Special Issue "Pavement Surface Coatings"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 December 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Cantisani
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
DICEA, Department of Civil, Constructional and Environmental Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Eudossiana, 18 00184 Rome, Italy
Interests: design and construction of road, railways and airport infrastructure; active and passive road safety; road pavements; sustainable mobility; context sensitive design
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Loprencipe
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
DICEA, Department of Civil, Constructional and Environmental Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Eudossiana, 18 00184 Rome, Italy
Interests: design and construction of road, railways and airport infrastructure; road asset management; road safety; bim for infrastructures; road material and pavement design; airport risk analysis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Pavement surface characteristics are crucial for both safety and funtional quality of transportation infrastructure. The correct design of pavement coatings, together with adequate construction and maintenance processes, ensures good performances in terms of skid resistance, regularity, structural resistance, vehicle control and dynamics, drainage and prevention of aquaplaning, vehicle operational costs, and environmental sustainability.

Mechanical, thermal, chemical and/or physical properties and characteristics of bitumens, aggregates, asphalt or cement concrete, as well as rheological characteristics of these materials, can significantly influence road surface performance.

The availability of new natural and industrial resources and the opportunity to recycle materials or reuse by-products in road constructions have modified the approach to pavement manufacture. In addition, techniques and procedures for road pavements design and construction have been constantly improved in the last few decades.

Scope of the Special Issue is to present and discuss the most recent research advances in this field and to consider how these results allow to obtain better functional and structural performances of pavement surface coatings.

In particular, the topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Pavement surface characteristics and performances;
  • Pavement design, construction, management, maintenance, and rehabilitation techniques;
  • Pavement management systems;
  • Pavement surface and subsurface drainage;
  • Pavement mechanics and pavement design;
  • Innovative design methods;
  • Pavement materials;
  • Pavement recycling;
  • Environmental issues, low-noise and sustainable pavements;
  • Pavement and surface testing;
  • Functional and structural evaluation;
  • Pavement-vehicle interaction and safety issues.

Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Cantisani
Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Loprencipe
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Bleeding Resistance in Chip Seal and Asphalt Emulsion Residue Rheology
Coatings 2019, 9(10), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9100670 - 16 Oct 2019
Abstract
Chip seal bleeding is influenced by many factors, including design inputs, material properties, and project-specific conditions. It reduces the surface texture of the pavement and thus compromises the safety of the traveling public. Even though factors that bring about premature bleeding are known, [...] Read more.
Chip seal bleeding is influenced by many factors, including design inputs, material properties, and project-specific conditions. It reduces the surface texture of the pavement and thus compromises the safety of the traveling public. Even though factors that bring about premature bleeding are known, currently, no laboratory test methods for evaluating bleeding in chip seals have been specified. The objective of this paper is to present the results of an investigation of the influence factors of asphalt emulsion residue properties measured by the ASTM D7405 multiple stress creep and recovery (MSCR) test, as well as other factors related to chip seal bleeding resistance as measured by the modified loaded wheel test (MLWT). In this study, the MSCR test was used as a tool for evaluating the performance of asphalt emulsions because it has been identified as a potential test related to bleeding in the field. In addition, MLWT was selected as a tool for evaluating chip seal bleeding performance in the laboratory. The results of the MLWT showed that the emulsion application rate (EAR), aggregate gradation, and emulsion properties were significant factors affecting bleeding. The MSCR test was found to be a promising tool for the performance evaluation of asphalt emulsion residue, as the test was able to differentiate between emulsion chemistries and modifications in terms of sensitivity to both temperature and stress. In relation to chip seal bleeding resistance, only the creep compliance (Jnr) obtained from the MSCR test results was identified as a significant property affecting potential for bleeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Compaction and Hydraulic Gradient on Subbase Layer Permeability
Coatings 2019, 9(10), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9100641 - 03 Oct 2019
Abstract
In order to prevent or at least reduce the deformation of road surface, it is necessary to ensure adequate water permeability of the structural layers and control of groundwater level. In geotechnical engineering, the water permeability of the mineral aggregates or soils is [...] Read more.
