Special Issue "Proton Therapy For Cancers"

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694). This special issue belongs to the section "Cancer Therapy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Hitoshi Ishikawa
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Department of Radiation Oncology and Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, 2-1-1, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8576, Japan
Interests: radiation oncology; particle therapy using protons and carbon ions; radiation-induced immune reaction; combination therapy of chemotherapy; molecular targeted therapy; immune checkpoint inhibitors with radiation therapy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Although it is well known that dose escalation is one of methods to successfully control many cancers by radiation therapy (RT), dose–volume effects on late toxicities in at-risk organs have been also observed. Protons offer advantageous physical properties for RT, as they can create favorable dose distributions to the target volume using fewer portals compared with photon-based RT. Thus, dose escalation using protons is a reasonable approach to improve cancer control and reduce short- and long-term complications, including the risk of secondary cancers. However, due to limited clinical evidence, proton therapy has long been regarded as a costly RT from an economic point of view. Particle Therapy Co-Operative Group (PTCOG) was founded in 1985 to promote the science, technology, and practical application of particle therapy and, step by step, clinical advantages of proton therapy have been shown through prospective studies.

Recent advances in molecular biology and immunology have allowed us to understand the mechanisms of induction of systemic antitumor effects via radiation-induced cell death, and the combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors with irradiation is of primary focus in radiation oncology. In actuality, there is an abundance of prospective studies of combination therapy. On the other hand, some investigators have revealed that radiation-associated lymphopenia during therapy is associated with poor prognosis, and proton therapy is expected to be a lymphocyte-sparing RT, especially in chemoradiation for esophageal cancer and stage III non-small cell lung cancer.

Based on the accumulation of evidence that demonstrates the efficacy of proton therapy in various cancer treatments, the number of proton therapy facilities has been increasing worldwide. This is in spite of the fact that there still exists the important question regarding whether it provides an overall advantage compared to photon-based RT, which is still under discussion. We are currently facing an important point at which proton therapy can be compared directly with not only other RTs, but also surgery or pharmacotherapy, from several points of view, such as survival, adverse events, QOL, and cost. The Special Issue will highlight the perspective of proton therapy in cancer treatment, covering biology, physics, and economic studies as well as clinical trials.

Prof. Dr. Hitoshi Ishikawa
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cancers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Proton therapy
  • Dose escalation
  • Toxicity
  • Quality of life
  • Radiation-induced immune reaction
  • Image-guided radiation therapy
  • Multimodal treatment

Published Papers (2 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
Optimal Androgen Deprivation Therapy Combined with Proton Beam Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Results from a Multi-Institutional Study of the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group
Cancers 2020, 12(6), 1690; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061690 - 25 Jun 2020
Abstract
Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) combined with radiation therapy benefits intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer (PC) patients. The optimal ADT duration in combination with high-dose proton beam therapy (PBT) remains unknown. Methods: Intermediate- and high-risk PC patients treated with PBT combined with ADT [...] Read more.
Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) combined with radiation therapy benefits intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer (PC) patients. The optimal ADT duration in combination with high-dose proton beam therapy (PBT) remains unknown. Methods: Intermediate- and high-risk PC patients treated with PBT combined with ADT for various durations were analyzed retrospectively. To assess the relationship between ADT and biochemical relapse-free (bRF) rate, Cox proportional hazards models including T stage, prostate specific antigen (PSA) level, Gleason score (GS), and total radiation dose were used. Results: In the intermediate-risk PC patients (n = 520), ADT use improved bRF (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.26–0.93; p = 0.029), especially in those with multiple intermediate-risk factors (T2b–2c, PSA 10–20 ng/mL, and GS 7). In the high-risk PC patients (n = 555), a longer ADT duration (>6 months) conferred a benefit for bRF (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32–0.90; p = 0.018), which was most apparent in patients with multiple high-risk factors (T3a–4, PSA > 20 ng/mL, and GS ≥ 8) treated with ADT for ≥21 months. Conclusions: Short-term (≤6 months) ADT is beneficial for intermediate-risk PC patients, but likely unnecessary for those with a single risk factor, whereas ADT for >6 months is necessary for high-risk PC patients and ADT for ≥21 months might be optimal for those with multiple risk factors in combination of high-dose PBT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proton Therapy For Cancers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Inhibition of ATM Increases the Radiosensitivity of Uveal Melanoma Cells to Photons and Protons
Cancers 2020, 12(6), 1388; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061388 - 28 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Treatment of uveal melanoma (UM) is generally successful, with local primary tumour control being at 90%–95%. Localized radiotherapy in the form of plaque brachytherapy or proton beam radiotherapy is the most common treatment modality in the UK. However, the basic mechanisms of radiation [...] Read more.
Treatment of uveal melanoma (UM) is generally successful, with local primary tumour control being at 90%–95%. Localized radiotherapy in the form of plaque brachytherapy or proton beam radiotherapy is the most common treatment modality in the UK. However, the basic mechanisms of radiation response, DNA repair and tissue reactions in UM have not been well documented previously. We have investigated the comparative radiosensitivity of four UM cell lines in response to exogenous radiation sources (both X-rays and protons), and correlated this with DNA repair protein expression and repair efficiency. We observed a broad range of radiosensitivity of different UM cell lines to X-rays and protons, with increased radioresistance correlating with elevated protein expression of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a protein kinase involved in the signaling and repair of DNA double strand breaks. The use of an ATM inhibitor in UM cell lines enhanced radiosensitivity following both X-ray and proton irradiation, particularly in cells that contained high levels of ATM protein which are otherwise comparatively radioresistant. In proton-irradiated compared with non-irradiated primary enucleated UM patient samples, there was no significant difference in ATM protein expression. Our study therefore suggests that ATM is a potential target for increasing the radiosensitivity of more resistant UM subgroups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proton Therapy For Cancers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop