Flavors and Fragrances: Biology, Chemistry and Biotechnology

A special issue of Chemistry (ISSN 2624-8549). This special issue belongs to the section "Biological and Natural Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2022) | Viewed by 12834

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Flavors and fragrances find widespread applications in food, beverages, cosmetics, detergents, and pharmaceutical products. Industrially, world-wide production is estimated to be valued at USD 20 billion.

The majority of these products are prepared through chemical synthesis or by extraction from plants. However, the employment of new biotechnological processes has increased considerably in the last few years. Because different enantiomers of chiral odorants, flavors or fragrances can show different sensory properties (in terms of odor quality and/or intensity), their specific synthesis is valuable. Recently, a great deal of effort in R&D has been devoted to the identification of the active enantiomers of potent odorants, and to their efficient chiral synthesis. In this context, biotechnology (biotransformations using microorganisms and isolated enzymes) represents a useful tool for catalyzing a large number of stereochemical transformations. Furthermore, all major facets of society and economic activities support the choice of environmentally friendly processes, and consumers have developed a preference for “natural” or “organic” products, thus developing a market for flavors and fragrances of biotechnological origin.

For this Issue, we would like to publish original research articles or reviews on all aspects of flavor and fragrance, including isolation and sampling, chemical analyses, preparation, and delivery systems. Articles covering a wide range of topics, such as flavors, fragrances, aromas, essential oils, volatiles, biosynthesis, biotransformation, biotechnology, biological activities, biodegradation, computer-aided flavors, and fragrances design are welcomed for inclusion in this Special Issue of Chemistry.

This Special Issue will offer an attractive forum for professionals from academia and industry to present the state of the art on all aspects of flavors and fragrances. I strongly encourage authors to submit papers for this Special Issue which are within the scope of Chemistry.

Prof. Dr. Luca Forti
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • flavors
  • fragrances
  • aroma
  • essential oil
  • isolation and sampling
  • chemical analysis
  • chiral recognition
  • synthesis
  • biotechnology
  • biotransformation
  • biocatalysis
  • delivery system
  • computer-aided design

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Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 620 KiB  
Article
A Practical Laboratory-Scale Synthesis of All Eight Stereoisomeric Forms of Terpene Linalool Oxide
by Stefano Serra, Davide De Simeis and Sara Papili
Chemistry 2021, 3(4), 1247-1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemistry3040090 - 16 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3145
Abstract
In this work, we describe a user-friendly procedure for the preparation of all the isomeric forms of the terpene linalool oxide. The presented method is based on the transformation of the linalool enantiomers into the corresponding diastereoisomeric mixtures of the two furanoid oxides [...] Read more.
In this work, we describe a user-friendly procedure for the preparation of all the isomeric forms of the terpene linalool oxide. The presented method is based on the transformation of the linalool enantiomers into the corresponding diastereoisomeric mixtures of the two furanoid oxides and two pyranoid oxides. Taking advantage of the different steric hindrance of the hydroxyl functional groups, the pyranoid forms were separated as a diastereoisomeric mixtures of their benzoate esters. Conversely, the cis- and trans-furanoid isomers were transformed in the corresponding acetates, which were directly separated by chromatography. The hydrolysis of the latter esters afforded cis- and trans-furanoid linalool oxides whereas the same reaction performed on the benzoates mixture afforded a separable mixture of cis- and trans-pyranoid linalool oxide. Overall, the method features, as a unique mandatory requirement, the availability of both linalool enantiomers, and can be conveniently performed from a milligram to a multigram scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances: Biology, Chemistry and Biotechnology)
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10 pages, 1457 KiB  
Article
Oxidation of Terpenoids to Achieve High-Value Flavor and Fragrances—Questioning Microalgae Oxidative Capabilities in the Biotransformation of the Sesquiterpene Valencene and of Selected Natural Apocarotenoids
by Davide De Simeis, Stefano Serra, Alessandro Di Fonzo and Francesco Secundo
Chemistry 2021, 3(3), 821-830; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemistry3030059 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3094
Abstract
Natural flavor and fragrance market size is expected to grow steadily due to the rising consumer demand of natural ingredients. This market request is guided by the general opinion that the production of natural compounds leads to a reduction of pollution, with inherent [...] Read more.
Natural flavor and fragrance market size is expected to grow steadily due to the rising consumer demand of natural ingredients. This market request is guided by the general opinion that the production of natural compounds leads to a reduction of pollution, with inherent advantages for the environment and people’s health. The biotransformation reactions have gained high relevance in the production of natural products. In this context, few pieces of research have described the role of microalgae in the oxidation of terpenoids. In this present study, we questioned the role of microalgal based oxidation in the synthesis of high-value flavors and fragrances. This study investigated the role of three different microalgae strains, Chlorella sp. (211.8b and 211.8p) and Chlorococcum sp. (JB3), in the oxidation of different terpenoid substrates: α-ionone, β-ionone, theaspirane and valencene. Unfortunately, the experimental data showed that the microalgal strains used are not responsible for the substrate oxidation. In fact, our experiments demonstrate that the transformation of the four starting compounds is a photochemical reaction that involves the oxygen as oxidant. Even though these findings cast a shadow on the use of these microorganisms for an industrial purpose, they open a new possible strategy to easily obtain nootkatone in a natural way by just using an aqueous medium, oxygen and light. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances: Biology, Chemistry and Biotechnology)
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Review

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27 pages, 3670 KiB  
Review
Occurrence of Marine Ingredients in Fragrance: Update on the State of Knowledge
by Nacera Riad, Mohamed Reda Zahi, Naima Bouzidi, Yasmina Daghbouche, Ouassila Touafek and Mohamed El Hattab
Chemistry 2021, 3(4), 1437-1463; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemistry3040103 - 04 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5340
Abstract
The fragrance field of perfumes has attracted considerable scientific, industrial, cultural, and civilizational interest. The marine odor is characterized by the specific smell of sea breeze, seashore, algae, and oyster, among others. Marine odor is a more recent fragrance and is considered as [...] Read more.
The fragrance field of perfumes has attracted considerable scientific, industrial, cultural, and civilizational interest. The marine odor is characterized by the specific smell of sea breeze, seashore, algae, and oyster, among others. Marine odor is a more recent fragrance and is considered as one of the green and modern fragrances. The smells reproducing the marine environment are described due to their content of Calone 1951 (7-methyl-2H-1,5-benzodioxepin-3(4H)-one), which is a synthetic compound. In addition to the synthetic group of benzodioxepanes, such as Calone 51 and its derivatives, three other groups of chemical compounds seem to represent the marine smell. The first group includes the polyunsaturated cyclic ((+)-Dictyopterene A) and acyclic (giffordene) hydrocarbons, acting as pheromones. The second group corresponds to polyunsaturated aldehydes, such as the (Z,Z)-3,6-nonadienal, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, which are most likely derived from the degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The third group is represented by small molecules such as sulfur compounds and halogenated phenols which are regarded as the main flavor compounds of many types of seafood. This review exposes, most notably, the knowledge state on the occurrence of marine ingredients in fragrance. We also provide a detailed discussion on several aspects of essential oils, which are the most natural ingredients from various marine sources used in fragrance and cosmetics, including synthetic and natural marine ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances: Biology, Chemistry and Biotechnology)
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