Special Issue "Head and Neck Cancer Imaging and Image Analysis"

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694). This special issue belongs to the section "Cancer Causes, Screening and Diagnosis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 November 2022 | Viewed by 4925

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Jan Egger
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria
2. Institute for Computer Graphics and Vision, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria
3. Institute for Artificial Intelligence in Medicine (IKIM), University Hospital Essen (UKE), Essen, Germany
Interests: head and neck cancer; head and neck tumor; 2D and 3D imaging; computed tomography; magnetic resonance imaging; positron emission tomography; computer vision; segmentation; registration; image-guided therapy; machine learning; deep learning; generative adversarial networks; radiomics; big data; visualization; navigation; surgery; clinical practice

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last two decades, head and neck cancer treatment has undergone a remarkable rate of imaging and software-based technological innovation. Imaging modalities, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, are, in general, the first step for cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment decisions. An automatic generation and processing of these image datasets can aid clinicians in all therapy stages, from the data acquisition to a postinterventional follow-up monitoring and cancer prognosis. In this regard, this Special Issue targets the whole pipeline from image acquisition and medical image analysis up to epidemiology and demography studies in the field of head and neck cancer. Authors are invited to submit works in this field regarding imaging and medical image processing, such as segmentation, registration, deep learning, generative adversarial networks, radiomics, and image-guided therapies, but also regarding big data and clinical practice.

Prof. Dr. Jan Egger
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cancers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • head and neck cancer
  • head and neck tumor
  • 2D and 3D imaging
  • computed tomography
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • positron emission tomography
  • computer vision
  • segmentation
  • registration
  • image-guided therapy
  • machine learning
  • deep learning
  • generative adversarial networks
  • radiomics
  • big data
  • visualization
  • navigation
  • surgery
  • clinical practice

