Special Issue "Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications"

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2016).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Tipu Aziz
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Guest Editor
Department of Neurosurgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Interests: Parkinson’s disease; movement disorders; pain; functional neurosurgery
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Alex Green
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Interests: Deep Brain Stimulation; Spinal Cord Stimulation; Neuromodulation; Pain; Autonomic; Movement Disorders
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We would like to invite you to contribute an article to a Special Issue of Brain Sciences. The issue is dedicated to applications of Deep Brain Stimulation and, in this issue, we would like to highlight the new developments that are taking place in the field. These include the application of new technology to existing indications, as well as ‘new’ indications. We would also like to highlight the most recent clinical evidence from international multicentre trials. The issue will include articles relating to movement disorders, pain, psychiatric indications, as well as emerging indications that are not yet accompanied by clinical evidence. We look forward to your expert contribution to this exciting issue.

Prof. Dr. Tipu Aziz
Dr. Alex Green
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Deep Brain Stimulation
  • Movement Disorders
  • Pain
  • Novel Technology

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Using “Functional” Target Coordinates of the Subthalamic Nucleus to Assess the Indirect and Direct Methods of the Preoperative Planning: Do the Anatomical and Functional Targets Coincide?
Brain Sci. 2016, 6(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci6040065 - 21 Dec 2016
Cited by 8
Abstract
Objective: To answer the question of whether the anatomical center of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), as calculated indirectly from stereotactic atlases or by direct visualization on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), corresponds to the best functional target. Since the neighboring red nucleus (RN) is [...] Read more.
Objective: To answer the question of whether the anatomical center of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), as calculated indirectly from stereotactic atlases or by direct visualization on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), corresponds to the best functional target. Since the neighboring red nucleus (RN) is well visualized on MRI, we studied the relationships of the final target to its different borders. Methods: We analyzed the data of 23 PD patients (46 targets) who underwent bilateral frame-based STN deep brain stimulation (DBS) procedure with microelectrode recording guidance. We calculated coordinates of the active contact on DBS electrode on postoperative MRI, which we referred to as the final “functional/optimal” target. The coordinates calculated by the atlas-based “indirect” and “direct” methods, as well as the coordinates of the different RN borders were compared to these final coordinates. Results: The mean ± SD of the final target coordinates was 11.7 ± 1.5 mm lateral (X), 2.4 ± 1.5 mm posterior (Y), and 6.1 ± 1.7 mm inferior to the mid-commissural point (Z). No significant differences were found between the “indirect” X, Z coordinates and those of the final targets. The “indirect” Y coordinate was significantly posterior to Y of the final target, with mean difference of 0.6 mm (p = 0.014). No significant differences were found between the “direct” X, Y, and Z coordinates and those of the final targets. Conclusions: The functional STN target is located in direct proximity to its anatomical center. During preoperative targeting, we recommend using the “direct” method, and taking into consideration the relationships of the final target to the mid-commissural point (MCP) and the different RN borders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Improvement of Advanced Parkinson’s Disease Manifestations with Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus: A Single Institution Experience
Brain Sci. 2016, 6(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci6040058 - 13 Dec 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
We present our experience at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) in deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), describing our surgical technique, and reporting our clinical results, and morbidities. Twenty patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD) who underwent bilateral [...] Read more.
We present our experience at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) in deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), describing our surgical technique, and reporting our clinical results, and morbidities. Twenty patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD) who underwent bilateral STN-DBS were studied. Patients were assessed preoperatively and followed up for one year using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) in “on” and “off” medication and “on” and “off” stimulation conditions. At one-year follow-up, we calculated significant improvement in all the motor aspects of PD (UPDRS III) and in activities of daily living (UPDRS II) in the “off” medication state. The “off” medication UPDRS improved by 49.3%, tremors improved by 81.6%, rigidity improved by 50.0%, and bradykinesia improved by 39.3%. The “off” medication UPDRS II scores improved by 73.8%. The Levodopa equivalent daily dose was reduced by 54.1%. The UPDRS IVa score (dyskinesia) was reduced by 65.1%. The UPDRS IVb score (motor fluctuation) was reduced by 48.6%. Deep brain stimulation of the STN improves the cardinal motor manifestations of the idiopathic PD. It also improves activities of daily living, and reduces medication-induced complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Task- and Dopamine-Dependent Dynamics of Subthalamic Local Field Potentials in Parkinson’s Disease
Brain Sci. 2016, 6(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci6040057 - 29 Nov 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
Subthalamic nucleus (STN) local field potentials (LFP) are neural signals that have been shown to reveal motor and language behavior, as well as pathological parkinsonian states. We use a research-grade implantable neurostimulator (INS) with data collection capabilities to record STN-LFP outside the operating [...] Read more.
