Special Issue "Pavement Surface Coatings"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Cantisani
Website
Guest Editor
DICEA, Department of Civil, Constructional and Environmental Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Eudossiana, 18 00184 Rome, Italy
Interests: design and construction of road, railways and airport infrastructure; active and passive road safety; road pavements; sustainable mobility; context sensitive design
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Loprencipe
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
DICEA, Department of Civil, Constructional and Environmental Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Eudossiana, 18 00184 Rome, Italy
Interests: Pavement; road design; Railway design
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Pavement surface characteristics are crucial for both safety and funtional quality of transportation infrastructure. The correct design of pavement coatings, together with adequate construction and maintenance processes, ensures good performances in terms of skid resistance, regularity, structural resistance, vehicle control and dynamics, drainage and prevention of aquaplaning, vehicle operational costs, and environmental sustainability.

Mechanical, thermal, chemical and/or physical properties and characteristics of bitumens, aggregates, asphalt or cement concrete, as well as rheological characteristics of these materials, can significantly influence road surface performance.

The availability of new natural and industrial resources and the opportunity to recycle materials or reuse by-products in road constructions have modified the approach to pavement manufacture. In addition, techniques and procedures for road pavements design and construction have been constantly improved in the last few decades.

Scope of the Special Issue is to present and discuss the most recent research advances in this field and to consider how these results allow to obtain better functional and structural performances of pavement surface coatings.

In particular, the topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Pavement surface characteristics and performances;
  • Pavement design, construction, management, maintenance, and rehabilitation techniques;
  • Pavement management systems;
  • Pavement surface and subsurface drainage;
  • Pavement mechanics and pavement design;
  • Innovative design methods;
  • Pavement materials;
  • Pavement recycling;
  • Environmental issues, low-noise and sustainable pavements;
  • Pavement and surface testing;
  • Functional and structural evaluation;
  • Pavement-vehicle interaction and safety issues.

Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Cantisani
Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Loprencipe
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Influence of the Long-Term Oven Aging on the Performance of the Reinforced Asphalt Mixtures
Coatings 2020, 10(10), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10100953 - 02 Oct 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The long-term aging of the asphalt mixtures has become a major concern because it decreases the lifespan of the asphalt layer. In this study, the asphalt mixtures incorporating steel slag aggregates were reinforced with synthetic fibers as a novel contribution in terms of [...] Read more.
The long-term aging of the asphalt mixtures has become a major concern because it decreases the lifespan of the asphalt layer. In this study, the asphalt mixtures incorporating steel slag aggregates were reinforced with synthetic fibers as a novel contribution in terms of decreasing the effect of aging on the performance of the asphalt mixtures. However, different mixtures—namely, Mix0, Mix1, and Mix2—were subjected to long-term oven aging to study the effect of the aging on the performance of the asphalt mixes. Mix0 consisted of coarse and fine granite aggregates, while Mix1 was composed of coarse steel slag aggregate and fine granite aggregate. Mix2 represents the reinforced asphalt mixtures incorporating coarse steel slag aggregate and reinforced with the synthetic fibers of polyvinyl alcohol, acrylic, and polyester at the proportion of 0.3% by weight of the aggregates. The conducted performance tests were resilient modulus, rutting depth, and cracking resistance. The outputs of the performance tests for the unaged asphalt mixes displayed that the mixtures incorporating coarse steel slag aggregate exhibited better performance than the mixtures containing granite aggregate. Meanwhile, the reinforced asphalt mixtures have shown a lower resilient modulus and a higher permanent deformation than the unreinforced asphalt mixes due to the elastic behavior. Otherwise, the reinforced asphalt mixtures have shown superior resistance to cracking in comparison to the unreinforced mixtures. On the other hand, the performance of the aged asphalt mixtures demonstrated that the mixtures containing granite aggregates exhibited a lower susceptibility to aging than the mixtures incorporating steel slag aggregate. Meanwhile, the performance of the aged reinforced asphalt mixtures showed that introducing synthetic fibers has decreased the effect of the long-term oven aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Actual Contact Surface of Selected Aircraft Tires with the Airport Pavement as a Function of Pressure and Vertical Load
Coatings 2020, 10(6), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10060591 - 24 Jun 2020
Abstract
The contact surface of the wheel with the airport surface is important for the safety of flight operations in the ground manoeuvring area. The area of the contact surface, its shape and stress distribution at the pavement surface are the subject of many [...] Read more.
