Special Issue "Electronic nose’s, Machine Olfaction and Electronic Tongue’s"

A special issue of Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. James Covington

School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK
Website | E-Mail
Phone: + 44 (0) 24 7657 4494
Fax: + 44 (0) 24 7641 8922
Interests: electronic noses; machine olfaction; medical diagnosis; chemical sensors; MEMS, smart sensor systems; industrial applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Chemosensors focuses on the latest developments in sensors, sensor systems, and applications for electronic noses and electronic tongues. In part, it celebrates 20 years since the first commercialization of the electronic nose, and 35 years since the first research papers on the topic.

Over this period of time, the range of applications that these instruments have been applied to is considerable, covering medical, environmental monitoring, food and beverages, agriculture, security, process control, and mobile sensing. One of its key advantages is being able to simplify and classify complex chemical environments into a simple output, making it almost unique within analytical instruments. This is achieved by mimicking the biological olfactory and taste systems, where chemicals are considered as a whole, instead of individually—as humans do. It is a simple operation, has a relatively low-cost, and real-time operations have made it attractive to researchers. This is seen by the vast numbers of papers in this field, where researchers have been developing their own instruments in parallel to using commercial products.

In this Special Issue, we consider the entirety of the electronic nose and electronic tongue field, looking at new sensors and sensor materials, electronic nose development, data processing, and the applications of electronic noses to real-life applications, as we look to the future of this technology. We are particularly pleased to receive papers using electronic noses and tongues in the medical, environmental, and mobile sensing application domains.

Dr. James Covington
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Chemosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Electronic Nose
  • Electronic Tongue
  • Artificial olfaction
  • Machine olfaction
  • Chemical sensors
  • Sensing materials
  • Machine learning
  • Mobile sensing
  • Environmental monitoring

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Measuring Vapor and Liquid Concentrations for Binary and Ternary Systems in a Microbubble Distillation Unit via Gas Sensors
Chemosensors 2018, 6(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6030031
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 21 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract
A cost effective, fast, and accurate technique was needed to measure the vapor composition of a binary system (ethanol-water) and also that of a liquid composition in a ternary system (acetic acid-acetol–water) in a microbubble distillation unit. Cheap TGS-series gas sensors were used
[...] Read more.
A cost effective, fast, and accurate technique was needed to measure the vapor composition of a binary system (ethanol-water) and also that of a liquid composition in a ternary system (acetic acid-acetol–water) in a microbubble distillation unit. Cheap TGS-series gas sensors were used for this purpose with both calibrations and measurements carried out in a specially designed chamber. A single parameter polynomial regression was fitted to the binary system, and a two parameter polynomial with an interaction term was fitted to the ternary system. The correlation coefficient, R-squared, was found to be greater than 0.99 for both systems, thus validating the implementation of this novel sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic nose’s, Machine Olfaction and Electronic Tongue’s)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Applications of Electronic-Nose Technologies for Noninvasive Early Detection of Plant, Animal and Human Diseases
Chemosensors 2018, 6(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6040045
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 4 October 2018
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Abstract
The development of electronic-nose (e-nose) technologies for disease diagnostics was initiated in the biomedical field for detection of biotic (microbial) causes of human diseases during the mid-1980s. The use of e-nose devices for disease-diagnostic applications subsequently was extended to plant and animal hosts
[...] Read more.
The development of electronic-nose (e-nose) technologies for disease diagnostics was initiated in the biomedical field for detection of biotic (microbial) causes of human diseases during the mid-1980s. The use of e-nose devices for disease-diagnostic applications subsequently was extended to plant and animal hosts through the invention of new gas-sensing instrument types and disease-detection methods with sensor arrays developed and adapted for additional host types and chemical classes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) closely associated with individual diseases. Considerable progress in animal disease detection using e-noses in combination with metabolomics has been accomplished in the field of veterinary medicine with new important discoveries of biomarker metabolites and aroma profiles for major infectious diseases of livestock, wildlife, and fish from both terrestrial and aquaculture pathology research. Progress in the discovery of new e-nose technologies developed for biomedical applications has exploded with new information and methods for diagnostic sampling and disease detection, identification of key chemical disease biomarkers, improvements in sensor designs, algorithms for discriminant analysis, and greater, more widespread testing of efficacy in clinical trials. This review summarizes progressive advancements in utilizing these specialized gas-sensing devices for numerous diagnostic applications involving noninvasive early detections of plant, animal, and human diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic nose’s, Machine Olfaction and Electronic Tongue’s)
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Open AccessReview Stochastic and Temporal Models of Olfactory Perception
Chemosensors 2018, 6(4), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6040044
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 26 September 2018
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Abstract
Olfactory systems typically process signals produced by mixtures composed of very many natural odors, some that can be elicited by single compounds. The several hundred different olfactory receptors aided by several dozen different taste receptors are sufficient to define our complex chemosensory world.
[...] Read more.
Olfactory systems typically process signals produced by mixtures composed of very many natural odors, some that can be elicited by single compounds. The several hundred different olfactory receptors aided by several dozen different taste receptors are sufficient to define our complex chemosensory world. However, sensory processing by selective adaptation and mixture suppression leaves only a few perceptual components recognized at any time. Thresholds determined by stochastic processes are described by functions relating stimulus detection to concentration. Relative saliences of mixture components are established by relating component recognition to concentration in the presence of background components. Mathematically distinct stochastic models of perceptual component dominance in binary mixtures were developed that accommodate prediction of an appropriate range of probabilities from 0 to 1, and include errors in identifications. Prior short-term selective adaptation to some components allows temporally emergent recognition of non-adapted mixture-suppressed components. Thus, broadly tuned receptors are neutralized or suppressed by activation of other more efficacious receptors. This ‘combinatorial’ coding is more a process of subtraction than addition, with the more intense components dominating the perception. It is in this way that complex chemosensory mixtures are reduced to manageable numbers of odor notes and taste qualities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic nose’s, Machine Olfaction and Electronic Tongue’s)
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Open AccessReview From Gas Sensors to Biomimetic Artificial Noses
Chemosensors 2018, 6(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6030032
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the first attempts to mimic the human nose with artificial devices, a variety of sensors have been developed, ranging from simple inorganic and organic gas detectors to biosensing elements incorporating proteins of the biological olfactory system. In order to design a device
[...] Read more.
Since the first attempts to mimic the human nose with artificial devices, a variety of sensors have been developed, ranging from simple inorganic and organic gas detectors to biosensing elements incorporating proteins of the biological olfactory system. In order to design a device able to mimic the human nose, two major issues still need to be addressed regarding the complexity of olfactory coding and the extreme sensitivity of the biological system. So far, only 50 of the approximately 300–400 functioning olfactory receptors have been de-orphanized, still a long way from breaking the human olfactory code. On the other hand, the exceptional sensitivity of the human nose is based on amplification mechanisms difficult to reproduce with electronic circuits, and perhaps novel approaches are required to address this issue. Here, we review the recent literature on chemical sensing both in biological systems and artificial devices, and try to establish the state-of-the-art towards the design of an electronic nose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic nose’s, Machine Olfaction and Electronic Tongue’s)
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Open AccessReview Application of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis in Clinical Practice: Current State and Future Perspectives
Chemosensors 2018, 6(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6030029
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (284 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Increasing interest is noticed in the potential of volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis as non-invasive diagnostic biomarker in clinical medical practice. The spectrum of VOCs, originating from (patho)physiological metabolic processes in the human body and detectable in bodily excrements, such as exhaled breath,
[...] Read more.
Increasing interest is noticed in the potential of volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis as non-invasive diagnostic biomarker in clinical medical practice. The spectrum of VOCs, originating from (patho)physiological metabolic processes in the human body and detectable in bodily excrements, such as exhaled breath, urine and feces, harbors a magnificent source of information. Thus far, the majority of studies have focused on VOC analysis in exhaled breath, aiming at identification of disease-specific VOC profiles. Recently, an increasing number of studies have evaluated the usability of VOC present in the headspace of feces in the diagnostic work-up of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. Promising results have been demonstrated particularly in those diseases in which microbiota alterations are considered to play a significant etiological role, such as colorectal carcinoma, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease and infectious bowel diseases. In addition, fecal VOC analysis seems to have potential as a diagnostic biomarker for extra-intestinal diseases, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia and sepsis. Different methods for VOC analysis have been used in medical studies, such as gas-chromatography mass spectrometry, selected-ion flow tube-mass spectrometry, ion-mobility spectrometry, and electronic nose devices. In this review, the available literature on the potential of fecal VOCs as diagnostic biomarker, including an overview of relevant VOC detection techniques, is discussed. In addition, future hurdles, which need to be taken prior to implementation of VOC analysis in daily clinical practice, are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic nose’s, Machine Olfaction and Electronic Tongue’s)
Open AccessFeature PaperReview Honey Evaluation Using Electronic Tongues: An Overview
Chemosensors 2018, 6(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6030028
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
Honey-rich composition in biologically active compounds makes honey a food products highly appreciated due to the nutritional and healthy properties. Food-manufacturing is very prone to different types of adulterations and fraudulent labelling making it urgent to establish accurate, fast and cost-effective analytical techniques
[...] Read more.
Honey-rich composition in biologically active compounds makes honey a food products highly appreciated due to the nutritional and healthy properties. Food-manufacturing is very prone to different types of adulterations and fraudulent labelling making it urgent to establish accurate, fast and cost-effective analytical techniques for honey assessment. In addition to the classical techniques (e.g., physicochemical analysis, microscopy, chromatography, immunoassay, DNA metabarcoding, spectroscopy), electrochemical based-sensor devices have arisen as reliable and green techniques for food analysis including honey evaluation, allowing in-situ and on-line assessment, being a user-friendly procedure not requiring high technical expertise. In this work, the use of electronic tongues, also known as taste sensor devices, for honey authenticity and assessment is reviewed. Also, the versatility of electronic tongues to qualitative (e.g., botanical and/or geographical origin assessment as well as detection of adulteration) and quantitative (e.g., assessment of adulterants levels, determination of flavonoids levels or antibiotics and insecticides residues, flavonoids) honey analysis is shown. The review is mainly focused on the research outputs reported during the last decade aiming to demonstrate the potentialities of potentiometric and voltammetric multi-sensor devices, pointing out their main advantages and present and future challenges for becoming a practical quality analytical tool at industrial and commercial levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic nose’s, Machine Olfaction and Electronic Tongue’s)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Exploring the Emotion of Disgust: Differences in Smelling and Feeling
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
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Abstract
Disgust evolved to motivate humans away from disease cues and may heighten discernment of these cues. Disease cues are often best perceived through our sense of smell, however very few studies have examined how eliciting disgust influences smell intensity or valence. In two
[...] Read more.
Disgust evolved to motivate humans away from disease cues and may heighten discernment of these cues. Disease cues are often best perceived through our sense of smell, however very few studies have examined how eliciting disgust influences smell intensity or valence. In two novel experiments we investigated how domains of disgust induction influence odor perception. In experiment 1 participants (n = 90) were randomly allocated to one of two kinds of Disgust Induction (DI): Pathogen (DI-P), Moral (DI-M) or a Control (DI-C), followed by an evaluation of three affectively distinct odors (disgust-related, neutral, liked). Using a modified procedure in experiment 2, participants (n = 70) were again randomly assigned to one of the three disgust induction conditions, but here they evaluated one (disgust-related) odor during disgust induction. In experiment 2 we also measured feelings of disgust and anger. In experiment 1, surprisingly, we found overall ratings of odor disgust were lower in the DI-P compared to other groups, whereas in experiment 2, odor disgust was higher in the DI-P versus the DI-M/DI-C conditions, which also differed from each other. We also found that whereas feelings of disgust were higher in DI-P, in contrast, anger was higher for those individuals in the DI-M condition. These findings suggest that compared to a Control condition, inducing state Pathogen and Moral disgust lead to higher perceived odor disgust, whereas feelings of disgust/anger yield divergent effects. The work here also demonstrates that methodologies utilizing odor perception (disgust) can be a useful addition to measuring changes in state disgust. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic nose’s, Machine Olfaction and Electronic Tongue’s)
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