Special Issue "Coatings and Interfaces"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 December 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Hyung-Ho Park
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Republic of Korea
Interests: 1. Nanoporous aerogels: thermal barrier, filter, soundproofing, adsorber, gas sensor, ILD of ULSI; 2. Thin films: ALD, sputtering deposition, TCO, Mott’s for ReRAM, high-K dielectrics; 3. Nanomaterials: nanoparticles, nanocomposite, OLED, QLED, high-K dielectrics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue focusses on the current issues and recent techniques of coatings and interfaces, including various techniques, theories, mechanisms, and applications. Coatings and interfaces engineering are used to optimize the functionality of nano-materials, and to improve the entire materials function as a whole, for improved function through the coating at interfaces. Coatings on solid surfaces have a wide field of applications, such as paints, adhesives, coated papers, automobiles, semiconductor thin films, industrial equipment, solar cells, domestic appliances, photonics, smart coatings, micro-electronics, and biomedical and photographic films. Several methods, such as sol–gel, spin coating, dip coating, physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, atomic layer depostion, and so on, have been utilised for various thin or thick films. The chosen method depends on the rheology of the coating solutions, compositions, surface functional groups, types of solid surface, desired coating thickness, and uniformity, according to the application. There has been a constant motivation for various structures, textures, and chemical compositions to help form many versatile functional hybrid materials with a low cost and high production. It is possible to vary the unique functions and properties of the materials of the film using controlled interface engineering. Therefor, the optimization of the electronic, thermal, magnetic, mechanical, chemical, and optical properties of materials can be obtained using the interface control.

The current hot topics that will be covered in this Special Issues, but are not limited to the following research areas :

  • Surface, interface, and coupling effects on the properties of the multifunctional materials.
  • Novel multi-film layered and composites films.
  • Synthesis and characterization of mutlifunctional coatings.
  • Novel interface characterization techniques.
  • Recent trends in thin film synthesis techniques.

We look forward to both original researh papers and review articles for the forementioned topics that will help in developing various novel coatings for multidisciplinary domains.

Prof. Dr. Hyung-Ho Park
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Coatings
  • Interfacial engineering
  • Functional coatings
  • Thin films

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Barkhausen Noise Emission in Steel Wires Subjected to Different Surface Treatments
Coatings 2020, 10(10), 912; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10100912 - 23 Sep 2020
Abstract
Steel rope wires represent the main bearing components of bridges whose long-term operation depends on loading conditions, corrosion attack, and/or pre-stressing. Corrosion attack especially can remarkably reduce the effective cross-sectional area, which in turn over-stresses the wires and redistributes stress to the neighboring [...] Read more.
Steel rope wires represent the main bearing components of bridges whose long-term operation depends on loading conditions, corrosion attack, and/or pre-stressing. Corrosion attack especially can remarkably reduce the effective cross-sectional area, which in turn over-stresses the wires and redistributes stress to the neighboring wires. The premature collapse of many bridges is very often caused by wire rupture as a result of their poor corrosion protection. For these reasons, various processes—such as galvanizing, phosphating, etc.—have been applied to steel wires to increase their resistance against corrosion. However, these processes can alter the microstructure, especially in the near-surface regions. The Barkhausen noise technique has been already reported as a suitable technique for investigating corrosion extent and true pre-stress in the steel rope wires. This study reports that non-homogeneity of the surface state of wires undergoing different surface treatment makes it more difficult to assess the true stress state and increase the uncertainty of Barkhausen noise measurement. Barkhausen noise signals are correlated with metallographic and SEM observations as well as microhardness measurements. The non-homogeneity of the surface state of wires is also investigated by the use of chemical mapping and linear chemical analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coatings and Interfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Pulsed Waterjet Roughening of Cast Iron and Aluminum Alloy for Automotive Engine Remanufacturing with Plasma Transferred Wire Arc Coating
Coatings 2020, 10(9), 864; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10090864 - 06 Sep 2020
Abstract
This study utilized the high-pressure pulsed waterjet process and paired it with the plasma transferred wire arc technology to develop a novel technique to remanufacture damaged engine cylinder bores. The objective of this research was to eliminate the need for expensive bond-coats such [...] Read more.
This study utilized the high-pressure pulsed waterjet process and paired it with the plasma transferred wire arc technology to develop a novel technique to remanufacture damaged engine cylinder bores. The objective of this research was to eliminate the need for expensive bond-coats such as Ni-Al by optimizing the surface roughness profile of the substrate to provide acceptable mechanical bonding between the coating and the substrate. In this study, a high chrome stainless steel wire (Metcoloy #2) was plasma spray coated on a wide range of pulsed waterjet roughened surface profiles generated on grey cast iron and cast aluminum A380 alloy, the two most common engine materials. The pulsed waterjet greatly increased the adhesion strength between the substrates and the Metcoloy #2 coating. The increase in adhesion strength is a result of the formation of favorable mechanical anchoring points. Optimal pulsed waterjet parameters were determined to avoid the production of a copious roughness profile which resulted in a coating that mirrored the roughened surface profile. Additionally, if the roughness profile produced by the pulsed waterjet was insignificant the coating was removed in its entirety during detachment-based failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coatings and Interfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Directly-Patternable Bi2O3 Nanoparticle for Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitor
Coatings 2020, 10(8), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10080752 - 01 Aug 2020
Abstract
A polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film incorporating size-controlled, uniformly dispersed, directly patterned Bi2O3 nanoparticles was developed to achieve a high-k polymer nanocomposite capacitor. The photochemical metal-organic deposition (PMOD) method was employed to form uniformly dispersed and directly patterned nanoparticles on the [...] Read more.
A polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film incorporating size-controlled, uniformly dispersed, directly patterned Bi2O3 nanoparticles was developed to achieve a high-k polymer nanocomposite capacitor. The photochemical metal-organic deposition (PMOD) method was employed to form uniformly dispersed and directly patterned nanoparticles on the substrate. Bi nanoparticles were produced by spin coating a Bismuth 2-ethylhexanoate solution on a Pt substrate with UV irradiation for 1, 4, 7, and 10 min. The average diameter of nanoparticles and the number of nanoparticles per unit area (μm2) were about 30, 70, and 120 nm and 30, 30, and 31 particles/μm2 for UV irradiation times of 4, 7, and 10 min, respectively. In addition, the capacitance of PVDF nanocomposite film could be controlled by the Bi2O3 nanoparticle size. The PVDF nanocomposite film containing Bi2O3 nanoparticles with 1, 4, 7, and 10 min UV irradiation were able to improve capacitance by about 1.4, 2.0, 2.7, and 3.4 times compared with an as-prepared PVDF film. By using a mask aligner, directly pattered Bi nanoparticles on the substrate, which had a 5 μm line width pattern, were successfully defined and demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coatings and Interfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Hybrid Electroluminescence Devices with Solution-Processed Mixed Emitting Layers of Red Quantum Dots and Blue Small Molecules
Coatings 2020, 10(7), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10070645 - 02 Jul 2020
Abstract
Hybrid electroluminescence (EL) devices with mixed emission layers (EMLs) were developed to achieve balanced peaks from red quantum dots (QDs) and blue phosphorescent small molecules. The EML was prepared by mixing QDs and small molecules in an organic solvent, and then adding polystyrene [...] Read more.
Hybrid electroluminescence (EL) devices with mixed emission layers (EMLs) were developed to achieve balanced peaks from red quantum dots (QDs) and blue phosphorescent small molecules. The EML was prepared by mixing QDs and small molecules in an organic solvent, and then adding polystyrene to disrupt the aggregation of the host material. These unique bichromatic devices exhibited two distinct EL peaks with similar intensities over 10 V, and the voltage dependent EL spectra were investigated systematically. These hybrid EL devices showed a maximum luminance of 1057.7 cd/m2 and a current efficiency of 2.45 cd/A. These results indicate that the unique mixed EMLs have potential for use as white devices using fewer fabrication steps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coatings and Interfaces)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Sensitivity Improvement of Quantum Dot-Blended Hybrid Detector for X-ray Imaging
Coatings 2020, 10(3), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10030222 - 01 Mar 2020
Abstract
This study investigated the characteristics of an indirect-type hybrid X-ray detector with a conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and CdSe quantum dot (QD) blended active layer. To improve detection sensitivity, the optimal blending ratio of P3HT:CdSe QDs, ligand exchange effect, and optimal process condition [...] Read more.
This study investigated the characteristics of an indirect-type hybrid X-ray detector with a conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and CdSe quantum dot (QD) blended active layer. To improve detection sensitivity, the optimal blending ratio of P3HT:CdSe QDs, ligand exchange effect, and optimal process condition of the active layer were examined. The detector with a P3HT:CdSe QDs = 1:5 blended active layer showed the highest collected charge density (CCD) and highest sensitivity under X-ray irradiation. The replacement of a trioctylphosphine (TOP) ligand by a pyridine ligand effectively assisted the charge transport and reduced the QD aggregation, increasing the detection sensitivity of the detector by 75% after the ligand exchange. To further improve the sensitivity of the proposed detector, the optimized process conditions of the active layer were studied. The sensitivity of the detector with an active layer of about 80 nm thickness formed by a double-coating method showed the highest CCD of 62.5 nA/cm2, and the highest sensitivity of 0.14 mA/Gy∙cm2. Due to additional pyridine treatment between the double-coating processes, the surface roughness of the active layer decreased, and the CCD and sensitivity subsequently increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coatings and Interfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrical and Reliability Characteristics of Self-Forming Barrier for CuNd/SiOCH Films in Cu Interconnects
Coatings 2020, 10(2), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10020155 - 08 Feb 2020
Abstract
In this study, Cu-2.2 at. % Nd alloy films using a co-sputtering deposition method were directly deposited onto porous low-dielectric-constant (low-k) films (SiOCH). The effects of CuNd alloy film on the electrical properties and reliability of porous low-k dielectric films [...] Read more.
In this study, Cu-2.2 at. % Nd alloy films using a co-sputtering deposition method were directly deposited onto porous low-dielectric-constant (low-k) films (SiOCH). The effects of CuNd alloy film on the electrical properties and reliability of porous low-k dielectric films were studied. The electrical characteristics and reliability of the porous low-k dielectric film with CuNd alloy film were enhanced by annealing at 425 °C. The formation of self-forming barrier at the CuNd/SiOCH interface was responsible for this improvement. Therefore, integration with CuNd and porous low-k dielectric is a promising process for advanced Cu interconnects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coatings and Interfaces)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Pure Sn Coatings Produced by Pulse Plating from Stannate Bath
Coatings 2020, 10(2), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10020117 - 30 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
We have produced pure Sn coatings from an alkaline bath plating. The plating bath was composed of sodium stannate and sodium hydroxide with sorbitol as an additive. The experiments were performed with a potentiostat/galvanostat at various current densities from 5–25 mA/cm2. [...] Read more.
We have produced pure Sn coatings from an alkaline bath plating. The plating bath was composed of sodium stannate and sodium hydroxide with sorbitol as an additive. The experiments were performed with a potentiostat/galvanostat at various current densities from 5–25 mA/cm2. The morphology of the coatings, thickness, plating rate, and microhardness were evaluated. Furthermore the wetting of the Sn coatings on a Cu substrate was also assessed by area spread ratio measurements after reflow at 250 °C. The resultant coatings were very smooth and shiny. Initially, the plating morphology was uneven and a nodular type, which further improved with increasing current density up to 15 mA/cm2. The plating rate and thickness were the maximum at a current density of 15 mA/cm2. The coatings had higher strength and solderability at 15 mA/cm2 due to the improved microstructure and plating rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coatings and Interfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanical and Structural Properties of Nanocomposite CrAlSiN–AlSiN Coating with Periodically Modulated Composition
Coatings 2020, 10(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10010041 - 03 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
A nanocomposite CrAlSiN–AlSiN coating with periodically modulated composition was developed and investigated regarding the effect of the composition and structure on the mechanical properties. The modulation was performed by variation of the pressure, cathode current and bias voltage during deposition. The structure and [...] Read more.