Subthalamic nucleus (STN) local field potentials (LFP) are neural signals that have been shown to reveal motor and language behavior, as well as pathological parkinsonian states. We use a research-grade implantable neurostimulator (INS) with data collection capabilities to record STN-LFP outside the operating room to determine the reliability of the signals over time and assess their dynamics with respect to behavior and dopaminergic medication. Seven subjects were implanted with the recording augmented deep brain stimulation (DBS) system, and bilateral STN-LFP recordings were collected in the clinic over twelve months. Subjects were cued to perform voluntary motor and language behaviors in on and off medication states. The STN-LFP recorded with the INS demonstrated behavior-modulated desynchronization of beta frequency (13–30 Hz) and synchronization of low gamma frequency (35–70 Hz) oscillations. Dopaminergic medication did not diminish the relative beta frequency oscillatory desynchronization with movement. However, movement-related gamma frequency oscillatory synchronization was only observed in the medication on state. We observed significant inter-subject variability, but observed consistent STN-LFP activity across recording systems and over a one-year period for each subject. These findings demonstrate that an INS system can provide robust STN-LFP recordings in ambulatory patients, allowing for these signals to be recorded in settings that better represent natural environments in which patients are in a variety of medication states. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Vocal Tremor: Novel Therapeutic Target for Deep Brain Stimulation
Brain Sci. 2016, 6(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci6040048 - 10 Oct 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
Tremulous voice is characteristically associated with essential tremor, and is referred to as essential vocal tremor (EVT). Current estimates suggest that up to 40% of individuals diagnosed with essential tremor also present with EVT, which is associated with an impaired quality of life. [...] Read more.
Tremulous voice is characteristically associated with essential tremor, and is referred to as essential vocal tremor (EVT). Current estimates suggest that up to 40% of individuals diagnosed with essential tremor also present with EVT, which is associated with an impaired quality of life. Traditional EVT treatments have demonstrated limited success in long-term management of symptoms. However, voice tremor has been noted to decrease in patients receiving deep brain stimulation (DBS) with the targeting of thalamic nuclei. In this study, we describe our multidisciplinary procedure for awake, frameless DBS with optimal stimulation targets as well as acoustic analysis and laryngoscopic assessment to quantify tremor reduction. Finally, we investigate the most recent clinical evidence regarding the procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Investigation into Deep Brain Stimulation Lead Designs: A Patient-Specific Simulation Study
Brain Sci. 2016, 6(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci6030039 - 07 Sep 2016
Cited by 18
Abstract
New deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode designs offer operation in voltage and current mode and capability to steer the electric field (EF). The aim of the study was to compare the EF distributions of four DBS leads at equivalent amplitudes (3 V and [...] Read more.
New deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode designs offer operation in voltage and current mode and capability to steer the electric field (EF). The aim of the study was to compare the EF distributions of four DBS leads at equivalent amplitudes (3 V and 3.4 mA). Finite element method (FEM) simulations (n = 38) around cylindrical contacts (leads 3389, 6148) or equivalent contact configurations (leads 6180, SureStim1) were performed using homogeneous and patient-specific (heterogeneous) brain tissue models. Steering effects of 6180 and SureStim1 were compared with symmetric stimulation fields. To make relative comparisons between simulations, an EF isolevel of 0.2 V/mm was chosen based on neuron model simulations (n = 832) applied before EF visualization and comparisons. The simulations show that the EF distribution is largely influenced by the heterogeneity of the tissue, and the operating mode. Equivalent contact configurations result in similar EF distributions. In steering configurations, larger EF volumes were achieved in current mode using equivalent amplitudes. The methodology was demonstrated in a patient-specific simulation around the zona incerta and a “virtual” ventral intermediate nucleus target. In conclusion, lead design differences are enhanced when using patient-specific tissue models and current stimulation mode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Deep Brain Stimulation of the Basolateral Amygdala: Targeting Technique and Electrodiagnostic Findings
Brain Sci. 2016, 6(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci6030028 - 10 Aug 2016
Cited by 11
Abstract
The amygdala plays a critical role in emotion regulation. It could prove to be an effective neuromodulation target in the treatment of psychiatric conditions characterized by failure of extinction. We aim to describe our targeting technique, and intra-operative and post-operative electrodiagnostic findings associated [...] Read more.
The amygdala plays a critical role in emotion regulation. It could prove to be an effective neuromodulation target in the treatment of psychiatric conditions characterized by failure of extinction. We aim to describe our targeting technique, and intra-operative and post-operative electrodiagnostic findings associated with the placement of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes in the amygdala. We used a transfrontal approach to implant DBS electrodes in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLn) of a patient suffering from severe post-traumatic stress disorder. We used microelectrode recording (MER) and awake intra-operative neurostimulation to assist with the placement. Post-operatively, the patient underwent monthly surveillance electroencephalograms (EEG). MER predicted the trajectory of the electrode through the amygdala. The right BLn showed a higher spike frequency than the left BLn. Intra-operative neurostimulation of the BLn elicited pleasant memories. The monthly EEG showed the presence of more sleep patterns over time with DBS. BLn DBS electrodes can be placed using a transfrontal approach. MER can predict the trajectory of the electrode in the amygdala and it may reflect the BLn neuronal activity underlying post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD. The EEG findings may underscore the reduction in anxiety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications) Printed Edition available
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Review

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Open AccessReview
A Neurophysiological Perspective on a Preventive Treatment against Schizophrenia Using Transcranial Electric Stimulation of the Corticothalamic Pathway
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(4), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci7040034 - 28 Mar 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
Schizophrenia patients are waiting for a treatment free of detrimental effects. Psychotic disorders are devastating mental illnesses associated with dysfunctional brain networks. Ongoing brain network gamma frequency (30–80 Hz) oscillations, naturally implicated in integrative function, are excessively amplified during hallucinations, in at-risk mental [...] Read more.
Schizophrenia patients are waiting for a treatment free of detrimental effects. Psychotic disorders are devastating mental illnesses associated with dysfunctional brain networks. Ongoing brain network gamma frequency (30–80 Hz) oscillations, naturally implicated in integrative function, are excessively amplified during hallucinations, in at-risk mental states for psychosis and first-episode psychosis. So, gamma oscillations represent a bioelectrical marker for cerebral network disorders with prognostic and therapeutic potential. They accompany sensorimotor and cognitive deficits already present in prodromal schizophrenia. Abnormally amplified gamma oscillations are reproduced in the corticothalamic systems of healthy humans and rodents after a single systemic administration, at a psychotomimetic dose, of the glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine. These translational ketamine models of prodromal schizophrenia are thus promising to work out a preventive noninvasive treatment against first-episode psychosis and chronic schizophrenia. In the present essay, transcranial electric stimulation (TES) is considered an appropriate preventive therapeutic modality because it can influence cognitive performance and neural oscillations. Here, I highlight clinical and experimental findings showing that, together, the corticothalamic pathway, the thalamus, and the glutamatergic synaptic transmission form an etiopathophysiological backbone for schizophrenia and represent a potential therapeutic target for preventive TES of dysfunctional brain networks in at-risk mental state patients against psychotic disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Surgical Neurostimulation for Spinal Cord Injury
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci7020018 - 10 Feb 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological condition characterized by a constellation of symptoms including paralysis, paraesthesia, pain, cardiovascular, bladder, bowel and sexual dysfunction. Current treatment for SCI involves acute resuscitation, aggressive rehabilitation and symptomatic treatment for complications. Despite the progress [...] Read more.
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological condition characterized by a constellation of symptoms including paralysis, paraesthesia, pain, cardiovascular, bladder, bowel and sexual dysfunction. Current treatment for SCI involves acute resuscitation, aggressive rehabilitation and symptomatic treatment for complications. Despite the progress in scientific understanding, regenerative therapies are lacking. In this review, we outline the current state and future potential of invasive and non-invasive neuromodulation strategies including deep brain stimulation (DBS), spinal cord stimulation (SCS), motor cortex stimulation (MCS), transcutaneous direct current stimulation (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the context of SCI. We consider the ability of these therapies to address pain, sensorimotor symptoms and autonomic dysregulation associated with SCI. In addition to the potential to make important contributions to SCI treatment, neuromodulation has the added ability to contribute to our understanding of spinal cord neurobiology and the pathophysiology of SCI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Single Electrode Deep Brain Stimulation with Dual Targeting at Dual Frequency for the Treatment of Chronic Pain: A Case Series and Review of the Literature
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci7010009 - 13 Jan 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) has been used to target many deep brain structures for the treatment of chronic pain. The periaqueductal grey and periventricular grey (PAG/PVG) is an effective target but results are variable, sometimes short-lived or subject to tolerance. The centromedian intra-laminar [...] Read more.
