Special Issue "Micro- and Nano-Coatings for Technological and Biomedical Applications"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Surface Coatings for Biomedicine and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Ioana Demetrescu
Website
Guest Editor
Department of General Chemistry, Politehnica University of Bucharest, 011061 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: biomaterials; physical chemistry; biomaterials science; electrochemistry; corrosion
Prof. Dr. Andreea Didilescu
Website
Guest Editor
Division of Embryology, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: dentin-pulp complex; biomaterials; salivary research

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the past decades, micro- and nano-technology have been introduced substantially, contributing to significant progress in different fields, such as industries, and the pharmaceutical and biomedical domains. Their advancement has led to the development of improved and new materials, tools, and devices, with various applicabilities. Studies tend to have become more interdisciplinary and complex. Within this frame work, the Special Issue is designed to promote and encourage collaboration between researchers from engineering and biomedical fields. Our hope is that the reviews and original papers published in this Issue will have a widespread impact, adding value to present research information. Papers submitted to this Issue are expected to be in line with the recent achievements in the fabrication coatings processes, and have correlations between structure, interface, and properties in order to improve on performance.

Concerning the most recent advances in the study of micro- and nano-coatings for technological and biological applications, the Special Issue will be an interdisciplinary volume devoted to the engineering and fundamental aspects of coatings features. The Issue is open for all coatings elaboration procedures and research investigations about the structure, micro- and nano-mechanical properties, oxidation and wear resistance, thermal protection, corrosion, diffusion resistance, hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance, and so on.

The different strategies and trends in coating development performance of nowadays are encouraged for presentation in this Issue, taking into account that, indeed, there is still a significant amount of research needed in order to enhance the available knowledge about the relationship between coatings properties and applications

The topics of interest are, but are not limited to, as follows:

  • Passive micro-/nano-coatings on valve metals;
  • Hybrid complex coating with bioactive components;
  • Surface and interface engineering to improve the materials performance;
  • The relationship between structure, properties, and materials applications.

Prof. Dr. Ioana Demetrescu
Prof. Dr. Andreea Didilescu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Experimental Multi-Particulate Polymer-Coated Drug Delivery Systems with Meloxicam
Coatings 2020, 10(5), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10050490 - 20 May 2020
Abstract
The objectives of this study are the development and evaluation of modified release multi-particulate drug delivery systems containing a BCS class II drug (meloxicam), formulated as polymer-coated pellets. Inert seeds containing microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate, and polyvinylpyrrolidone were prepared by extrusion-spheronization. The obtained [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study are the development and evaluation of modified release multi-particulate drug delivery systems containing a BCS class II drug (meloxicam), formulated as polymer-coated pellets. Inert seeds containing microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate, and polyvinylpyrrolidone were prepared by extrusion-spheronization. The obtained cores were loaded with meloxicam using the drug layering technique, by spray coating in a fluidized bed with a liquid dispersion of the drug. The resulting drug pellets were film-coated with various polymers (Acryl-EZE® 93O, Eudragit® RS 30-D as well as experimental composite obtained by adding Methocel™ E5 Premium LV as pore forming agent to the extended release polymer Eudragit® RS 30-D). All experimental systems were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and in vitro release testing, in an attempt to investigate the characteristics of the film coatings and their influence on drug release from the multi-particulate systems. The in vitro release study was performed in two stages, using two media with pH values corresponding to the gastric and intestinal environment (HCl 0.1N, pH = 1.2 for the first two hours of the test and phosphate buffer 50 mM, pH 6.8 for the next 4 h). The in vitro release data have highlighted the impact of the formulation factors on the drug release. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Peptide-Based Formulation from Lactic Acid Bacteria Impairs the Pathogen Growth in Ananas Comosus (Pineapple)
Coatings 2020, 10(5), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10050457 - 09 May 2020
Abstract
Worldwide, street vending commerce has grown exponentially, representing in some countries, including Ecuador, a significant proportion of food consumed by the urban population. Pineapple is one of the common fruits sold as ready-to-eat slices by ambulant vendors in the street or on public [...] Read more.