In order to prevent or at least reduce the deformation of road surface, it is necessary to ensure adequate water permeability of the structural layers and control of groundwater level. In geotechnical engineering, the water permeability of the mineral aggregates or soils is determined using a constant head water permeability apparatus. In order to assess the suitability of the results, it is necessary to take into account particle size distribution of the test object and perform the test at different hydraulic ramps. The aim of this research is to define and clarify unbound mineral aggregate mixtures hydraulic gradient and compaction level of road layer impact on water permeability. The following properties have been determined during the tests: particle size distribution, particle density, Proctor density, optimum water quantity, water permeability under different compaction and hydraulic slopes. Based on the results of the research, low-dustiness non-bonded mineral materials are recommended for frost resistant layers. For the water-permeability coefficient test, it is recommended that the test layer should be compacted to a design compaction ratio and the hydraulic gradient should not be higher than 1.0. Other conclusions and recommendations for further research and for improvement of water permeability functionality in the road pavement are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Aggregate-Bitumen Interface Enhancement Mechanism of Utilization of Oil Shale Waste as Fine Aggregate in Open Grade Friction Course
Coatings 2019, 9(10), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9100637 - 03 Oct 2019
Abstract
Oil shale waste (OSW), as fine aggregate in the mixture (particle size less than 4.75 mm), can effectively improve the overall properties of open grade friction course (OGFC), but the reinforcement mechanism is not clear. Thus, a comprehensive investigation of the reinforcement mechanism [...] Read more.
Oil shale waste (OSW), as fine aggregate in the mixture (particle size less than 4.75 mm), can effectively improve the overall properties of open grade friction course (OGFC), but the reinforcement mechanism is not clear. Thus, a comprehensive investigation of the reinforcement mechanism of OSW as fine aggregate is essential to provide better understanding for promoting its engineering application. In this paper, the reinforcement mechanism of OSW was explored through numerical calculations and laboratory tests from three aspects: macroscopic mechanical characteristics of mixture, micromechanics of asphalt mortar containing OSW filler, and adsorption characteristics of OSW. Numerical simulation results showed that the aggregate with a particle size greater than 4.75 mm in OGFC is the skeleton, which is the main loading bearing aggregate, and the skeleton bears more than 85% of external loads. The beam bending test and indirect tensile test results illustrated that the introduction of OSW improves the shear resistance and flexure-tension resistance properties of asphalt mortar, which is beneficial the overall properties of OGFC. From the Brunauer Emmett Tell test and Scanning Electron Microscope test, it was known that OSW has large specific surface area, dense pore structure, and various mesoporous shapes, which means a larger adsorption area and stronger adsorption with asphalt binder. Three self-developed tests containing asphalt adsorption capacity test, infiltrated asphalt saturation test and aggregate-bitumen interface observation test manifested that the existence of “claws”-pointed synapses at OSW-bitumen interface is the main reason for the significant improvement of properties of asphalt mortar containing OSW filler. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Improving the Environmental Sustainability of Low Noise Pavements: Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Reclaimed Asphalt and Crumb Rubber Based Warm Mix Technologies
Coatings 2019, 9(5), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9050343 - 26 May 2019
Abstract
Increasing environmental awareness is pushing towards sustainable approaches to the design and management of transport infrastructures. A life cycle assessment of low noise pavements is carried out here, with the aim to evaluate and compare the use of warm mix asphalts containing crumb [...] Read more.
Increasing environmental awareness is pushing towards sustainable approaches to the design and management of transport infrastructures. A life cycle assessment of low noise pavements is carried out here, with the aim to evaluate and compare the use of warm mix asphalts containing crumb rubber (CR) from end-of-life tires (ELTs) and reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). Different scenarios have been considered, taking into account production, construction, maintenance activities, and end-of-life of the pavement, according to a cradle to grave approach. Hot mix asphalt (HMA) was used as a reference wearing course. Results show that the simultaneous implementation of warm asphalt technologies and recycled materials can lead to a 50% reduction of the environmental burdens, compared to the standard scenario. The difference is mainly ascribed to the material depletion, the energy consumption, and the emissions associated with the frequency of maintenance of the wearing course. The use of asphalt rubber is environmentally advantageous, if compared to polymer modified binders (PMB); moreover, rubberized open-graded mixtures require the lowest bitumen content and maintenance. The findings of this research support the use of recycled materials and warm technologies as a way to improve the environmental sustainability of low noise pavements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Pavement Degradation on Population Exposure to Road Traffic Noise
Coatings 2019, 9(5), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9050298 - 01 May 2019
Abstract
Road pavement develops distresses over time, which increase tyre/road noise. This work focuses on the impact of these distresses on environmental noise. To calculate the environmental noise, a method to transform Close ProXimity (CPX) measurement results into the required input for traffic noise [...] Read more.
