Special Issue "HPV Associated Cancers"

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2016).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Hextan Y.S. Ngan
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 6th floor, Professorial Block, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China
Interests: HPV in cervical cancer; screening; vaccination; biomolecular study in gynecological cancer; gestational trophoblastic diseases; treatment of gynecological cancers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the major cause of cervical cancer. HPV is also associated with other anogenital tract cancers such as vaginal, vulval, peneal and anal cancers. HPV is also found in esophageal cancer and nasopharyngeal cancers. Our understanding of HPV led to the development of HPV testing in cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination in prevention of anogenital cancers. What is lacking is a cost-effective protocol on the use of HPV testing and how to overcome obstacles in the implementation of HPV vaccination worldwide.

In our understanding of HPV and cancer, there is still a gap on how HPV develops to cancer only in a minority of infections while the majority remain clear. Therapeutic HPV vaccines are promising but lack robust clinical studies to support their use. Understanding how HPV related pathways lead to carcinogenesis may help in developing new targets for treating cervical cancer.

This Special Issue will highlight the role of HPV in different cancers, its clinical application and strategy in prevention and control of cancers. A more basic study on HPV related molecular pathways will advance our understanding of HPV carcinogenesis and help in developing new targets in the prevention and therapy of HPV associated cancer.

Prof. Hextan Y.S. Ngan
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cancers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • HPV
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Anogenital Cancer
  • Head and neck cancer
  • Esophageal cancer
  • Cancer prevention
  • Cancer vaccination
  • Targeted therapy
  • Cancer stem cells
  • Molecular study
  • Carcinogenesis
  • Immunotherapy

