Special Issue "Bio-Based Active Packaging for Shelf Life Extension"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactive Coatings and Biointerfaces".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2021) | Viewed by 10147

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Elena Torrieri
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Division of Food Science and Technology, University of Naples Federico II, 80055 Napoli, Italy
Interests: food packaging design; active packaging; shelf life; modified atmosphere packaging; biopolymer coating and film
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Prospero Di Pierro
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, 80126 Naples, Italy
Interests: edible/biodegradable materials; active coatings; intelligent packaging; nanocomposites, encapsulation, enzyme in food technology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Increasing environmental concerns regarding the use of synthetic packaging of petrochemical origin together with consumer demands for both higher food quality and longer shelf life have led to increased interest in alternative innovative packaging material, such as bio-based film and active packaging.

Bio-based films are materials or products (partly) derived from biomass (plants). In 2018, the global production capacities of bioplastics amounted to about 2.11 million tonnes, with almost 65 percent (1.2 million tonnes) of the volume destined for the packaging market—the biggest market segment within the bioplastics industry (https://www.european-bioplastics.org/market/).

Active packaging materials are intended to come into contact with foodstuffs to prolong the shelf life or maintain or improve the conditions of packaged food products. They must be designed to deliberately incorporate components that release substances into the packaged food product or into its environment or absorb them from the same.

Using bio-based film to develop active packaging is a way to improve bio-based film performance, food shelf life, and environmental sustainability.

The efficacy of active film on food shelf life extension depends on the nature and quantity of the active compound, the release kinetics, and the specific effect on alteration kinetics of food.

We invite investigators to contribute original research articles, as well as review articles, focused on the development of bio-based active film for food packaging application, focusing on the effect of film structure on release kinetics and on efficacy of the film to reduce alteration kinetics and extend food shelf life.

In particular, the topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Antimicrobial and antioxidant bio-based film;
  • Natural additive as active compound;
  • Encapsulation and controlled release of active compound;
  • Nanomaterial for active packaging;
  • Active packaging design and mathematical modeling;
  • Active packaging and shelf life extension.