The contact surface of the wheel with the airport surface is important for the safety of flight operations in the ground manoeuvring area. The area of the contact surface, its shape and stress distribution at the pavement surface are the subject of many scientists’ considerations. However, there are only a few research studies which include pressure and vertical load directly and its influence on tire-pavement contact area. There are no research studies which take into account aircraft tires. This work is a piece of an extensive research project which aims to develop a device and a method for continuous measurement of the natural airport pavement’s load capacity. One of the work elements was to estimate the relationship between wheel pressure and wheel pressure on the surface, and the area of the contact surface. The results of the research are presented in this article. Global experience in this field is cited at the beginning of the article. Then, the theoretical basis for calculating the wheel with the road surface contact area was presented. Next, the author’s research views and measurement method are presented. Finally, the obtained test results and comments are shown. The tests were carried out for four types of tires. Two of them were airplane tires from the PZL M28 Skytruck/Bryza and Sukhoi Su-22 aircraft. Two more came from the airport ASFT (airport surface friction tester) friction tester-one smooth ASTM; the other smooth retreaded type T520. The tires were tested in a pressure range from 200 to 800 kPa. The range of vertical wheel load on the pavement was 3.23–25.93 kN for airplane tires, and 0.8–4.0 kN for friction tester tires. The tests proved a significant influence of the wheel pressure value and wheel pressure on the surface on the obtained contact surface area of the wheel with the surface. In addition, it was noted that the final shape and size of the contact surface is affected by factors other than wheel pressure, tire pressure and dimensions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Laboratory Investigation on Physical, Rheological Thermal and Microscopic Characteristics of Water-Foamed Asphalt under Three Environmental Conditions
Coatings 2020, 10(3), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10030239 - 04 Mar 2020
Abstract
Applications of water-foamed binders have received widespread attention due to its environmental and economic benefits. This study aims to evaluate the properties of water-foamed asphalt under three environmental conditions (high-temperature evaporation, low-temperature frozen and the freeze–thaw cycle). Conventional physical properties tests, dynamic shear [...] Read more.
Applications of water-foamed binders have received widespread attention due to its environmental and economic benefits. This study aims to evaluate the properties of water-foamed asphalt under three environmental conditions (high-temperature evaporation, low-temperature frozen and the freeze–thaw cycle). Conventional physical properties tests, dynamic shear rheometer test (DSR), differential scanning calorimetry test (DSC) and scanning electron microscope test (SEM) are employed to assess the physical, rheological thermal and microscopic characteristics of samples. Conventional physical properties test results showed that the performance of a foamed binder had declined under three environmental processes and the foamed asphalt gradually returned to the characteristics before being foamed, with the increase of process time. A comprehensive evaluation index, deterioration degree was proposed based on the test results and entropy theory, and the deterioration process of the foamed binder under three environmental conditions was quantified. Moreover, freeze–thaw (F–T) cycles had been proved to have the most significant influence on the performance of a foamed binder among three environmental factors, which was a key issue that limits the application and promotion of foamed asphalt in seasonal frozen regions. The DSR test showed that the resistance to high-temperature permanent deformation of the foamed binder was improved after F–T cycles, and the fatigue resistance became worse. The sensitivity analysis of complex modulus and frequency illustrated that foamed asphalt after F–T cycles were more sensitive to the loading frequency and less sensitive to the temperature. The DSC test indicated that the thermal stability of foamed asphalt was improved after F–T cycles. The disappearance of circular “cavitation” observed through SEM test revealed that moisture of foamed asphalt was gradually precipitated and self-healing phenomenon occurred during F–T cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Compactness on the Texture and Friction of Asphalt Concrete Intended for Wearing Course of the Road Pavement
Coatings 2020, 10(2), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10020192 - 24 Feb 2020
Abstract
Maintaining good friction performance of highway pavement is important for road safety. The friction is affected by many factors, and the present study investigates the effect of the compactness on the texture and friction of asphalt concrete during the polishing process. Two three-dimensional [...] Read more.
Maintaining good friction performance of highway pavement is important for road safety. The friction is affected by many factors, and the present study investigates the effect of the compactness on the texture and friction of asphalt concrete during the polishing process. Two three-dimensional (3D) texture parameters and the mean texture depth (MTD) were used to characterize the surface texture of AC-13 asphalt concrete. The differences of surface texture are then being analyzed among the pavement in the field, rutting slabs with 97% compactness (RS-97), rutting slabs with 100% compactness (RS-100), and rutting slabs with 103% (RS-103). The rutting slabs were polished by a circular vehicle simulator (CVS). The 3D surface topography, British pendulum number (BPN), and MTD were obtained during the polishing process. Test results show that the surface of the rutting slab can be smoother as the compactness increased from 97% to 103%. During the whole polishing process, the rutting slab with smaller compactness had higher value of the MTD. The impact of compactness on the BPN is insignificant during the polishing process, but rutting slabs with smaller compactness had better friction at high speed as the result of the higher MTD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Ensemble of Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Automatic Pavement Crack Detection and Measurement
Coatings 2020, 10(2), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10020152 - 08 Feb 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Automated pavement crack detection and measurement are important road issues. Agencies have to guarantee the improvement of road safety. Conventional crack detection and measurement algorithms can be extremely time-consuming and low efficiency. Therefore, recently, innovative algorithms have received increased attention from researchers. In [...] Read more.
Automated pavement crack detection and measurement are important road issues. Agencies have to guarantee the improvement of road safety. Conventional crack detection and measurement algorithms can be extremely time-consuming and low efficiency. Therefore, recently, innovative algorithms have received increased attention from researchers. In this paper, we propose an ensemble of convolutional neural networks (without a pooling layer) based on probability fusion for automated pavement crack detection and measurement. Specifically, an ensemble of convolutional neural networks was employed to identify the structure of small cracks with raw images. Secondly, outputs of the individual convolutional neural network model for the ensemble were averaged to produce the final crack probability value of each pixel, which can obtain a predicted probability map. Finally, the predicted morphological features of the cracks were measured by using the skeleton extraction algorithm. To validate the proposed method, some experiments were performed on two public crack databases (CFD and AigleRN) and the results of the different state-of-the-art methods were compared. To evaluate the efficiency of crack detection methods, three parameters were considered: precision (Pr), recall (Re) and F1 score (F1). For the two public databases of pavement images, the proposed method obtained the highest values of the three evaluation parameters: for the CFD database, Pr = 0.9552, Re = 0.9521 and F1 = 0.9533 (which reach values up to 0.5175 higher than the values obtained on the same database with the other methods), for the AigleRN database, Pr = 0.9302, Re = 0.9166 and F1 = 0.9238 (which reach values up to 0.7313 higher than the values obtained on the same database with the other methods). The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the other methods. For crack measurement, the crack length and width can be measure based on different crack types (complex, common, thin, and intersecting cracks.). The results show that the proposed algorithm can be effectively applied for crack measurement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
IRI Performance Models for Flexible Pavements in Two-Lane Roads until First Maintenance and/or Rehabilitation Work
Coatings 2020, 10(2), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10020097 - 22 Jan 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Pavement performance models play a vital role in any pavement management system. The Regional Government of Biscay (RGB) (Spain) manages a 1200 km road network and conducts pavement data collections, including the International Roughness Index (IRI) values. The aim of the paper is [...] Read more.
Pavement performance models play a vital role in any pavement management system. The Regional Government of Biscay (RGB) (Spain) manages a 1200 km road network and conducts pavement data collections, including the International Roughness Index (IRI) values. The aim of the paper is to develop an IRI performance model for two-lane roads with flexible pavement until the first maintenance and/or rehabilitation activity is performed. Due to the huge amount of available information, a deterministic model was selected. A literature review of deterministic models showed that, apart from age and traffic volumes, the pavement structure is a key factor. Therefore, it was decided to analyze the only road stretches whose entire pavement section was known (surface layer + base + subbase). Various variables related to age, traffic volumes and employed materials were introduced as possible factors. The multiple linear regression model with the highest coefficient of determination and all the variables significant included the real pavement age, the cumulated heavy traffic and the total thickness of bituminous layers. As the material employed in the surface layer could affect roughness progression, a qualitative variable was introduced to consider various surface materials. The model improved its accuracy, indicating that the surface layer material is also an influencing factor on IRI evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of the Microwave Absorption of Asphalt Mixtures Containing Magnetite Powder
Coatings 2019, 9(12), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9120813 - 02 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This article is intended to investigate the microwave heating performance of asphalt mixtures containing magnetite powders (MPAM). For this purpose, the surface temperatures of asphalt mixtures containing different dosages of magnetite powders were measured during microwave heating. The low-temperature bending test and water [...] Read more.
This article is intended to investigate the microwave heating performance of asphalt mixtures containing magnetite powders (MPAM). For this purpose, the surface temperatures of asphalt mixtures containing different dosages of magnetite powders were measured during microwave heating. The low-temperature bending test and water sensitivity test were also conducted to evaluate the performance of MPAM. Heating rate and reflection loss of different thicknesses of MPAM were determined using a microwave heating test and arch reflectivity test, respectively. The results showed that because its main components are triiron tetroxide and iron oxide, which have excellent microwave-absorbing properties, magnetite powders can be used as microwave absorbers to improve the ability of microwave absorption and increase the heating rate of asphalt mixtures. The heating rate of the asphalt mixtures increased with the increase of the amount of magnetite powder. The addition of magnetite powder improved the low-temperature properties of the asphalt mixture, but it reduced the water stability of the asphalt mixture. Considering that the microwave-absorbing asphalt mixture used for melting snow and ice should have good water stability, the recommended dosage of magnetite powders was 60%. The microwave-absorbing properties of MPAM were related to its thickness in the pavement structure and frequency of microwaves. In order to greatly enhance the absorbing efficiency, future work should be focused on matching thickness and matching frequency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
An Investigation of the Polishing Behavior of Calcined Bauxite Aggregate
Coatings 2019, 9(11), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9110760 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The application of top-grade calcined bauxite to improve the skid resistance of pavement surface coatings increases construction costs and causes excessive tire wear. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the polishing behavior of different grades of calcined bauxite aggregate. The polished stone value [...] Read more.
The application of top-grade calcined bauxite to improve the skid resistance of pavement surface coatings increases construction costs and causes excessive tire wear. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the polishing behavior of different grades of calcined bauxite aggregate. The polished stone value of calcined bauxite was measured after the standard polishing time and the extended polishing time. The Los Angeles (L.A.) abrasion and the crushing value, profile roughness, hardness, X-ray diffraction, and micromorphology were also tested. The results showed that the calcined bauxite above 75# (the ratio of corundum to mullite by weight, C/M > 1) satisfied the requirement of the ultra-thin friction course. Compared with basalt, the calcined bauxite above 80# (C/M > 3) has better long-term skid resistance, even though the pavement surface is subject to heavier traffic. Due to the higher cohesion of lower porosity, more hard minerals to keep the surface roughness, and less soft minerals to smooth the surface roughness, calcined bauxite with a higher corundum content has the better skid resistance. There is a power law relationship between C/M and Polished Stone Value (PSV). Considering the diminishing returns of higher-grade calcined bauxite, it is necessary to accurately select the appropriate C/M of calcined bauxite before use in pavement surface coatings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Bleeding Resistance in Chip Seal and Asphalt Emulsion Residue Rheology
Coatings 2019, 9(10), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9100670 - 16 Oct 2019
Abstract
Chip seal bleeding is influenced by many factors, including design inputs, material properties, and project-specific conditions. It reduces the surface texture of the pavement and thus compromises the safety of the traveling public. Even though factors that bring about premature bleeding are known, [...] Read more.