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) has been used to target many deep brain structures for the treatment of chronic pain. The periaqueductal grey and periventricular grey (PAG/PVG) is an effective target but results are variable, sometimes short-lived or subject to tolerance. The centromedian intra-laminar parafascicular complex (CMPf) modulates medial pain pathways and CMPf DBS may address the affective aspects of pain perception. Stimulation of multiple deep brain targets may offer a strategy to optimize management of patients with complex pain symptomatology. However, previous attempts to stimulate multiple targets requires multiple trajectories and considerable expense. Using a single electrode to stimulate multiple targets would help overcome these challenges. A pre-requisite of such a technique is the ability to use different stimulation parameters at different contacts simultaneously on the same electrode. We describe a novel technique in 3 patients with chronic pain syndromes for whom conventional medical and/or neuromodulation therapy had failed using a single electrode technique to stimulate PVG/PAG and CMPf at dual frequencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Rescue Procedures after Suboptimal Deep Brain Stimulation Outcomes in Common Movement Disorders
Brain Sci. 2016, 6(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci6040046 - 08 Oct 2016
Cited by 7
Abstract
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a unique, functional neurosurgical therapy indicated for medication refractory movement disorders as well as some psychiatric diseases. Multicontact electrodes are placed in “deep” structures within the brain with targets varying depending on the surgical indication. An implanted programmable [...] Read more.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a unique, functional neurosurgical therapy indicated for medication refractory movement disorders as well as some psychiatric diseases. Multicontact electrodes are placed in “deep” structures within the brain with targets varying depending on the surgical indication. An implanted programmable pulse generator supplies the electrodes with a chronic, high frequency electrical current that clinically mimics the effects of ablative lesioning techniques. DBS’s efficacy has been well established for its movement disorder indications (Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia). However, clinical outcomes are sometimes suboptimal, even in the absence of common, potentially reversible complications such as hardware complications, infection, poor electrode placement, and poor programming parameters. This review highlights some of the rescue procedures that have been explored in suboptimal DBS cases for Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. To date, the data is limited and difficult to generalize, but a large majority of published reports demonstrate positive results. The decision to proceed with such treatments should be made on a case by case basis. Larger studies are needed to clearly establish the benefit of rescue procedures and to establish for which patient populations they may be most appropriate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview
Deep Brain Stimulation in Huntington’s Disease—Preliminary Evidence on Pathophysiology, Efficacy and Safety
Brain Sci. 2016, 6(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci6030038 - 30 Aug 2016
Cited by 19
Abstract
Huntington’s disease (HD) is one of the most disabling degenerative movement disorders, as it not only affects the motor system but also leads to cognitive disabilities and psychiatric symptoms. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the pallidum is a promising symptomatic treatment targeting the [...] Read more.
Huntington’s disease (HD) is one of the most disabling degenerative movement disorders, as it not only affects the motor system but also leads to cognitive disabilities and psychiatric symptoms. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the pallidum is a promising symptomatic treatment targeting the core motor symptom: chorea. This article gives an overview of preliminary evidence on pathophysiology, safety and efficacy of DBS in HD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
The Use of Deep Brain Stimulation in Tourette Syndrome
Brain Sci. 2016, 6(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci6030035 - 19 Aug 2016
Cited by 16
Abstract
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood neurobehavioural disorder, characterised by the presence of motor and vocal tics, typically starting in childhood but persisting in around 20% of patients into adulthood. In those patients who do not respond to pharmacological or behavioural therapy, deep [...] Read more.
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood neurobehavioural disorder, characterised by the presence of motor and vocal tics, typically starting in childhood but persisting in around 20% of patients into adulthood. In those patients who do not respond to pharmacological or behavioural therapy, deep brain stimulation (DBS) may be a suitable option for potential symptom improvement. This manuscript attempts to summarise the outcomes of DBS at different targets, explore the possible mechanisms of action of DBS in TS, as well as the potential of adaptive DBS. There will also be a focus on the future challenges faced in designing optimized trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Deep Brain Stimulation Frequency—A Divining Rod for New and Novel Concepts of Nervous System Function and Therapy
Brain Sci. 2016, 6(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci6030034 - 17 Aug 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
The efficacy of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) for an expanding array of neurological and psychiatric disorders demonstrates directly that DBS affects the basic electroneurophysiological mechanisms of the brain. The increasing array of active electrode configurations, stimulation currents, pulse widths, frequencies, and pulse patterns [...] Read more.
