min was achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surfaces and Interfaces for Renewable Energy) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
HiPIMS and DC Magnetron Sputter-Coated Silver Films for High-Temperature Durable Reflectors
Coatings 2019, 9(10), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9100593 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
High-temperature durable mirrors based on a protected silver sputter coating are attractive for secondary reflector applications in concentrated solar thermal power plants. In this paper, silver films are deposited by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and standard direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering, either [...] Read more.
High-temperature durable mirrors based on a protected silver sputter coating are attractive for secondary reflector applications in concentrated solar thermal power plants. In this paper, silver films are deposited by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and standard direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering, either as exposed discretely deposited films or in-sequence-deposited thin film systems, where the silver is protected and embedded between adhesion and barrier layers. The unprotected silver films and equivalent protected silver thin film systems are compared and characterized as deposited and after 400 °C oven temperature exposure. The reflectance is measured and grazing incident X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures were taken. The HiPIMS silver film, sputtered with a peak current of 200 A and an approximately equivalent average power density to the DC magnetron sputtered silver, exhibits higher reflectance (and conductivity). Increasing the power density further, yields silver films with lower reflectance, correlating to a reduced grain size. In the protected silver film system, the reflectance does not improve, due to the presence of a less reflective top adhesion layer. The protected film system, with the 200 A HiPIMS, is, however, more durable at 400 °C than the DC magnetron sputtered equivalent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surfaces and Interfaces for Renewable Energy) Printed Edition available
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Coatings in Photovoltaic Solar Energy Worldwide Research
Coatings 2019, 9(12), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9120797 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
This paper describes the characteristics of contributions that were made by researchers worldwide in the field of Solar Coating in the period 1957–2019. Scopus is used as a database and the results are processed while using bibliometric and analytical techniques. All of the [...] Read more.
This paper describes the characteristics of contributions that were made by researchers worldwide in the field of Solar Coating in the period 1957–2019. Scopus is used as a database and the results are processed while using bibliometric and analytical techniques. All of the documents registered in Scopus, a total of 6440 documents, have been analyzed and distributed according to thematic subcategories. Publications are analyzed from the type of publication, field of use, language, subcategory, type of newspaper, and the frequency of the keyword perspectives. English (96.8%) is the language that is most used for publications, followed by Chinese (2.6%), and the rest of the languages have a less than < 1% representation. Publications are studied by authors, affiliations, countries of origin of the authors, and H-index, which it stands out that the authors of China contribute with 3345 researchers, closely followed by the United States with 2634 and Germany with 1156. The Asian continent contributes the most, with 65% of the top 20 affiliations, and Taiwan having the most authors publishing in this subject, closely followed by Switzerland. It can be stated that research in this area is still evolving with a great international scientific contribution in improving the efficiency of solar cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surfaces and Interfaces for Renewable Energy) Printed Edition available
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