Chip seal bleeding is influenced by many factors, including design inputs, material properties, and project-specific conditions. It reduces the surface texture of the pavement and thus compromises the safety of the traveling public. Even though factors that bring about premature bleeding are known, currently, no laboratory test methods for evaluating bleeding in chip seals have been specified. The objective of this paper is to present the results of an investigation of the influence factors of asphalt emulsion residue properties measured by the ASTM D7405 multiple stress creep and recovery (MSCR) test, as well as other factors related to chip seal bleeding resistance as measured by the modified loaded wheel test (MLWT). In this study, the MSCR test was used as a tool for evaluating the performance of asphalt emulsions because it has been identified as a potential test related to bleeding in the field. In addition, MLWT was selected as a tool for evaluating chip seal bleeding performance in the laboratory. The results of the MLWT showed that the emulsion application rate (EAR), aggregate gradation, and emulsion properties were significant factors affecting bleeding. The MSCR test was found to be a promising tool for the performance evaluation of asphalt emulsion residue, as the test was able to differentiate between emulsion chemistries and modifications in terms of sensitivity to both temperature and stress. In relation to chip seal bleeding resistance, only the creep compliance (Jnr) obtained from the MSCR test results was identified as a significant property affecting potential for bleeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Compaction and Hydraulic Gradient on Subbase Layer Permeability
Coatings 2019, 9(10), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9100641 - 03 Oct 2019
Abstract
In order to prevent or at least reduce the deformation of road surface, it is necessary to ensure adequate water permeability of the structural layers and control of groundwater level. In geotechnical engineering, the water permeability of the mineral aggregates or soils is [...] Read more.
In order to prevent or at least reduce the deformation of road surface, it is necessary to ensure adequate water permeability of the structural layers and control of groundwater level. In geotechnical engineering, the water permeability of the mineral aggregates or soils is determined using a constant head water permeability apparatus. In order to assess the suitability of the results, it is necessary to take into account particle size distribution of the test object and perform the test at different hydraulic ramps. The aim of this research is to define and clarify unbound mineral aggregate mixtures hydraulic gradient and compaction level of road layer impact on water permeability. The following properties have been determined during the tests: particle size distribution, particle density, Proctor density, optimum water quantity, water permeability under different compaction and hydraulic slopes. Based on the results of the research, low-dustiness non-bonded mineral materials are recommended for frost resistant layers. For the water-permeability coefficient test, it is recommended that the test layer should be compacted to a design compaction ratio and the hydraulic gradient should not be higher than 1.0. Other conclusions and recommendations for further research and for improvement of water permeability functionality in the road pavement are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Aggregate-Bitumen Interface Enhancement Mechanism of Utilization of Oil Shale Waste as Fine Aggregate in Open Grade Friction Course
Coatings 2019, 9(10), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9100637 - 03 Oct 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Oil shale waste (OSW), as fine aggregate in the mixture (particle size less than 4.75 mm), can effectively improve the overall properties of open grade friction course (OGFC), but the reinforcement mechanism is not clear. Thus, a comprehensive investigation of the reinforcement mechanism [...] Read more.