Worldwide, street vending commerce has grown exponentially, representing in some countries, including Ecuador, a significant proportion of food consumed by the urban population. Pineapple is one of the common fruits sold as ready-to-eat slices by ambulant vendors in the street or on public transport at risk of contamination by various microorganisms. Previously, we selected Lactobacillus plantarum UTNCys5-4 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis Gt28 strains producing peptides with high capacity to inhibit pathogen growth in vitro. In this study, the effect of different edited formulations containing a mixture of Cys5-4/Gt28 peptides was evaluated in vitro and ex vitro against a pathogenic cocktail containing E. coli (2), Salmonella (2) and Shigella (1). The growth of bacterial cocktail co-inoculated with cell-free supernatant containing peptides (formulation T1) and precipitated peptides (formulation T6), in a ratio of Cys5-4/Gt28:1:1 (v/v), results in a decrease of total cell viability with 1.85 and 1.2 log CFU/mL orders of magnitude at 6 h of incubation. About the same decrease (1.9 log CFU/g) was observed when pineapple slices artificially inoculated with the pathogenic cocktail were coated with T1 formulation, indicating the capacity to diminish simultaneous pathogens in situ, thus demonstrating its great biological control and protection. However, the E. coli cell counts reduced by 2.08 log CFU/g while Salmonella and Shigella cell counts reduced by 1.43 and 1.91 log CFU/g, respectively, at 5 days of refrigeration. In the untreated pineapple slices, the total cell density was maintained during storage, suggesting the adaptation of the pathogens to the fruit matrix. The peptide-based formulation exerted a bacteriolytic mode of action inducing pathogenic cell death. The results indicate that coating pineapple slices with peptide-based formulation is a promising approach to protect them from further contamination by microbial spoilage as well as an alternative to increase the food safety. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Electrochemical Behavior of Rejected Dental Implants in Peri-Implantitis
Coatings 2020, 10(3), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10030209 - 27 Feb 2020
Abstract
This paper aims to investigate the electrochemical stability of four dental implants based on titanium alloys, rejected and recovered from patients diagnosed with peri-implantitis. The recovered implants were investigated over one week through open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, Tafel analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy [...] Read more.
This paper aims to investigate the electrochemical stability of four dental implants based on titanium alloys, rejected and recovered from patients diagnosed with peri-implantitis. The recovered implants were investigated over one week through open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, Tafel analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Patients’ X-rays and clinical data were collected. The OCP measurements showed numerous variations of the potential over time, with increases and decreases, which indicated passivation–depassivation cycles. The main corrosion parameters were obtained through Tafel analysis. Corrosion rates and polarization curves suggested a greater instability trend over time for one implant. Bode Modulus and Nyquist diagrams were obtained after EIS was performed and electrical circuits were proposed and fitted for the dental implants in order to follow the materials resistance over time. Although two implants had the highest initial recorded resistances, they showed the most decrease over time. SEM micrographs showed pitting corrosion, while the presence of the Cl element in the EDS spectra indicated the presence of chlorides associated with these processes. The analyses performed on the dental implants denoted instability, with a different behavior for each one. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of High Voltage Anodic Plasma (HVAP) Ag-DLC Coatings on Ti50Zr with Different Ag Amounts
Coatings 2019, 9(12), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9120792 - 26 Nov 2019
Abstract
The paper presents the investigation of a series of silver-incorporated diamond-like carbon (Ag-DLC) coatings with increasing Ag content on Ti50Zr and deposited using high voltage anodic plasma (HVAP). The coatings surface properties were analyzed with scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), [...] Read more.