A nanocomposite CrAlSiN–AlSiN coating with periodically modulated composition was developed and investigated regarding the effect of the composition and structure on the mechanical properties. The modulation was performed by variation of the pressure, cathode current and bias voltage during deposition. The structure and composition of the coating were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The coating had a nanocomposite structure consisting of (CrAl)N and (AlSi)N nanograins embedded in a Si3N4 matrix. The EDS analysis of the cross-section revealed that the period composition had changed from Cr051Al0.41Si0.08N to Al0.82Cr0.04Si0.14N. It was shown that the elastic modulus could be adjusted by composition modulation. The coating hardness of 54 GPa was obtained by nanoindentation. The modulated CrAlSiN–AlSiN coating exhibited improved elastic strain to failure (H/E* = 0.11, H—nanohardness, E*—the effective elastic modulus), excellent resistance to plastic deformation (H3/E*2 = 0.72), and elastic recovery of 70%, which suggested improved toughness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coatings and Interfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, Abrasive Wear, and Corrosion Behavior in Molten Zinc of Boride-Based Coatings in Situ Synthesized by an HVOF Spraying Process
Coatings 2019, 9(10), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9100665 - 14 Oct 2019
Abstract
Hot-dip galvanizing has been used for anti-corrosion of various steel products; however, the corrosion of molten zinc in the galvanizing industry is the key problem to be solved. Three kinds of Mo–B–Co–Cr, Mo–B–Ni–Cr, and Ti–B–Co–Cr mixture powders were deposited on the surface of [...] Read more.
Hot-dip galvanizing has been used for anti-corrosion of various steel products; however, the corrosion of molten zinc in the galvanizing industry is the key problem to be solved. Three kinds of Mo–B–Co–Cr, Mo–B–Ni–Cr, and Ti–B–Co–Cr mixture powders were deposited on the surface of a 316L stainless-steel substrate by a HVOF spraying method to prepare MoB/CoCr, MoB/NiCr, and TiB/CoCr coatings. The microstructure, mechanical properties, abrasive wear, and corrosion behavior in molten zinc of the in situ synthesized boride-based coatings were investigated. The experimental results showed that MoB/NiCr coating with a denser microstructure had the lowest porosity (0.811%). The in situ synthesized boride-phase compositions of MoB/CoCr, MoB/NiCr, and TiB/CoCr coatings were CoMoB and CoMo2B2, NiMo2B2, and TiB2, respectively. The MoB/NiCr coating had the highest boride content among the coatings. The presence of binary (TiB2) or ternary boride phases (CoMoB, CoMo2B2, and NiMo2B2) with their excellent mechanical properties could obviously increase the microhardness values in the coatings. The in situ synthesized borides in the coatings also could improve the wear resistance properties; MoB/NiCr coating with shallower grooves and smaller craters/pits had the smoothest worn surface and the lowest weight loss (6.8 ± 0.84 mg) among the coatings. After immersion test in molten zinc for 360 h, no presence of zinc or intermetallic compounds in the three kinds of the coatings (MoB/CoCr, MoB/NiCr, and TiB/CoCr), and the element compositions of the three kinds of coatings after the immersion test were the same as the as-sprayed coatings. Compared to the other coatings, MoB/NiCr coatings had the higher durability in molten zinc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coatings and Interfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructure and Microhardness of Ni/Al-TiB2 Composite Coatings Prepared by Cold Spraying Combined with Postannealing Treatment
Coatings 2019, 9(9), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9090565 - 04 Sep 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Ni/Al-TiB2 composite powders were deposited on the surface of 316L stainless-steel substrates by cold spraying at gas temperatures of 250 and 450 °C, respectively. Then, the as-sprayed coatings were annealed at 650 °C for 10, 20, and 30 h. The experimental results [...] Read more.
Ni/Al-TiB2 composite powders were deposited on the surface of 316L stainless-steel substrates by cold spraying at gas temperatures of 250 and 450 °C, respectively. Then, the as-sprayed coatings were annealed at 650 °C for 10, 20, and 30 h. The experimental results showed that the average porosity of as-sprayed coating dropped from about 0.68% to 0.054% as the cold spraying gas temperature increased. The contents of Ni, Al, and TiB2 in the as-sprayed coatings were different from that of the Ni/Al-TiB2 composite powders. The main phase compositions of the as-sprayed Ni/Al-TiB2 coatings were the same as those of composite powder, consisting only of pure Ni, Al, and TiB2 phases. TiB2 as a reinforced particle in the as-sprayed coating could obviously increase the microhardness of the coatings. NiAl3 and Ni2Al3 intermetallic compounds were synthesized in situ in all of the annealed coatings, and the average contents of NiAl3 and Ni2Al3 intermetallic compounds increased as the cold spraying gas temperature increased. The distribution of TiB2 particle was changed as the annealing times increased, which changed from more comparative uniform distribution to accumulation. The average porosity of the annealed coatings increased as the annealing time increased. The microhardness of Ni/Al-TiB2 coatings annealed at 650 °C for 10 h was increased remarkably due to the reinforcement role of TiB2 particles and NiAl3 and Ni2Al3 intermetallic compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coatings and Interfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
The Implication of Benzene–Ethanol Extractive on Mechanical Properties of Waterborne Coating and Wood Cell Wall by Nanoindentation
Coatings 2019, 9(7), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9070449 - 18 Jul 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
The waterborne coating uses water as its solvent, which will partially dissolve wood extractives when it is applied to wood surfaces. This influences both the coating curing process and the mechanical properties of the cured coating. To investigate these influences, the mechanical properties [...] Read more.