The efficacy of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) for an expanding array of neurological and psychiatric disorders demonstrates directly that DBS affects the basic electroneurophysiological mechanisms of the brain. The increasing array of active electrode configurations, stimulation currents, pulse widths, frequencies, and pulse patterns provides valuable tools to probe electroneurophysiological mechanisms. The extension of basic electroneurophysiological and anatomical concepts using sophisticated computational modeling and simulation has provided relatively straightforward explanations of all the DBS parameters except frequency. This article summarizes current thought about frequency and relevant observations. Current methodological and conceptual errors are critically examined in the hope that future work will not replicate these errors. One possible alternative theory is presented to provide a contrast to many current theories. DBS, conceptually, is a noisy discrete oscillator interacting with the basal ganglia–thalamic–cortical system of multiple re-entrant, discrete oscillators. Implications for positive and negative resonance, stochastic resonance and coherence, noisy synchronization, and holographic memory (related to movement generation) are presented. The time course of DBS neuronal responses demonstrates evolution of the DBS response consistent with the dynamics of re-entrant mechanisms. Finally, computational modeling demonstrates identical dynamics as seen by neuronal activities recorded from human and nonhuman primates, illustrating the differences of discrete from continuous harmonic oscillators and the power of conceptualizing the nervous system as composed on interacting discrete nonlinear oscillators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on Autonomic Function
Brain Sci. 2016, 6(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci6030033 - 16 Aug 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
Over the course of the development of deep brain stimulation (DBS) into a well-established therapy for Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia, its utility as a potential treatment for autonomic dysfunction has emerged. Dysfunction of autonomic processes is common in neurological diseases. Depending [...] Read more.
Over the course of the development of deep brain stimulation (DBS) into a well-established therapy for Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia, its utility as a potential treatment for autonomic dysfunction has emerged. Dysfunction of autonomic processes is common in neurological diseases. Depending on the specific target in the brain, DBS has been shown to raise or lower blood pressure, normalize the baroreflex, to alter the caliber of bronchioles, and eliminate hyperhidrosis, all through modulation of the sympathetic nervous system. It has also been shown to improve cortical control of the bladder, directly induce or inhibit the micturition reflex, and to improve deglutition and gastric emptying. In this review, we will attempt to summarize the relevant available studies describing these effects of DBS on autonomic function, which vary greatly in character and magnitude with respect to stimulation target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications) Printed Edition available
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
DBS for Obesity
Brain Sci. 2016, 6(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci6030021 - 18 Jul 2016
Cited by 11
Abstract
Obesity is a chronic, progressive and prevalent disorder. Morbid obesity, in particular, is associated with numerous comorbidities and early mortality. In patients with morbid obesity, pharmacological and behavioral approaches often have limited results. Bariatric surgery is quite effective but is associated with operative [...] Read more.
Obesity is a chronic, progressive and prevalent disorder. Morbid obesity, in particular, is associated with numerous comorbidities and early mortality. In patients with morbid obesity, pharmacological and behavioral approaches often have limited results. Bariatric surgery is quite effective but is associated with operative failures and a non-negligible incidence of side effects. In the last decades, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been investigated as a neurosurgical modality to treat various neuropsychiatric disorders. In this article we review the rationale for selecting different brain targets, surgical results and future perspectives for the use of DBS in medically refractory obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications) Printed Edition available

Other

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Open AccessOpinion
Deep Brain Stimulation: In Search of Reliable Instruments for Assessing Complex Personality-Related Changes
Brain Sci. 2016, 6(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci6030040 - 07 Sep 2016
Cited by 8
Abstract
During the last 25 years, more than 100,000 patients have been treated with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). While human clinical and animal preclinical research has shed light on the complex brain-signaling disturbances that underpin e.g., Parkinson’s disease (PD), less information is available when [...] Read more.
During the last 25 years, more than 100,000 patients have been treated with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). While human clinical and animal preclinical research has shed light on the complex brain-signaling disturbances that underpin e.g., Parkinson’s disease (PD), less information is available when it comes to complex psychosocial changes following DBS interventions. In this contribution, we propose to more thoroughly investigate complex personality-related changes following deep brain stimulation through refined and reliable instruments in order to help patients and their relatives in the post-surgery phase. By pursuing this goal, we first outline the clinical importance DBS has attained followed by discussing problematic and undesired non-motor problems that accompany some DBS interventions. After providing a brief definition of complex changes, we move on by outlining the measurement problem complex changes relating to non-motor symptoms currently are associated with. The latter circumstance substantiates the need for refined instruments that are able to validly assess personality-related changes. After providing a brief paragraph with regard to conceptions of personality, we argue that the latter is significantly influenced by certain competencies which themselves currently play only a tangential role in the clinical DBS-discourse. Increasing awareness of the latter circumstance is crucial in the context of DBS because it could illuminate a link between competencies and the emergence of personality-related changes, such as new-onset impulse control disorders that have relevance for patients and their relatives. Finally, we elaborate on the field of application of instruments that are able to measure personality-related changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications) Printed Edition available
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