Oil shale waste (OSW), as fine aggregate in the mixture (particle size less than 4.75 mm), can effectively improve the overall properties of open grade friction course (OGFC), but the reinforcement mechanism is not clear. Thus, a comprehensive investigation of the reinforcement mechanism of OSW as fine aggregate is essential to provide better understanding for promoting its engineering application. In this paper, the reinforcement mechanism of OSW was explored through numerical calculations and laboratory tests from three aspects: macroscopic mechanical characteristics of mixture, micromechanics of asphalt mortar containing OSW filler, and adsorption characteristics of OSW. Numerical simulation results showed that the aggregate with a particle size greater than 4.75 mm in OGFC is the skeleton, which is the main loading bearing aggregate, and the skeleton bears more than 85% of external loads. The beam bending test and indirect tensile test results illustrated that the introduction of OSW improves the shear resistance and flexure-tension resistance properties of asphalt mortar, which is beneficial the overall properties of OGFC. From the Brunauer Emmett Tell test and Scanning Electron Microscope test, it was known that OSW has large specific surface area, dense pore structure, and various mesoporous shapes, which means a larger adsorption area and stronger adsorption with asphalt binder. Three self-developed tests containing asphalt adsorption capacity test, infiltrated asphalt saturation test and aggregate-bitumen interface observation test manifested that the existence of “claws”-pointed synapses at OSW-bitumen interface is the main reason for the significant improvement of properties of asphalt mortar containing OSW filler. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Improving the Environmental Sustainability of Low Noise Pavements: Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Reclaimed Asphalt and Crumb Rubber Based Warm Mix Technologies
Coatings 2019, 9(5), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9050343 - 26 May 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Increasing environmental awareness is pushing towards sustainable approaches to the design and management of transport infrastructures. A life cycle assessment of low noise pavements is carried out here, with the aim to evaluate and compare the use of warm mix asphalts containing crumb [...] Read more.
Increasing environmental awareness is pushing towards sustainable approaches to the design and management of transport infrastructures. A life cycle assessment of low noise pavements is carried out here, with the aim to evaluate and compare the use of warm mix asphalts containing crumb rubber (CR) from end-of-life tires (ELTs) and reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). Different scenarios have been considered, taking into account production, construction, maintenance activities, and end-of-life of the pavement, according to a cradle to grave approach. Hot mix asphalt (HMA) was used as a reference wearing course. Results show that the simultaneous implementation of warm asphalt technologies and recycled materials can lead to a 50% reduction of the environmental burdens, compared to the standard scenario. The difference is mainly ascribed to the material depletion, the energy consumption, and the emissions associated with the frequency of maintenance of the wearing course. The use of asphalt rubber is environmentally advantageous, if compared to polymer modified binders (PMB); moreover, rubberized open-graded mixtures require the lowest bitumen content and maintenance. The findings of this research support the use of recycled materials and warm technologies as a way to improve the environmental sustainability of low noise pavements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Pavement Degradation on Population Exposure to Road Traffic Noise
Coatings 2019, 9(5), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9050298 - 01 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Road pavement develops distresses over time, which increase tyre/road noise. This work focuses on the impact of these distresses on environmental noise. To calculate the environmental noise, a method to transform Close ProXimity (CPX) measurement results into the required input for traffic noise [...] Read more.
Road pavement develops distresses over time, which increase tyre/road noise. This work focuses on the impact of these distresses on environmental noise. To calculate the environmental noise, a method to transform Close ProXimity (CPX) measurement results into the required input for traffic noise models was defined and used. The tyre/road noise levels were determined by the CPX method for three types of pavement, with three types of distress, at three different speed levels. The study was carried out in the city center of Guimarães, a medium-sized Portuguese city. Using the NMPB model, 18 noise maps were produced for the passing of one single vehicle, taking into account two levels of distress (50% and 100%) for the pavement. The presence of distresses increased the noise, calculated at control points, by up to 7.1 dBA, and the percentage of the population exposed to levels over 45 dB was more than 11%. It was shown that pavement maintenance at early stages of distress development is, particularly for low-speed roads, very important to reduce environmental noise and population exposure. A comprehensive selection of the type of surface and speed control policies can mitigate the impact of a lack of maintenance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Road Surface Photometric Characterisation and Its Impact on Energy Savings
Coatings 2019, 9(5), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9050286 - 26 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
How road surfaces reflect light in space is a physical characteristic that plays a key role in the design of road lighting installations: by European Standards the average luminance is the target quantity to assure the required safety conditions of the motorized road [...] Read more.