Road pavement develops distresses over time, which increase tyre/road noise. This work focuses on the impact of these distresses on environmental noise. To calculate the environmental noise, a method to transform Close ProXimity (CPX) measurement results into the required input for traffic noise models was defined and used. The tyre/road noise levels were determined by the CPX method for three types of pavement, with three types of distress, at three different speed levels. The study was carried out in the city center of Guimarães, a medium-sized Portuguese city. Using the NMPB model, 18 noise maps were produced for the passing of one single vehicle, taking into account two levels of distress (50% and 100%) for the pavement. The presence of distresses increased the noise, calculated at control points, by up to 7.1 dBA, and the percentage of the population exposed to levels over 45 dB was more than 11%. It was shown that pavement maintenance at early stages of distress development is, particularly for low-speed roads, very important to reduce environmental noise and population exposure. A comprehensive selection of the type of surface and speed control policies can mitigate the impact of a lack of maintenance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Road Surface Photometric Characterisation and Its Impact on Energy Savings
Coatings 2019, 9(5), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9050286 - 26 Apr 2019
Abstract
How road surfaces reflect light in space is a physical characteristic that plays a key role in the design of road lighting installations: by European Standards the average luminance is the target quantity to assure the required safety conditions of the motorized road [...] Read more.
How road surfaces reflect light in space is a physical characteristic that plays a key role in the design of road lighting installations: by European Standards the average luminance is the target quantity to assure the required safety conditions of the motorized road traffic. Lighting systems are designed (luminous flux installed per kilometre) to comply with the above requirement, starting from reference values of road surfaces reflection published in an old scientific document. These data are obsolete and not representative of current road surfaces, but they are still used to design current LED lighting systems. European Community funded a SURFACE project to provide to EU standard organization new traceable reference data, representative of current road surfaces used in EU. The paper presents the data collections and the impact on road lighting of using available old reference data versus SURFACE collected data of current road surfaces. Results highlight advantages in using bright pavements as well the need for introducing systems for flux control in road lighting installation to compensate for the discrepancies between current reference data and actual road surface data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Model for Calculating the Unstable State Temperature in Asphalt Pavement Structure
Coatings 2019, 9(4), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9040271 - 22 Apr 2019
Abstract
In this study, we determined the factors that influence of the temperature on an asphalt pavement by developing a two-dimensional unsteady temperature numerical calculation model using the finite difference method and Matlab. Based on the temperatures obtained by a buried sensor in a [...] Read more.
In this study, we determined the factors that influence of the temperature on an asphalt pavement by developing a two-dimensional unsteady temperature numerical calculation model using the finite difference method and Matlab. Based on the temperatures obtained by a buried sensor in a construction project, we collected the temperatures at different depths in the pavement structure in real time, and we then compared and analyzed the calculated and measured data. The results showed that the temperature in the asphalt pavement structure was significantly correlated with meteorological factors, such as the air temperature, but it also exhibited obvious hysteresis. Compared with the measured data, the maximum deviation in the numerical model based on the variations in the atmospheric temperature and solar radiation was 3 °C. Thus, it is necessary to effectively optimize the selection of asphalt pavement materials by simulating the temperature conditions in the asphalt pavement structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Applicability of ATR-FTIR Microscopy to Evaluate the Blending between Neat Bitumen and Bituminous Coating of Reclaimed Asphalt
Coatings 2019, 9(4), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9040240 - 09 Apr 2019
Abstract
The utilization of Reclaimed Asphalt (RA) in the road construction sector induces considerable economic and ecological benefits. The blending of the recycled material with new components is believed to be of great importance for the mixture’s properties. An extensive knowledge of the blending [...] Read more.
The utilization of Reclaimed Asphalt (RA) in the road construction sector induces considerable economic and ecological benefits. The blending of the recycled material with new components is believed to be of great importance for the mixture’s properties. An extensive knowledge of the blending of the materials is crucial in optimizing the use of RA, especially at higher recycling rates. In this paper, the applicability of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy in attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mode to study the bituminous coating of RA granulates is investigated. This method is a promising alternative to trace heterogeneous areas within the coating compared to methods that require extraction and recovery of bitumen. A method for sample preparation and FTIR spectra analysis is proposed. Four different samples were analyzed: a reference RA granulate, two types of RA granulates mixed with neat bitumen, and a RA granulate with rejuvenator. The results show that the use of ATR-FTIR microscope allows the tracing of different components, indications of blending, as well as proof of rejuvenation of the aged bituminous area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
High Friction Surfacing Systems Using Blends of Natural Aggregate and Calcined Bauxite
Coatings 2019, 9(3), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9030177 - 06 Mar 2019
Abstract
High friction surfacing (HFS), bonded to a road surface at high risk locations, has been shown to significantly reduce road fatalities and serious injuries, i.e., HFS saves lives. Calcined bauxite is the preferred aggregate for use in HFS systems due to its unique [...] Read more.