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distribution in Invasive Cervical Cancer in Pakistan
Cancers 2016, 8(8), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers8080072 - 30 Jul 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2961
Abstract
Few studies have assessed the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Pakistan. We aim to provide specific information on HPV-type distribution in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in the country. A total of 280 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were consecutively selected from Shaukat [...] Read more.
Few studies have assessed the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Pakistan. We aim to provide specific information on HPV-type distribution in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in the country. A total of 280 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were consecutively selected from Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre (Lahore, Pakistan). HPV-DNA was detected by SPF10 broad-spectrum PCR followed by DNA enzyme immunoassay and genotyping by LiPA25. HPV-DNA prevalence was 87.5% (95%CI: 83.0–91.1), with 96.1% of cases histologically classified as squamous cell carcinoma. Most of the HPV-DNA positive cases presented single infections (95.9%). HPV16 was the most common type followed by HPV18 and 45. Among HPV-DNA positive, a significantly higher contribution of HPV16/18 was detected in Pakistan (78.4%; 72.7–83.3), compared to Asia (71.6%; 69.9–73.4) and worldwide (70.8%; 69.9–71.8) and a lower contribution of HPVs31/33/45/52/58 (11.1%; 7.9–15.7 vs. 19.8%; 18.3–21.3 and 18.5%; 17.7–19.3). HPV18 or HPV45 positive ICC cases were significantly younger than cases infected by HPV16 (mean age: 43.3, 44.4, 50.5 years, respectively). A routine cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination program does not yet exist in Pakistan; however, the country could benefit from national integrated efforts for cervical cancer prevention and control. Calculated estimations based on our results show that current HPV vaccine could potentially prevent new ICC cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HPV Associated Cancers)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Functional Roles of E6 and E7 Oncoproteins in HPV-Induced Malignancies at Diverse Anatomical Sites
Cancers 2016, 8(10), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers8100095 - 19 Oct 2016
Cited by 68 | Viewed by 4793
Abstract
Approximately 200 human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect human epithelial cells, of which the alpha and beta types have been the most extensively studied. Alpha HPV types mainly infect mucosal epithelia and a small group of these causes over 600,000 cancers per year worldwide at [...] Read more.
Approximately 200 human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect human epithelial cells, of which the alpha and beta types have been the most extensively studied. Alpha HPV types mainly infect mucosal epithelia and a small group of these causes over 600,000 cancers per year worldwide at various anatomical sites, especially anogenital and head-and-neck cancers. Of these the most important is cervical cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women in many parts of the world. Beta HPV types infect cutaneous epithelia and may contribute towards the initiation of non-melanoma skin cancers. HPVs encode two oncoproteins, E6 and E7, which are directly responsible for the development of HPV-induced carcinogenesis. They do this cooperatively by targeting diverse cellular pathways involved in the regulation of cell cycle control, of apoptosis and of cell polarity control networks. In this review, the biological consequences of papillomavirus targeting of various cellular substrates at diverse anatomical sites in the development of HPV-induced malignancies are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HPV Associated Cancers)
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Open AccessReview
Current Technologies and Recent Developments for Screening of HPV-Associated Cervical and Oropharyngeal Cancers
Cancers 2016, 8(9), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers8090085 - 09 Sep 2016
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3635
Abstract
Mucosal infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for a growing number of malignancies, predominantly represented by cervical cancer and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Because of the prevalence of the virus, persistence of infection, and long latency period, novel and low-cost methods [...] Read more.
Mucosal infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for a growing number of malignancies, predominantly represented by cervical cancer and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Because of the prevalence of the virus, persistence of infection, and long latency period, novel and low-cost methods are needed for effective population level screening and monitoring. We review established methods for screening of cervical and oral cancer as well as commercially-available techniques for detection of HPV DNA. We then describe the ongoing development of microfluidic nucleic acid-based biosensors to evaluate circulating host microRNAs that are produced in response to an oncogenic HPV infection. The goal is to develop an ideal screening platform that is low-cost, portable, and easy to use, with appropriate signal stability, sensitivity and specificity. Advances in technologies for sample lysis, pre-treatment and concentration, and multiplexed nucleic acid detection are provided. Continued development of these devices provides opportunities for cancer screening in low resource settings, for point-of-care diagnostics and self-screening, and for monitoring response to vaccination or surgical treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HPV Associated Cancers)
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Open AccessReview
HPV Associated Head and Neck Cancer
Cancers 2016, 8(8), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers8080075 - 05 Aug 2016
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 3237
Abstract
Head and neck cancers (HNCs) are a highly heterogeneous group of tumours that are associated with diverse clinical outcomes. Recent evidence has demonstrated that human papillomavirus (HPV) is involved in up to 25% of HNCs; particularly in the oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) subtype where [...] Read more.
Head and neck cancers (HNCs) are a highly heterogeneous group of tumours that are associated with diverse clinical outcomes. Recent evidence has demonstrated that human papillomavirus (HPV) is involved in up to 25% of HNCs; particularly in the oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) subtype where it can account for up to 60% of such cases. HPVs are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect epithelial cells; numerous HPV subtypes, including 16, 18, 31, 33, and 35, drive epithelial cell transformation and tumourigenesis. HPV positive (HPV+) HNC represents a distinct molecular and clinical entity from HPV negative (HPV−) disease; the biological basis for which remains to be fully elucidated. HPV positivity is strongly correlated with a significantly superior outcome; indicating that such tumours should have a distinct management approach. This review focuses on the recent scientific and clinical investigation of HPV+ HNC. In particular, we discuss the importance of molecular and clinical evidence for defining the role of HPV in HNC, and the clinical impact of HPV status as a biomarker for HNC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HPV Associated Cancers)
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Open AccessReview
HPV Positive Head and Neck Cancers: Molecular Pathogenesis and Evolving Treatment Strategies
Cancers 2016, 8(4), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers8040041 - 29 Mar 2016
Cited by 56 | Viewed by 4357
Abstract
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a highly heterogeneous disease that is the result of tobacco and/or alcohol abuse or infection with high-risk Human papillomaviruses. Despite the fact that HPV positive HNSCC cancers form a distinct clinical entity with better treatment [...] Read more.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a highly heterogeneous disease that is the result of tobacco and/or alcohol abuse or infection with high-risk Human papillomaviruses. Despite the fact that HPV positive HNSCC cancers form a distinct clinical entity with better treatment outcome, all HNSCC are currently treated uniformly with the same treatment modality. At present, biologic basis of these different outcomes and their therapeutic influence are areas of intense investigation. In this review, we will summarize the molecular basis for this different outcome, novel treatment opportunities and possible biomarkers for HPV positive HNSCC. In particular, the focus will be on several molecular targeted strategies that can improve the chemoradiation response by influencing DNA repair mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HPV Associated Cancers)
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