How road surfaces reflect light in space is a physical characteristic that plays a key role in the design of road lighting installations: by European Standards the average luminance is the target quantity to assure the required safety conditions of the motorized road traffic. Lighting systems are designed (luminous flux installed per kilometre) to comply with the above requirement, starting from reference values of road surfaces reflection published in an old scientific document. These data are obsolete and not representative of current road surfaces, but they are still used to design current LED lighting systems. European Community funded a SURFACE project to provide to EU standard organization new traceable reference data, representative of current road surfaces used in EU. The paper presents the data collections and the impact on road lighting of using available old reference data versus SURFACE collected data of current road surfaces. Results highlight advantages in using bright pavements as well the need for introducing systems for flux control in road lighting installation to compensate for the discrepancies between current reference data and actual road surface data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Model for Calculating the Unstable State Temperature in Asphalt Pavement Structure
Coatings 2019, 9(4), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9040271 - 22 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, we determined the factors that influence of the temperature on an asphalt pavement by developing a two-dimensional unsteady temperature numerical calculation model using the finite difference method and Matlab. Based on the temperatures obtained by a buried sensor in a [...] Read more.
In this study, we determined the factors that influence of the temperature on an asphalt pavement by developing a two-dimensional unsteady temperature numerical calculation model using the finite difference method and Matlab. Based on the temperatures obtained by a buried sensor in a construction project, we collected the temperatures at different depths in the pavement structure in real time, and we then compared and analyzed the calculated and measured data. The results showed that the temperature in the asphalt pavement structure was significantly correlated with meteorological factors, such as the air temperature, but it also exhibited obvious hysteresis. Compared with the measured data, the maximum deviation in the numerical model based on the variations in the atmospheric temperature and solar radiation was 3 °C. Thus, it is necessary to effectively optimize the selection of asphalt pavement materials by simulating the temperature conditions in the asphalt pavement structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Applicability of ATR-FTIR Microscopy to Evaluate the Blending between Neat Bitumen and Bituminous Coating of Reclaimed Asphalt
Coatings 2019, 9(4), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9040240 - 09 Apr 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The utilization of Reclaimed Asphalt (RA) in the road construction sector induces considerable economic and ecological benefits. The blending of the recycled material with new components is believed to be of great importance for the mixture’s properties. An extensive knowledge of the blending [...] Read more.
The utilization of Reclaimed Asphalt (RA) in the road construction sector induces considerable economic and ecological benefits. The blending of the recycled material with new components is believed to be of great importance for the mixture’s properties. An extensive knowledge of the blending of the materials is crucial in optimizing the use of RA, especially at higher recycling rates. In this paper, the applicability of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy in attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mode to study the bituminous coating of RA granulates is investigated. This method is a promising alternative to trace heterogeneous areas within the coating compared to methods that require extraction and recovery of bitumen. A method for sample preparation and FTIR spectra analysis is proposed. Four different samples were analyzed: a reference RA granulate, two types of RA granulates mixed with neat bitumen, and a RA granulate with rejuvenator. The results show that the use of ATR-FTIR microscope allows the tracing of different components, indications of blending, as well as proof of rejuvenation of the aged bituminous area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
High Friction Surfacing Systems Using Blends of Natural Aggregate and Calcined Bauxite
Coatings 2019, 9(3), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9030177 - 06 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
High friction surfacing (HFS), bonded to a road surface at high risk locations, has been shown to significantly reduce road fatalities and serious injuries, i.e., HFS saves lives. Calcined bauxite is the preferred aggregate for use in HFS systems due to its unique [...] Read more.