Prof. Dr. Elena Torrieri
Prof. Dr. Prospero Di Pierro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Chitosan-Based Antimicrobial Coating for Improving Postharvest Shelf Life of Pineapple
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1366; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111366 - 08 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1378
Abstract
Rapid postharvest losses and quality deteriorations in pineapple are major challenges to growers and handlers. Chitosan-based coatings on fruit surfaces have gained importance in recent years to enhance postharvest shelf life of the fruits. In this study, aloe vera gel was added as [...] Read more.
Rapid postharvest losses and quality deteriorations in pineapple are major challenges to growers and handlers. Chitosan-based coatings on fruit surfaces have gained importance in recent years to enhance postharvest shelf life of the fruits. In this study, aloe vera gel was added as a natural antioxidant in chitosan-based composite coating containing ZnO nanoparticles. The developed formulation was applied on the surface of freshly harvested pineapple fruits. ZnO nanoparticles were used as an antimicrobial agent. Coated pineapple fruits were evaluated for weight loss, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, decay index, maturity index, and sensory attributes, including visual appearance, periodically at 5 day interval during storage. The results showed that the coating of the fruit reduced weight loss by about 5%, and also delayed ripening and oxidative decay compared to the uncoated fruit. Thus, the developed coating formulation is a promising sustainable solution to reduce postharvest losses and to extend shelf life of pineapples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Based Active Packaging for Shelf Life Extension)
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Article
Physicochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Whey Protein-Based Films Functionalized with Palestinian Satureja capitata Essential Oil
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1364; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111364 - 06 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 904
Abstract
The present study aimed to produce bio-active packaging materials made of whey proteins (WPs) and essential oil (EO) extracted from Thymbra (Satureja capitata, L.), one of the most popular Palestinian wild plants. In this study, two different Thymbra leaves from Nablus [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to produce bio-active packaging materials made of whey proteins (WPs) and essential oil (EO) extracted from Thymbra (Satureja capitata, L.), one of the most popular Palestinian wild plants. In this study, two different Thymbra leaves from Nablus and Qabatiya in Palestine were collected and analyzed for EOs by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Based on the analysis, two EOs, namely, TEO1 and TEO2, were extracted, and it was found that both samples primarily contain γ-terpinene and carvacrol, whereas p-cymene was detected only in TEO1. The antimicrobial activity of TEO1 and TEO2 was evaluated by microbroth microdilution assays against pathogenic bacteria and yeast. Based on the results, TEO1 exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against the test strains. Besides, TEO1 was chosen to functionalize WP-based films at different concentrations (0.1%, 0.4%, and 0.8% v/v of Film Forming Solutions). Film mechanical property investigation showed a marked reduction in the tensile strength and Young’s modulus at 0.8% TEO1. In contrast, its elongation at break value was significantly (p < 0.05) increased due to the plasticizing effect of the EO. Moreover, the film transparency was found to be significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by increasing TEO1 concentrations. Finally, microbiological investigations indicated that film antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria increased dose-dependently. The overall results open interesting perspectives for employing these films as preservative materials in food packaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Based Active Packaging for Shelf Life Extension)
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Article
Chitosan-Phenylalanine Nanoparticles (Cs-Phe Nps) Extend the Postharvest Life of Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) Fruits under Chilling Stress
Coatings 2021, 11(7), 819; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11070819 - 07 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1023
Abstract
There are high levels of damage imposed on persimmon fruit postharvest, especially after storing it in cold storage, which causes chilling injury (CI). To reduce this stress on the fruit, the conventional way is to use chemical treatments. Since there is a limitation [...] Read more.
There are high levels of damage imposed on persimmon fruit postharvest, especially after storing it in cold storage, which causes chilling injury (CI). To reduce this stress on the fruit, the conventional way is to use chemical treatments. Since there is a limitation in the use of chemical materials, it is necessary to apply non-harmful treatments to decrease chilling injury and maintain the quality of persimmon in cold storage. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of chitosan-loaded phenylalanine nanoparticles (Cs-Phe NPs) (2.5 and 5 mM) on physiochemical and quality factors of persimmon (Diospyros kaki) during 45 days of storage at 4 °C (38 °F) and evaluate the impact of Cs-Phe NPs on the preserving quality in order to reduce the chilling injury of this fruit. The experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments were applied at 15, 30, and 45 days after storage at 4 °C with ≥90% relative humidity. The size of Cs-Phe NPs was less than 100 nm, approximately. The results showed that application of 5 mM of Cs-Phe NPs delayed the negative effects of chilling stress and enhanced antioxidant capacity, firmness, and total soluble solids of persimmon fruit. Lower H2O2 and malonaldehyde (MDA) accumulation along with higher soluble tannin and total carotenoid accumulation in persimmon fruit treated with 5 mM Cs-Phe NPs was also observed. Fruit coated using Cs-Phe NPs in both concentrations (2.5 and 5 mM) showed the highest antioxidant enzyme activity for superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and the lowest for polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and chilling injury during storage. According to our results, 5 mM of Cs-Phe NPs could be considered as the best treatment under chilling-stress conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Based Active Packaging for Shelf Life Extension)
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Article
Active Biopolymer Coating Based on Sodium Caseinate: Physical Characterization and Antioxidant Activity
Coatings 2020, 10(8), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10080706 - 22 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1126
Abstract
The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of sodium caseinate concentration on physical-chemical properties of coating solutions and films obtained by casting as a starting point for the development of an active coating for minimally processed fruits or vegetables. Sodium [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of sodium caseinate concentration on physical-chemical properties of coating solutions and films obtained by casting as a starting point for the development of an active coating for minimally processed fruits or vegetables. Sodium caseinate solutions at different concentrations (4%, 8%, 10%, 12%, 14%) were used as a coating system. The coating viscosity and desorption kinetic were characterized. Minimally processed fennels were coated by dipping and the liquid and dry coating thickness were estimated by assessing the amount of coating on fennel during draining as a function of solution properties (concentration and viscosity). Film obtained by casting were also characterized in terms of equilibrium moisture content, color, and water vapor permeability. The potential of using the sodium caseinate solution to obtain active coating was investigated by adding gallic acid or rosemary oil to sodium caseinate solution at 4%. The antioxidant capacity of the coating was evaluated by DPPH test. Results show that sodium caseinate solutions follow a Newtonian behavior in the range of concentration investigated and the viscosity increased as solids concentration increased, following a power law. The drying rate was in the range 0.0063–0.00107 mgH2O·mgsolids−1·min−1·m−2 as a function of sodium caseinate concentration. The average liquid and dry coating thickness on fennels were in the range 20–70 and 0.7–6.4 μm, respectively. The water vapor permeability slightly decreased as the solid concentration increased. Active coating showed good antioxidant properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Based Active Packaging for Shelf Life Extension)
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Article
Pectin-Based Films Loaded with Hydroponic Nopal Mucilages: Development and Physicochemical Characterization
Coatings 2020, 10(5), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10050467 - 10 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1805
Abstract
Nopal is a potential source of mucilage that can be used in different food applications. One of its potential use is the development of films and coatings where it can act as a packaging material but also as a source of bioactive compounds. [...] Read more.
Nopal is a potential source of mucilage that can be used in different food applications. One of its potential use is the development of films and coatings where it can act as a packaging material but also as a source of bioactive compounds. Therefore, this work aimed to develop and characterize pectin-based films loaded with mucilage extracted from two species of nopal, Copena F1 (Cop) and Villanueva (Vi). The obtained mucilages were denominated as materials without fibre (Copwtf and Viwtf) and with fibre (Copwf and Viwf), according to the fibre’s size. Films were produced with pectin (2% w/v), mucilage (2.5% w/v) and glycerol (0.5% w/v) by the casting method. The addition of mucilages was shown to influence the visual appearance, optical properties and morphology of the films. The presence of mucilage also changed the moisture content, water contact angle and water vapour permeability of the films. The pectin-based films without mucilage presented the best mechanical properties. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed similar signals in terms of frequency and intensity, for all the films, not showing any chemical modification. Results show that the mucilage obtained from different nopal fractions can be used in pectin-based films foreseeing their use as films or coatings in food applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Based Active Packaging for Shelf Life Extension)
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Article
Starch/Poly(glycerol-adipate) Nanocomposites: A Novel Oral Drug Delivery Device
Coatings 2020, 10(2), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10020125 - 01 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1759
Abstract
Biocompatible and bio-based materials are an appealing resource for the pharmaceutical industry. Poly(glycerol-adipate) (PGA) is a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer that can be used to produce self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) able to encapsulate active ingredients, with encouraging perspectives for drug delivery purposes. Starch is [...] Read more.
Biocompatible and bio-based materials are an appealing resource for the pharmaceutical industry. Poly(glycerol-adipate) (PGA) is a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer that can be used to produce self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) able to encapsulate active ingredients, with encouraging perspectives for drug delivery purposes. Starch is a versatile, inexpensive, and abundant polysaccharide that can be effectively applied as a bio-scaffold for other molecules in order to enrich it with new appealing properties. In this work, the combination of PGA NPs and starch films proved to be a suitable biopolymeric matrix carrier for the controlled release preparation of hydrophobic drugs. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) was used to determine the size of drug-loaded PGA NPs, while the improvement of the apparent drug water solubility was assessed by UV-vis spectroscopy. In vitro biological assays were performed against cancer cell lines and bacteria strains to confirm that drug-loaded PGA NPs maintained the effective activity of the therapeutic agents. Dye-conjugated PGA was then exploited to track the NP release profile during the starch/PGA nanocomposite film digestion, which was assessed using digestion models mimicking physiological conditions. The collected data provide a clear indication of the suitability of our biodegradable carrier system for oral drug delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Based Active Packaging for Shelf Life Extension)
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Review

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Review
Percolation Model for Renewable-Carbon Doped Functional Composites in Packaging Application: A Brief Review
Coatings 2020, 10(2), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10020193 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1442
Abstract
This review summarizes the application of percolation theory for the behavior simulation of renewable-carbon in its doped packaging composites. Such dopant-reinforced materials have sparked considerable interest due to the significant improvement on the aesthetic and mechanical properties at considerable low filler content (<1% [...] Read more.
This review summarizes the application of percolation theory for the behavior simulation of renewable-carbon in its doped packaging composites. Such dopant-reinforced materials have sparked considerable interest due to the significant improvement on the aesthetic and mechanical properties at considerable low filler content (<1% in some cases), which would further boost their potential use in the food and pharmaceutical packaging industries. We focused mainly on the percolation behavior, which is closely related to the distribution of renewable carbon particles in the presence of polymeric matrix. The effect of geometry, alignment and surface property is of particular relevance to the percolation threshold of composites containing carbon fillers. Validity, as well as limitations of the mostly used percolation models, is further discussed. Finally, despite its recent emergence as functional filler, carbon-based nanocellulose has been extensively developed for a wide range of applications. This inspired the concept to use nanocellulose as a secondary bio-additive for packaging purposes, such as functional nanocellulose-coated film where primarily synthetic polymers are used. The microstructure and functionality of rod-like nanocellulose in its use for film composite are specifically discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Based Active Packaging for Shelf Life Extension)
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