High friction surfacing (HFS), bonded to a road surface at high risk locations, has been shown to significantly reduce road fatalities and serious injuries, i.e., HFS saves lives. Calcined bauxite is the preferred aggregate for use in HFS systems due to its unique ability to resist polishing and abrasion by vehicle tires. Calcined bauxite is expensive, negatively impacts the environment due to mining, production and transporting processes and has come under supply pressures in recent years. This paper investigates the potential for blending natural aggregates with calcined bauxite for use in HFS systems. The experiments involved subjecting HFS specimens to laboratory simulated trafficking and testing for skid resistance, texture depth and mass loss. The testing was carried out in laboratories in Spain and Northern Ireland. The findings suggest that there is the potential to reduce the amount of calcined bauxite used in HFS systems by replacing a percentage of the calcined bauxite with high PSV natural sandstone or volcanic tuff aggregate. The impact of this research could reduce the risks associated with supply issues to the HFS industry, reduce environmental impact by using less calcined bauxite in HFS systems and reduce costs associated with the aggregate component of HFS systems—enabling road authorities to install more systems at high risk locations to further reduce fatalities and serious injuries on their roads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Functional Performance of Stone Mastic Asphalt Pavements in Spain: Acoustic Assessment
Coatings 2019, 9(2), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9020123 - 16 Feb 2019
Abstract
Environmental noise is one of the problems modern societies face today. Traffic noise, especially the noise produced from tire/pavement interaction, plays a main role in environmental noise. Pavement rehabilitation with new bituminous mixtures is a good option for combatting noise pollution in urban [...] Read more.
Environmental noise is one of the problems modern societies face today. Traffic noise, especially the noise produced from tire/pavement interaction, plays a main role in environmental noise. Pavement rehabilitation with new bituminous mixtures is a good option for combatting noise pollution in urban areas. This paper studies the functional performance of two bituminous mixtures of stone mastic asphalt (SMA), fabricated with the same polymer modified binder, but with different maximum aggregate size (MAS) (SMA11 and SMA16). The acoustic absorption, the dynamic stiffness, the surface texture and the tire/pavement noise were assessed. The bituminous mixture type SMA16 has higher texture levels at nearly every depicted wavelength of the texture spectra. This characteristic may lead to its higher average tire/pavement sound level compared to the mixture SMA11. The influence of each texture wavelength on the different frequency bands of the tire/pavement noise spectrum was studied, however, this relation is not a simple matter. This paper also presents low-noise pavement labeling methodology (LNP labelingLA²IC). The mixtures SMA11 and SMA16 are labeled at 50 and 80 km/h. An acoustic label is a valuable tool for construction companies and urban planners to use in order to define the best option against noise when pavement rehabilitation must be carried out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Crumb Rubber Modifier in Road Asphalt Pavements: State of the Art and Statistics
Coatings 2019, 9(6), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9060384 - 13 Jun 2019
Abstract
Tire rubber recycling for civil engineering applications and products is developing faster, achieving increasingly higher levels of maturation. The improvements in the material circle, where crumb rubber, generated as a by-product of the tire rubber making process, becomes the resource used for the [...] Read more.
Tire rubber recycling for civil engineering applications and products is developing faster, achieving increasingly higher levels of maturation. The improvements in the material circle, where crumb rubber, generated as a by-product of the tire rubber making process, becomes the resource used for the construction of road asphalt pavement, is absolutely necessary for increasing the sustainability of the entire supply chain. The paper reports the results of an accurate data analysis derived from an extensive literature review of existing processes, technologies, and materials within construction of infrastructure. The current position, the direction, and rate of progress of the scientific efforts towards the reuse and recycling of tire rubber worldwide have been shown. Furthermore, an in-depth analysis of a set of important properties of Crumb Rubber Modified Asphalt has been carried out—fabrication parameters, standard properties, high and low-temperature performance, and rheological properties. Statistics over a sample of selected publications have been presented to understand the main processes adopted, rubber particle size, temperatures, and possible further modifications of crumb rubber modified binder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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