Published Papers (7 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Other

Article
Diagnostic Accuracy of High-Grade Intraepithelial Papillary Capillary Loops by Narrow Band Imaging for Early Detection of Oral Malignancy: A Cross-Sectional Clinicopathological Imaging Study
Cancers 2022, 14(10), 2415; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14102415 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 484
Abstract
This study aimed to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of conventional visual inspection (CVI), endoscopic white light imaging (WLI), and narrow-band imaging (NBI) and to examine the diagnostic accuracy of intraepithelial papillary capillary loops (IPCL) for the detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma [...] Read more.
This study aimed to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of conventional visual inspection (CVI), endoscopic white light imaging (WLI), and narrow-band imaging (NBI) and to examine the diagnostic accuracy of intraepithelial papillary capillary loops (IPCL) for the detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This cross-sectional study included 60 participants with oral mucosal diseases suspected of having oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) or OSCC. The patients underwent CVI, WLI, NBI, and incisional biopsy. Images were evaluated to assess the lesion size, color, texture, and IPCL. Oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral leukoplakia lesions were observed in larger areas with NBI than with WLI; 75.0% were associated with low-grade (Type 0–II) IPCL. Various types of oral leukoplakia were seen; however, all OSCC cases showed high-grade (Type III–IV) IPCL. The diagnostic accuracy of high-grade IPCL for OSCC showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of 100%, 80.9%, 59.1%, 100%, and 85.0%, respectively. A non-homogeneous lesion with high-grade IPCL strongly suggested malignancy. Overall, our results indicate that WLI and NBI are powerful tools for detecting precancerous and cancerous lesions using IPCL. However, NBI is influenced by mucosal thickness; therefore, image interpretation is important for accurate diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Head and Neck Cancer Imaging and Image Analysis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Quantitative Multiparametric Ultrasound (mpUS) in the Assessment of Inconclusive Cervical Lymph Nodes
Cancers 2022, 14(7), 1597; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14071597 - 22 Mar 2022
Viewed by 564
Abstract
Background: Enlarged cervical lymph nodes (CLN) are preferably examined by ultrasound (US) by using criteria such as size and echogenicity to assess benign and suspicious CLN, which should be histologically evaluated. This study aims to assess the differentiation of malign and benign CLN [...] Read more.
Background: Enlarged cervical lymph nodes (CLN) are preferably examined by ultrasound (US) by using criteria such as size and echogenicity to assess benign and suspicious CLN, which should be histologically evaluated. This study aims to assess the differentiation of malign and benign CLN by using multiparametric US applications (mpUS). Methods: 101 patients received a standardized US protocol prior to surgical intervention using B-mode–US, shear-wave elastography (SWE) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). SWE was assessed by 2D real-time SWE conducting a minimum of five measurements, CEUS parameters were assessed with post-processing perfusion software. Histopathological confirmation served as the gold standard. Results: B-mode–US and SWE analysis of 104 CLN (36 benign, 68 malignant) showed a significant difference between benign and malignant lesions, presenting a larger long axis and higher tissue stiffness (both p < 0.001). Moreover, tissue stiffness assessed by SWE was significantly higher in CLN with regular B-mode–US criteria (Solbiati Index > 2 and short-axis < 1 cm, p < 0.001). No perfusion parameter on CEUS showed a significant differentiation between benign and malignant CLN. Discussion: As the only multiparametric parameter, SWE showed higher tissue stiffness in malignant CLN, also in subgroups with regular B-mode criteria. This fast and easy application may be a promising noninvasive tool to US examination to ameliorate the sonographic differentiation of inconclusive CLN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Head and Neck Cancer Imaging and Image Analysis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Image and Computerized Tomography Findings Predictive of Facial Nerve Invasion in Patients with Parotid Cancer without Preoperative Facial Weakness—A Retrospective Observational Study
Cancers 2022, 14(4), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14041086 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 448
Abstract
(1) Background: Facial nerve resection with reconstruction helps achieve optimal outcomes in the treatment of facial nerve invasion (FNI) of parotid cancer. Preoperative imaging is crucial to predict facial nerve reconstruction. The radiological findings of CT or MRI may predict FNI in the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Facial nerve resection with reconstruction helps achieve optimal outcomes in the treatment of facial nerve invasion (FNI) of parotid cancer. Preoperative imaging is crucial to predict facial nerve reconstruction. The radiological findings of CT or MRI may predict FNI in the parotid cancer even without facial paralysis. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 151 patients without facial nerve paralysis before surgery who had undergone tumor resection. Previously untreated parotid cancers were included. (2) Results: The median follow-up duration was 62 months (range: 24–120 months). The FNI (+) group (n = 30) showed a significantly worse 5-year overall survival compared with the FNI (−) group (75.5 vs. 93.9%; hazard ratio = 4.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.74–10.08; p = 0.001). The tumor margin, tumor size, presence in the anterolateral parotid region (area 3), retromandibular vein involvement, distance from the stylomastoid foramen to the upper tumor margin, and a high tumor grade were significant factors related to FNI in the univariate analysis. A spiculated tumor margin, the tumor size (2.2 cm), and presence in area 3 were factors predicting FNI in the logistic regression model (p = 0.020, 0.005, and 0.050, respectively; odds ratio: 4.02, 6.40, and 8.16, respectively). (3) Conclusions: The tumor size (≥2.2 cm), spiculated margin, and presence in area 3 as presented in CT and MRI may help clinicians preoperatively predict FNI in patients with parotid cancer and establish an appropriate surgical plan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Head and Neck Cancer Imaging and Image Analysis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Benchmarking Eliminative Radiomic Feature Selection for Head and Neck Lymph Node Classification
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030477 - 18 Jan 2022
Viewed by 593
Abstract
In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) pathologic cervical lymph nodes (LN) remain important negative predictors. Current criteria for LN-classification in contrast-enhanced computed-tomography scans (contrast-CT) are shape-based; contrast-CT imagery allows extraction of additional quantitative data (“features”). The data-driven technique to extract, process, [...] Read more.
In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) pathologic cervical lymph nodes (LN) remain important negative predictors. Current criteria for LN-classification in contrast-enhanced computed-tomography scans (contrast-CT) are shape-based; contrast-CT imagery allows extraction of additional quantitative data (“features”). The data-driven technique to extract, process, and analyze features from contrast-CTs is termed “radiomics”. Extracted features from contrast-CTs at various levels are typically redundant and correlated. Current sets of features for LN-classification are too complex for clinical application. Effective eliminative feature selection (EFS) is a crucial preprocessing step to reduce the complexity of sets identified. We aimed at exploring EFS-algorithms for their potential to identify sets of features, which were as small as feasible and yet retained as much accuracy as possible for LN-classification. In this retrospective cohort-study, which adhered to the STROBE guidelines, in total 252 LNs were classified as “non-pathologic” (n = 70), “pathologic” (n = 182) or “pathologic with extracapsular spread” (n = 52) by two experienced head-and-neck radiologists based on established criteria which served as a reference. The combination of sparse discriminant analysis and genetic optimization retained up to 90% of the classification accuracy with only 10% of the original numbers of features. From a clinical perspective, the selected features appeared plausible and potentially capable of correctly classifying LNs. Both the identified EFS-algorithm and the identified features need further exploration to assess their potential to prospectively classify LNs in HNSCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Head and Neck Cancer Imaging and Image Analysis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effects of Pre-Operative Risk Factors on Intensive Care Unit Length of Stay (ICU-LOS) in Major Oral and Maxillofacial Cancer Surgery
Cancers 2021, 13(16), 3937; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13163937 - 04 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 712
Abstract
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of certain pre-operative parameters directly on the post-operative intensive care unit (ICU)-length of stay (LOS), in order to identify at-risk patients that are expected to need prolonged intensive care management post-operatively. Material and Methods: Retrospectively, [...] Read more.
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of certain pre-operative parameters directly on the post-operative intensive care unit (ICU)-length of stay (LOS), in order to identify at-risk patients that are expected to need prolonged intensive care management post-operatively. Material and Methods: Retrospectively, patients managed in an ICU after undergoing major oral and maxillofacial surgery were analyzed. Inclusion criteria entailed: age 18–90 years, major primary oral cancer surgery including tumor resection, neck dissection and microvascular free flap reconstruction, minimum operation time of 8 h. Exclusion criteria were: benign/borderline tumors, primary radiation, other defect reconstruction than microvascular, treatment at other centers. Separate parameters used within the clinical routine were set in correlation with ICU-LOS, by applying single testing calculations (t-tests, variance analysis, correlation coefficients, effect sizes) and a valid univariate linear regression model. The primary outcome of interest was ICU-LOS. Results: This study included a homogenous cohort of 122 patients. Mean surgery time was 11.4 (±2.2) h, mean ICU-LOS was 3.6 (±2.6) days. Patients with pre-operative renal dysfunction (p < 0.001), peripheral vascular disease-PVD (p = 0.01), increasing heart failure-NYHA stage categories (p = 0.009) and higher-grade categories of post-operative complications (p = 0.023) were identified as at-risk patients for a significantly prolonged post-operative ICU-LOS. Conclusions: At-risk patients are prone to need a significantly longer ICU-LOS than others. These patients are those with pre-operative severe renal dysfunction, PVD and/or high NYHA stage categories. Confounding parameters that contribute to a prolonged ICU-LOS in combination with other variables were identified as higher age, prolonged operative time, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and intra-operatively transfused blood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Head and Neck Cancer Imaging and Image Analysis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Impact of Planning Method (Conventional versus Virtual) on Time to Therapy Initiation and Resection Margins: A Retrospective Analysis of 104 Immediate Jaw Reconstructions
Cancers 2021, 13(12), 3013; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13123013 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 702
Abstract
Virtual surgical planning (VSP) and patient-specific implants are currently increasing for immediate jaw reconstruction after ablative oncologic surgery. This technique contributes to more accurate and efficient preoperative planning and shorter operation time. The present retrospective, single-center study analyzes the influence of time delay [...] Read more.
Virtual surgical planning (VSP) and patient-specific implants are currently increasing for immediate jaw reconstruction after ablative oncologic surgery. This technique contributes to more accurate and efficient preoperative planning and shorter operation time. The present retrospective, single-center study analyzes the influence of time delay caused by VSP vs. conventional (non-VSP) reconstruction planning on the soft and hard tissue resection margins for necessary oncologic safety. A total number of 104 cases of immediate jaw reconstruction with free fibula flap are included in the present study. The selected method of reconstruction (conventionally, non-VSP: n = 63; digitally, VSP: n = 41) are analyzed in detail. The study reveals a statistically significant (p = 0.008) prolonged time to therapy initiation with a median of 42 days when the VSP method compared with non-VSP (31.0 days) is used. VSP did not significantly affect bony or soft tissue resection margin status. Apart from this observation, no significant differences concerning local tumor recurrence, lymph node, and distant metastases rates are found according to the reconstruction method, and affect soft or bone tissue resection margins. Thus, we conclude that VSP for immediate jaw reconstruction is safe for oncological purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Head and Neck Cancer Imaging and Image Analysis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research