The paper presents the investigation of a series of silver-incorporated diamond-like carbon (Ag-DLC) coatings with increasing Ag content on Ti50Zr and deposited using high voltage anodic plasma (HVAP). The coatings surface properties were analyzed with scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), and contact angle determinations. Electrochemical tests were performed in Afnor artificial saliva and evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Based on these properties, comparisons of coatings performance were linked with the amount of deposited Ag. Increasing the Ag content led to the increase of the corrosion resistance and to the decrease of the forces exhibited on the surface. The hydrophobic character of the coating with the highest Ag amount could prevent thrombosis, thus suggesting its possible use for medical implants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High Intensity Laser Induced Reverse Transfer: Solution for Enhancement of Biocompatibility of Transparent Biomaterials
Coatings 2019, 9(9), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9090586 - 17 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Bioactive glass is used extensively in biomedical applications due to its quality and effectiveness in tissue regeneration. Bioactive glasses are able to interact with biological systems and can be used in humans to improve tissue regeneration without any side effects. Bioactive glass is [...] Read more.
Bioactive glass is used extensively in biomedical applications due to its quality and effectiveness in tissue regeneration. Bioactive glasses are able to interact with biological systems and can be used in humans to improve tissue regeneration without any side effects. Bioactive glass is a category of glasses that maintain good contact with body organs and remain biocompatible for a long time after implementation. They have the potential to form a hydroxyapatite surface as a biocompatible layer after immersion in body fluid. In this research, glass biocompatibility was modified using a deposition method called the high intensity laser induced reverse transfer (HILIRT) method and they were utilized as enhanced-biocompatibility bioactive glass (EBBG) with a correspondent nanofibrous titanium (NFTi) coating. HILIRT is a simple ultrafast laser method for improving implants for biomedical applications and provides a good thin film of NFTi on the glass substrate that is compatible with human tissue. The proposed method is a non-chemical method in which NFTi samples with different porosities and biocompatibilities are synthesized at various laser parameters such as power and frequency. Physical properties and cell compatibility and adhesion of these NFTi before and after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) were compared. The results indicate that increasing laser intensity and frequency leads to more NFTi fabrication on the glass with no toxicity and better cell interaction and adhesion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Two-Body and Three-Body Wear Behavior of a Dental Fluorapatite Glass-Ceramic
Coatings 2019, 9(9), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9090580 - 13 Sep 2019
Abstract
As a veneering porcelain coating of dental prosthesis, two-body and three-body wear behavior of dental glass-ceramic with the main crystalline phase of fluorapatite has not been comprehensively studied. In this work, a self-made fluorapatite glass-ceramic was synthesized and the mechanical and tribological performances [...] Read more.
As a veneering porcelain coating of dental prosthesis, two-body and three-body wear behavior of dental glass-ceramic with the main crystalline phase of fluorapatite has not been comprehensively studied. In this work, a self-made fluorapatite glass-ceramic was synthesized and the mechanical and tribological performances of the glass-ceramic were tested, comparing with a commercial feldspathic glass-ceramic. The friction and wear experiments were performed between disk-shaped glass-ceramics and natural teeth in two-body (dry, water, saliva) and three-body (slurry) modes, respectively. Results showed that good mechanical properties of fluorapatite glass-ceramic can be achieved by the sintering process. In both two-body and three-body modes, the fluorapatite glass-ceramic had a smaller friction coefficient and wear rate and caused less damage on antagonistic teeth than the feldspathic glass-ceramic. The greater mechanical properties give fluorapatite glass-ceramic a better wear resistance and reduce the adhesive wear. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
RF Magnetron Sputtering Deposition of TiO2 Thin Films in a Small Continuous Oxygen Flow Rate
Coatings 2019, 9(7), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9070442 - 16 Jul 2019
Abstract
Rutile titanium oxide (TiO2) thin films require more energy to crystallize than the anatase phase of TiO2. It is a prime candidate for micro-optoelectronics and is usually obtained either by high substrate temperature, applying a substrate bias, pulsed gas [...] Read more.
Rutile titanium oxide (TiO2) thin films require more energy to crystallize than the anatase phase of TiO2. It is a prime candidate for micro-optoelectronics and is usually obtained either by high substrate temperature, applying a substrate bias, pulsed gas flow to modify the pressure, or ex situ annealing. In the present work, we managed to obtain high enough energy at the substrate in order for the particles to form rutile TiO2 at room temperature without any intentional substrate bias in a continuous gas flow. The rutile TiO2 thin films were deposited by a reactive radiofrequency magnetron sputtering system from a titanium target, in an argon/oxygen gas mixture. Investigations regarding the film’s structure and morphology were performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), while the optical properties were investigated by means of ellipsometry. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Trends of TiZr Alloy Research as a Viable Alternative for Ti and Ti16 Zr Roxolid Dental Implants
Coatings 2020, 10(4), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10040422 - 24 Apr 2020
Abstract
Despite many discussions about Ti versus Zr, Ti remains the golden standard for dental implants. With the extended use of implants, their rejection in peri-implantitis due to material properties is going to be an important part of oral health problems. Extended use of [...] Read more.
Despite many discussions about Ti versus Zr, Ti remains the golden standard for dental implants. With the extended use of implants, their rejection in peri-implantitis due to material properties is going to be an important part of oral health problems. Extended use of implants leading to a statistical increase in implant rejection associated with peri-implantitis raises concerns in selecting better implant materials. In this context, starting in the last decade, investigation and use of TiZr alloys as alternatives for Ti in oral dentistry became increasingly more viable. Based on existing new results for Ti16Zr (Roxolid) implants and Ti50Zr alloy behaviour in oral environments, this paper presents the trends of research concerning the electrochemical stability, mechanical, and biological properties of this alloy with treated and untreated surfaces. The surface treatments were mostly performed by anodizing the alloy in various conditions as a non-sophisticated and cheap procedure, leading to nanostructures such as nanopores and nanotubes. The drug loading and release from nanostructured Ti50Zr as an important perspective in oral implant applications is discussed and promoted as well. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Short Overview of Recent Developments on Antimicrobial Coatings Based on Phytosynthesized Metal Nanoparticles
Coatings 2019, 9(12), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9120787 - 23 Nov 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The phytosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles represents an exciting new area of research, with promising perspectives, gaining in the last decades an increasing importance. Nanotechnology represents an important tool and an efficient option for obtaining particles with controlled morphology and shapes, phytosynthesized nanoparticles (NPs) [...] Read more.
The phytosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles represents an exciting new area of research, with promising perspectives, gaining in the last decades an increasing importance. Nanotechnology represents an important tool and an efficient option for obtaining particles with controlled morphology and shapes, phytosynthesized nanoparticles (NPs) being a good alternative to remove hazardous reagents. Due to the practical applications of the phytosynthesized nanoparticles, which are mainly associated with their antimicrobial potential, the abundance of scientific literature in this domain is given by researches in the phytosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles (3654 articles) and the evaluation of their antimicrobial properties (2338 papers). The application of phytosynthesized nanoparticles as antimicrobial coatings represented the subject of only 446 works, which lead us to the subject of this review paper. Application of antimicrobial coatings containing phytosynthesized nanoparticles for the development of antimicrobial textiles, other biomedical applications, protection of food (including fruits and vegetables), as well as for other types of applications based on their antimicrobial potential are covered by the present review. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Benefits of Nanomedicine for Therapeutic Intervention in Malignant Diseases
Coatings 2019, 9(10), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9100628 - 29 Sep 2019
Abstract
Cancer remains one of the most difficult to manage healthcare problems. The last two decades have been considered the golden age of cancer research, with major breakthroughs being announced on a regular basis. However, the major problem regarding cancer treatment is the incapability [...] Read more.
Cancer remains one of the most difficult to manage healthcare problems. The last two decades have been considered the golden age of cancer research, with major breakthroughs being announced on a regular basis. However, the major problem regarding cancer treatment is the incapability to selectively target cancer cells, with certain populations of tumors still remaining alive after treatment. The main focus of researchers is to develop treatments that are both effective and selective in targeting malignant cells. In this regard, bioavailability can be increased by overcoming the biological barriers encountered in the active agent’s pathway, creating carrier vehicles that have the ability to target malignant cells and effectively release the active agent. Since its appearance, nanomedicine has provided many answers to these challenges, but still, some expectations were not satisfied. In this review, we focused on the most recent developments in targeted drug delivery. Furthermore, a summary of different types of nanoparticles used to deliver active therapeutic agents in oncology is presented, along with details on the nanodrugs that were clinically approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), until April 2019. Full article
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