High friction surfacing (HFS), bonded to a road surface at high risk locations, has been shown to significantly reduce road fatalities and serious injuries, i.e., HFS saves lives. Calcined bauxite is the preferred aggregate for use in HFS systems due to its unique ability to resist polishing and abrasion by vehicle tires. Calcined bauxite is expensive, negatively impacts the environment due to mining, production and transporting processes and has come under supply pressures in recent years. This paper investigates the potential for blending natural aggregates with calcined bauxite for use in HFS systems. The experiments involved subjecting HFS specimens to laboratory simulated trafficking and testing for skid resistance, texture depth and mass loss. The testing was carried out in laboratories in Spain and Northern Ireland. The findings suggest that there is the potential to reduce the amount of calcined bauxite used in HFS systems by replacing a percentage of the calcined bauxite with high PSV natural sandstone or volcanic tuff aggregate. The impact of this research could reduce the risks associated with supply issues to the HFS industry, reduce environmental impact by using less calcined bauxite in HFS systems and reduce costs associated with the aggregate component of HFS systems—enabling road authorities to install more systems at high risk locations to further reduce fatalities and serious injuries on their roads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Functional Performance of Stone Mastic Asphalt Pavements in Spain: Acoustic Assessment
Coatings 2019, 9(2), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9020123 - 16 Feb 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Environmental noise is one of the problems modern societies face today. Traffic noise, especially the noise produced from tire/pavement interaction, plays a main role in environmental noise. Pavement rehabilitation with new bituminous mixtures is a good option for combatting noise pollution in urban [...] Read more.
Environmental noise is one of the problems modern societies face today. Traffic noise, especially the noise produced from tire/pavement interaction, plays a main role in environmental noise. Pavement rehabilitation with new bituminous mixtures is a good option for combatting noise pollution in urban areas. This paper studies the functional performance of two bituminous mixtures of stone mastic asphalt (SMA), fabricated with the same polymer modified binder, but with different maximum aggregate size (MAS) (SMA11 and SMA16). The acoustic absorption, the dynamic stiffness, the surface texture and the tire/pavement noise were assessed. The bituminous mixture type SMA16 has higher texture levels at nearly every depicted wavelength of the texture spectra. This characteristic may lead to its higher average tire/pavement sound level compared to the mixture SMA11. The influence of each texture wavelength on the different frequency bands of the tire/pavement noise spectrum was studied, however, this relation is not a simple matter. This paper also presents low-noise pavement labeling methodology (LNP labelingLA²IC). The mixtures SMA11 and SMA16 are labeled at 50 and 80 km/h. An acoustic label is a valuable tool for construction companies and urban planners to use in order to define the best option against noise when pavement rehabilitation must be carried out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Crumb Rubber Modifier in Road Asphalt Pavements: State of the Art and Statistics
Coatings 2019, 9(6), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9060384 - 13 Jun 2019
Cited by 12
Abstract
Tire rubber recycling for civil engineering applications and products is developing faster, achieving increasingly higher levels of maturation. The improvements in the material circle, where crumb rubber, generated as a by-product of the tire rubber making process, becomes the resource used for the [...] Read more.
Tire rubber recycling for civil engineering applications and products is developing faster, achieving increasingly higher levels of maturation. The improvements in the material circle, where crumb rubber, generated as a by-product of the tire rubber making process, becomes the resource used for the construction of road asphalt pavement, is absolutely necessary for increasing the sustainability of the entire supply chain. The paper reports the results of an accurate data analysis derived from an extensive literature review of existing processes, technologies, and materials within construction of infrastructure. The current position, the direction, and rate of progress of the scientific efforts towards the reuse and recycling of tire rubber worldwide have been shown. Furthermore, an in-depth analysis of a set of important properties of Crumb Rubber Modified Asphalt has been carried out—fabrication parameters, standard properties, high and low-temperature performance, and rheological properties. Statistics over a sample of selected publications have been presented to understand the main processes adopted, rubber particle size, temperatures, and possible further modifications of crumb rubber modified binder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Surface Coatings)
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