The waterborne coating uses water as its solvent, which will partially dissolve wood extractives when it is applied to wood surfaces. This influences both the coating curing process and the mechanical properties of the cured coating. To investigate these influences, the mechanical properties of waterborne polyacrylic coating on control and extractive-free wood surfaces were investigated by nanoindentation. Reductions to elastic modulus (Er) and hardness (H) of the coating layer was observed in the wood cell walls adjacent to or away from coating layers. Extraction treatment resulted in significant decrease of the Er and H of the coating layer on extractive-free wood surface comparing with control wood, but the values slightly increased for extractive-free wood cell walls compared to a control. Er and H of coating in wood cell lumen were higher than the average value of coating layer on wood surface in both the control and extractive-free wood. The Er of wood cell wall without coating filled in lumen was significantly higher than those of filling with coating. However, there was no distinct difference of H. The Er and H of CCML in extractive-free wood were 15% and 6% lower than those in control ones, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coatings and Interfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Study of Multifunctional Coatings Based on Electrospun Fibers with Incorporated ZnO Nanoparticles
Coatings 2019, 9(6), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9060367 - 04 Jun 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
In this work, polymeric fibers of polystyrene (PS) with incorporated ZnO nanoparticles have been deposited onto an aluminum alloy substrate (6061T6) by using the electrospinning technique. In order to optimize the deposition process, the applied voltage and flow rate have been evaluated in [...] Read more.
In this work, polymeric fibers of polystyrene (PS) with incorporated ZnO nanoparticles have been deposited onto an aluminum alloy substrate (6061T6) by using the electrospinning technique. In order to optimize the deposition process, the applied voltage and flow rate have been evaluated in order to obtain micrometric electrospun fibers with a high average roughness and superhydrophobic behavior. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has also been employed in order to corroborate the amount of ZnO incorporated into the electrospun fibers, whereas differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been performed in order to determine the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymeric electrospun fibers. In addition, a specific thermal treatment (Tg + 20 °C) of the synthesized electrospun fibers has been evaluated in the resultant corrosion resistance. A comparative study with previously reported results corresponding to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fibers is carried out along this paper to show the changes in behavior due to the different compositions and fiber diameters. The coating has produced an important reduction of the corrosion current of the aluminum substrate in two orders of magnitude, showing also an important enhancement against pitting corrosion resistance. Finally, this deposition technique can be used as an innovative way for the design of both superhydrophobic and anticorrosive surfaces in one unique step over metallic substrates with arbitrary geometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coatings and Interfaces)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Flame Resistant Silicone-Containing Coating Materials
Coatings 2020, 10(5), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10050479 - 15 May 2020
Abstract
The flame resistance of applied coating materials affects the safety of innovative technological solutions. Silicone-containing polymeric materials are one of the most economical solutions in the field of coatings due to the effect of the unique combination of very good thermal, resistance, and [...] Read more.
The flame resistance of applied coating materials affects the safety of innovative technological solutions. Silicone-containing polymeric materials are one of the most economical solutions in the field of coatings due to the effect of the unique combination of very good thermal, resistance, and surface properties. The rich chemistry of silicon compounds, which results in their very good thermal stability, allows their use as flame-resistant coating materials or as flame retardants in polymer composites. In this review, the flame resistance of PDMS systems based on their thermal degradation data, as well as possible paths of thermal degradation depending on external conditions including the effect of additives, flame resistance of hybrid silicone-containing coating materials and most important innovative applications of these materials, are reviewed. Very good results from the use of organic silicon compounds as fire retardants in polymers obtained by many research teams are one of the promising ways of overcoming the health, safety, and availability concerns of traditional halogenated fire retardants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coatings and Interfaces)
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