Special Issue "Functional Ceramics for Energy Applications"

A special issue of Ceramics (ISSN 2571-6131).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 September 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Kyle G. Webber
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Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
Interests: lead-free ferroelectrics; piezoelectricity; ferroelasticity; fracture of ferroelectrics; relaxors; single crystal ferroelectrics
Prof. Dr. Tor Grande
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
Interests: ceramics processing; chemical solution deposition; phase transitions; piezoelectric ceramics; ferroelastic ceramics; solid state ionic conductors; thermodynamics
Prof. Dr. Mari-Ann Einarsrud
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
Interests: powder synthesis; sol-gel; sintering; texturing; microstructural development; piezoelectrics; thermoelectrics; ionic conductors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Functional materials are generally characterized as materials possessing particular intrinsic properties and functions, such as ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, magnetism, ionic conductivity, or catalytic activity. A major part of functional materials is also classified as ceramic materials, which are of paramount importance for numerous applications such as piezoelectric transducers and oxygen-separation membranes. Although the compositional engineering of functional materials is, in most cases, still dominated by work on bulk materials, current research also focuses on the development of thin films, as well as other more sophisticated forms.

This Special Issue aims to cover research of relevance to functional ceramics for energy applications. Focus will be on novel processing techniques related, in particular, to applications in energy harvesting, conversion, or storage. The scope of this Special Issue includes, without being limited to, the following themes: Processing methods and technologies, proofs of principle of devices, characterization of functional properties, and compositional engineering of functional ceramics. Contributions that provide an overview of the status of sub-groups of functional ceramics are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Kyle G. Webber
Prof. Dr. Tor Grande
Prof. Dr. Mari-Ann Einarsrud
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Ceramics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Ceramics
  • Functional properties
  • Ferroic properties
  • Electrical conductivity
  • Optical properties
  • Ionic conductivity
  • Mixed ionic-electronic conductivity
  • Piezoelectricity
  • Ferroelectricity

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Mechanochemically-Assisted Synthesis of Lead-Free Piezoelectric CaZrO3-Modified (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Ta)O3-Solid Solution
Ceramics 2018, 1(2), 304-318; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics1020024 - 17 Oct 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Lead-free piezoelectric 0.95(Na0.49K0.49Li0.02)(Nb0.8Ta0.2)O3–0.05CaZrO3 with 2 wt % MnO2 addition was prepared using mechanochemically-assisted solid-state synthesis. Upon mechanochemical activation of the mixture of reagents partial amorphization occurs which contributes to [...] Read more.
Lead-free piezoelectric 0.95(Na0.49K0.49Li0.02)(Nb0.8Ta0.2)O3–0.05CaZrO3 with 2 wt % MnO2 addition was prepared using mechanochemically-assisted solid-state synthesis. Upon mechanochemical activation of the mixture of reagents partial amorphization occurs which contributes to a significantly lower temperature of completion of the solid-state reaction, ~600 °C as opposed to ~700 °C for the conventional solid-state synthesis as determined by thermal analysis. The ceramic specimens prepared by the mechanochemically-assisted route exhibit improved compositional homogeneity and slightly enhanced piezoelectric properties, achieved in a considerably shorter processing time compared to the conventional solid-state synthesis route, which was studied as a reference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Ceramics for Energy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Aging on Mechanical Properties of Yttria-Doped Zirconia
Ceramics 2018, 1(2), 287-303; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics1020023 - 12 Oct 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
We evaluated the influence of aging on mechanical properties of 8% yttria-doped zirconia (8YSZ) from room temperature to 1200 K. The temperature dependence of the dynamic Young’s and shear moduli of 8YSZ with and without the aging treatment was investigated by using a [...] Read more.
We evaluated the influence of aging on mechanical properties of 8% yttria-doped zirconia (8YSZ) from room temperature to 1200 K. The temperature dependence of the dynamic Young’s and shear moduli of 8YSZ with and without the aging treatment was investigated by using a resonance method. The dynamic Young’s and shear moduli of 8YSZ without the aging treatment decreased by 33% below 700 K and gradually increased at higher temperatures with increasing temperature. On the other hand, those with the aging treatments decreased by around 20% below 600 K while did not significantly change above 600 K with increasing temperature. These demonstrated the effect of aging on the dynamic Young’s and shear moduli of 8YSZ was most remarkable at intermediate temperatures (600~1000 K). Although it was suggested that the existence ratio of the metastable tetragonal phase was increased during the aging treatment, it is likely that the influence of this phase transition on the dynamic Young’s and shear moduli was not significant. It seemed that the difference in the dynamic Young’s and shear moduli of 8YSZ with and without the aging treatment at intermediate temperatures was due to the local ordering of the oxygen vacancies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Ceramics for Energy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Devitrification Behavior of Sol-Gel Derived ZrO2-SiO2 Rare-Earth Doped Glasses: Correlation between Structural and Optical Properties
Ceramics 2018, 1(2), 274-286; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics1020022 - 07 Oct 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Optical and structural properties of glasses and glass-ceramics (GC) obtained by different heat-treatment of Tb and Tb-Yb doped sol-gel derived 30ZrO2-70SiO2 materials were investigated. A glass was formed after treatment at 700 °C whereas devitrification of the media after the [...] Read more.
Optical and structural properties of glasses and glass-ceramics (GC) obtained by different heat-treatment of Tb and Tb-Yb doped sol-gel derived 30ZrO2-70SiO2 materials were investigated. A glass was formed after treatment at 700 °C whereas devitrification of the media after the treatment at 1000 and 1100 °C, led to the formation of GC containing up to three different crystalline phases, namely, tetragonal ZrO2, Yb-disilicate and cristobalite. The modification of the optical properties through the heat treatment was caused by redistribution of the rare earth elements (REE) among the different phases: both Tb and Yb entered the t-ZrO2 lattice, Yb can also be present in the form of a Yb2Si2O7 crystal. Devitrification led to an increase in Tb→Yb energy transfer efficiency as compared to the glass, though it was higher in the samples heat-treated at 1000 °C than in those treated at 1100 °C. The most intensive Yb3+ luminescence, induced by the energy transfer from the Tb3+ ion, was observed at the interface between t-ZrO2 and the glassy phases, due to the high concentration of REE in this area caused by the inability of ZrO2 to accept larger amounts of the REE. The mechanisms of the Tb→Yb energy transfer vary between different phases of the GC. The results obtained in this study are important for the development of spectral down-converters for potential solar energy applications based on Tb-Yb co-doped glass-ceramics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Ceramics for Energy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Evolution of Copper Electrodes Fabricated by Electroless Plating on BaZr0.7Ce0.2Y0.1O3-δ Proton-Conducting Ceramic Membrane: From Deposition to Testing in Methane
Ceramics 2018, 1(2), 261-273; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics1020021 - 02 Oct 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
We investigated copper electrodes deposited onto a BaZr0.7Ce0.2Y0.1O3-δ (BZCY72) proton-conducting membrane via a novel electroless plating method, which resulted in significantly improved performance when compared to a traditional painted copper electrode. The increased performance was examined [...] Read more.
We investigated copper electrodes deposited onto a BaZr0.7Ce0.2Y0.1O3-δ (BZCY72) proton-conducting membrane via a novel electroless plating method, which resulted in significantly improved performance when compared to a traditional painted copper electrode. The increased performance was examined with a multiscale multitechnique characterization method including time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning spreading-resistance microscopy (SSRM), and atom-probe tomography (APT). Through this method, we observed that a palladium catalyst layer alloys with the copper electrode. We also explored the nature of a non-coking-induced carbon-rich phase that may be involved with the improved performance of the electrode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Ceramics for Energy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrothermal Synthesis, Characterization, and Sintering Behavior of Core-Shell Particles: A Principle Study on Lanthanum Strontium Cobaltite Coated with Nanosized Gadolinium Doped Ceria
Ceramics 2018, 1(2), 246-260; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics1020020 - 02 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this work, nanostructured (La0.6Sr0.4)0.99CoO3 (LSC)-Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 (CGO) core-shell particles were prepared by precipitating CGO nanoparticles on the surface of LSC particles under hydrothermal conditions. The as-prepared core-shell particles were sintered by [...] Read more.
