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Parallel Emergence of a Compartmentalized Striatum with the Phylogenetic Development of the Cerebral Cortex

1
Department of Neurosurgery, Kumamoto University Medical School, Kumamoto 860-8556, Japan
2
Department of Neurodegenerative Disorders Research, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tokushima University, Tokushima 770-8503, Japan
3
Parkinson’s Disease and Dystonia Research Center, Tokushima University Hospital, Tokushima University, Tokushima 770-8503, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040090
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Collection on Developmental Neuroscience)
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Abstract

The intricate neuronal architecture of the striatum plays a pivotal role in the functioning of the basal ganglia circuits involved in the control of various aspects of motor, cognitive, and emotional functions. Unlike the cerebral cortex, which has a laminar structure, the striatum is primarily composed of two functional subdivisions (i.e., the striosome and matrix compartments) arranged in a mosaic fashion. This review addresses whether striatal compartmentalization is present in non-mammalian vertebrates, in which simple cognitive and behavioral functions are executed by primitive sensori-motor systems. Studies show that neuronal subpopulations that share neurochemical and connective properties with striosomal and matrix neurons are present in the striata of not only anamniotes (fishes and amphibians), but also amniotes (reptiles and birds). However, these neurons do not form clearly segregated compartments in these vertebrates, suggesting that such compartmentalization is unique to mammals. In the ontogeny of the mammalian forebrain, the later-born matrix neurons disperse the early-born striosome neurons into clusters to form the compartments in tandem with the development of striatal afferents from the cortex. We propose that striatal compartmentalization in mammals emerged in parallel with the evolution of the cortex and possibly enhanced complex processing of sensory information and behavioral flexibility phylogenetically. View Full-Text
Keywords: compartmentalization; matrix; striosome; phylogenetic development: striatum; vertebrate compartmentalization; matrix; striosome; phylogenetic development: striatum; vertebrate
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Hamasaki, T.; Goto, S. Parallel Emergence of a Compartmentalized Striatum with the Phylogenetic Development of the Cerebral Cortex. Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 90.

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