Topical Collection "Collection on Developmental Neuroscience"

A topical collection in Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This collection belongs to the section "Developmental Neuroscience".

Editor

Collection Editor
Dr. Mark Burke

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: neurodevelopment, neurogenesis; HIV; fetal alcohol exposure; hippocampus; cognitive impairment

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The mission of the Developmental Neuroscience Section is to publish articles that identify the mechanisms of neurodevelopmental processes, both normal and those that cause aberrant development leading to neurological disorders, from gestation through adolescence, which set the foundation of the adult configuration. The scope of this section includes a broad multidisciplinary approach to understanding clinical and basic aspects of neurodevelopment, as such, behavioral, cognitive, molecular, genetic, epigenetic and imaging studies are particularly welcome.

Dr. Mark Burke
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Brain Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 850 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (3 papers)

2019

Open AccessReview
Peer Victimization and Onset of Social Anxiety Disorder in Children and Adolescents
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(6), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9060132
Received: 3 May 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 6 June 2019
PDF Full-text (662 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: In the literature, several studies have proposed that children and adolescents with social anxiety had experienced previously victimization from peers and siblings. The aim of this review was to contribute to the updating of recent findings about the relationship between peer victimization [...] Read more.
Background: In the literature, several studies have proposed that children and adolescents with social anxiety had experienced previously victimization from peers and siblings. The aim of this review was to contribute to the updating of recent findings about the relationship between peer victimization and onset of social anxiety in children and adolescents. Methods: A selective review of literature published between 2011 and 2018 on Social Anxiety Disorder in children and adolescents that experienced peer victimization during childhood and adolescence. Results: Seventeen studies are included. All studies showed that peer victimization is positively correlated to the presence of social anxiety. Moreover, the perpetration of peer victimization may contribute to the maintenance and the exacerbation of social anxiety symptoms. Conclusions: In children and adolescents with Social Anxiety Disorder, it is necessary to evaluate firstly the presence of peer victimization experiences. Subsequently, therapeutics programs targeted to elaborate these experiences and to reduce the anticipatory anxiety and the avoidance that characterized these children and adolescents can be proposed. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Parallel Emergence of a Compartmentalized Striatum with the Phylogenetic Development of the Cerebral Cortex
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040090
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
PDF Full-text (879 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The intricate neuronal architecture of the striatum plays a pivotal role in the functioning of the basal ganglia circuits involved in the control of various aspects of motor, cognitive, and emotional functions. Unlike the cerebral cortex, which has a laminar structure, the striatum [...] Read more.
The intricate neuronal architecture of the striatum plays a pivotal role in the functioning of the basal ganglia circuits involved in the control of various aspects of motor, cognitive, and emotional functions. Unlike the cerebral cortex, which has a laminar structure, the striatum is primarily composed of two functional subdivisions (i.e., the striosome and matrix compartments) arranged in a mosaic fashion. This review addresses whether striatal compartmentalization is present in non-mammalian vertebrates, in which simple cognitive and behavioral functions are executed by primitive sensori-motor systems. Studies show that neuronal subpopulations that share neurochemical and connective properties with striosomal and matrix neurons are present in the striata of not only anamniotes (fishes and amphibians), but also amniotes (reptiles and birds). However, these neurons do not form clearly segregated compartments in these vertebrates, suggesting that such compartmentalization is unique to mammals. In the ontogeny of the mammalian forebrain, the later-born matrix neurons disperse the early-born striosome neurons into clusters to form the compartments in tandem with the development of striatal afferents from the cortex. We propose that striatal compartmentalization in mammals emerged in parallel with the evolution of the cortex and possibly enhanced complex processing of sensory information and behavioral flexibility phylogenetically. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Reasoning on Figurative Language: A Preliminary Study on Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Klinefelter Syndrome
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030058
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 2 March 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
PDF Full-text (912 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study we explored metaphor and idiom competencies in two clinical populations, children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with Klinefelter syndrome (KS), (age range: 9–12), compared to typically developing (TD) children of the same age. These three groups were tested [...] Read more.
In this study we explored metaphor and idiom competencies in two clinical populations, children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with Klinefelter syndrome (KS), (age range: 9–12), compared to typically developing (TD) children of the same age. These three groups were tested with two multiple-choice tests assessing idiom comprehension through iconic and verbal alternatives and a metaphor comprehension test composed of novel, physical-psychological metaphors, requesting verbal explanations. To these instruments, another test was added, assessing basic sentence comprehension. Performances on the different linguistic tasks were examined by means of discriminant analysis which showed that idiom comprehension had a very small weight in distinguishing children with ASD from TD controls, whereas metaphor explanation did distinguish them. This study suggests that figurative language comprehension is not a “core deficit” per se in individuals with ASD. Only when the task requires to explicitly construct and explain a semantic mapping between the two terms of a metaphor does the performance of children with ASD significantly deviate from the typical population. These results are interpreted in terms of a difficulty in children with ASD and KS with complex cognitive and linguistic processes and also in relation with clinical assessment. Full article
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Figure 1

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