In this work, nanostructured (La0.6Sr0.4)0.99CoO3 (LSC)-Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 (CGO) core-shell particles were prepared by precipitating CGO nanoparticles on the surface of LSC particles under hydrothermal conditions. The as-prepared core-shell particles were sintered by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and conventional sintering, and the microstructure evolution and densification behavior were studied. Dense microstructures were reached using both sintering methods at relatively low temperatures. In the case of SPS, the core-shell architecture was partially maintained and nano-structured CGO grains were formed, while conventional sintering led to the formation of larger CGO grains. This work covers a detailed characterization of (a) the individual LSC-CGO core-shell particles and (b) the composites after densification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Ceramics for Energy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Processing of Tubular Chromite- and Zirconia-Based Oxygen Transport Membranes
Ceramics 2018, 1(2), 229-245; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics1020019 - 29 Sep 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Tubular oxygen transport membranes (OTMs) that can be directly integrated in high temperature processes have a large potential to reduce CO2 emissions. However, the challenging processing of these multilayered tubes, combined with strict material stability requirements, has so far hindered such a [...] Read more.
Tubular oxygen transport membranes (OTMs) that can be directly integrated in high temperature processes have a large potential to reduce CO2 emissions. However, the challenging processing of these multilayered tubes, combined with strict material stability requirements, has so far hindered such a direct integration. We have investigated if a porous support based on (Y2O3)0.03(ZrO2)0.97 (3YSZ) with a dense composite oxygen membrane consisting of (Y2O3)0.01(Sc2O3)0.10(ZrO2)0.89 (10Sc1YSZ) as an ionic conductor and LaCr0.85Cu0.10Ni0.05O3−δ (LCCN) as an electronic conductor could be fabricated as a tubular component, since these materials would provide outstanding chemical and mechanical stability. Tubular components were made by extrusion, dip coating, and co-sintering, and their chemical and mechanical integrity was evaluated. Sufficient gas permeability (≥10−14 m2) and mechanical strength (≥50 MPa) were achieved with extruded 3YSZ porous support tubes. The high co-sintering temperature required to densify the 10ScYSZ/LCCN membrane on the porous support, however, causes challenges related to the evaporation of chromium from the membrane. This chemical degradation caused loss of the LCCN electronic conducting phase and the formation of secondary lanthanum zirconate compounds and fractures. LCCN is therefore not suitable as the electronic conductor in a tubular OTM, unless means to lower the sintering temperature and reduce the chromium evaporation are found that are applicable to the large-scale fabrication of tubular components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Ceramics for Energy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Elastic and Dielectric Evaluation of the Piezoelectric Response of Ferroelectrics Using Unpoled Ceramics
Ceramics 2018, 1(2), 211-228; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics1020018 - 27 Sep 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The evaluation of the piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric ceramics generally has a high level of uncertainty, due to incomplete poling, porosity, domain wall clamping and other effects. In addition, the poling process is often difficult and dangerous, due to the risk of breaking [...] Read more.
The evaluation of the piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric ceramics generally has a high level of uncertainty, due to incomplete poling, porosity, domain wall clamping and other effects. In addition, the poling process is often difficult and dangerous, due to the risk of breaking or damaging the sample. A method is described for the evaluation of the potential intrinsic piezoelectric response that a ceramic would have after full poling, without poling it. The method relies on the fact that any material undergoes an elastic softening below the ferroelectric transition temperature, whose magnitude can be expressed in terms of the intrinsic piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients of the material. Such a softening is equivalent to an electromechanical coupling factor averaged over all the components, due to the unpoled state of the sample, and can be deduced from a single temperature scan of an elastic modulus of a ceramic sample, spanning the ferroelectric and paraelectric states. The strengths, limits and possible applications of the method are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Ceramics for Energy Applications)
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