Systematic Review
Role of Texture Analysis in Oropharyngeal Carcinoma: A Systematic Review of the Literature
Cancers 2022, 14(10), 2445; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14102445 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 535
Abstract
Human papilloma virus infection (HPV) is associated with the development of lingual and palatine tonsil carcinomas. Diagnosing, differentiating HPV-positive from HPV-negative cancers, and assessing the presence of lymph node metastases or recurrences by the visual interpretation of images is not easy. Texture analysis [...] Read more.
Human papilloma virus infection (HPV) is associated with the development of lingual and palatine tonsil carcinomas. Diagnosing, differentiating HPV-positive from HPV-negative cancers, and assessing the presence of lymph node metastases or recurrences by the visual interpretation of images is not easy. Texture analysis can provide structural information not perceptible to human eyes. A systematic literature search was performed on 16 February 2022 for studies with a focus on texture analysis in oropharyngeal cancers. We conducted the research on PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science platforms. Studies were screened for inclusion according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews. Twenty-six studies were included in our review. Nineteen articles related specifically to the oropharynx and seven articles analysed the head and neck area with sections dedicated to the oropharynx. Six, thirteen, and seven articles used MRI, CT, and PET, respectively, as the imaging techniques by which texture analysis was performed. Regarding oropharyngeal tumours, this review delineates the applications of texture analysis in (1) the diagnosis, prognosis, and assessment of disease recurrence or persistence after therapy, (2) early differentiation of HPV-positive versus HPV-negative cancers, (3) the detection of cancers not visualised by imaging alone, and (4) the assessment of lymph node metastases from unknown primary carcinomas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Head and Neck Cancer Imaging and Image Analysis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop