Special Issue "Recent Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders"

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Developmental Neuroscience".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Gabriele Tripi
Website
Guest Editor
1. Department PROMISE, Paolo Giaccone Hospital, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
2. Department of Child Psychiatry for Neurodevelopmentals Disorders, Centre Hospitalier du Chinonais, 37500 Saint-Benoît-la-Forêt, France.
Interests: autism spectrum disorders; neurodevelopment; bio-markers; behavioral impairment

Special Issue Information

Dear colleauges,

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) represent a group of complex and heterogeneous disorders characterized by impairment of growth and development of the brain often associated with impaired cognition, communication, adaptive behavior, and psychomotor skills. It is an umbrella term that can traverse, to varying degrees, diverse disease classifications, such us autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, etc. Multiple causes have been associated with NDDs, including genetic, environmental, infectious, and traumatic, among others, which in general do not operate alone but instead interact with each other. NDDs are a public health challenge due to the complexity and heterogeneity of the etiology in conjugation with high prevalence attained. It is crucial to provide researchers and clinicians with the most up-to-date information on the etiopathogenesis and therapeutic strategies for the patients as well as to shed light on the co-occurrence of various medical and behavioral conditions/symptoms.

Dr. Gabriele Tripi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Brain Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Neurodevelopmental disorders
  • Etiopathogenesis
  • Biomarkers
  • Screening and risk factor
  • Early intervention
  • Comorbidity

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Brain Magnetic Resonance Findings in 117 Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder under 5 Years Old
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(10), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10100741 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 555
Abstract
We examined the potential benefits of neuroimaging measurements across the first 5 years of life in detecting early comorbid or etiological signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, we analyzed the prevalence of neuroradiologic findings in routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans [...] Read more.
We examined the potential benefits of neuroimaging measurements across the first 5 years of life in detecting early comorbid or etiological signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, we analyzed the prevalence of neuroradiologic findings in routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of a group of 117 ASD children younger than 5 years old. These data were compared to those reported in typically developing (TD) children. MRI findings in children with ASD were analyzed in relation to their cognitive level, severity of autistic symptoms, and the presence of electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities. The MRI was rated abnormal in 55% of children with ASD with a significant prevalence in the high-functioning subgroup compared to TD children. We report significant incidental findings of mega cisterna magna, ventricular anomalies and abnormal white matter signal intensity in ASD without significant associations between these MRI findings and EEG features. Based on these results we discuss the role that brain MRI may play in the diagnostic procedure of ASD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
The Criterion Validity of the First Year Inventory and the Quantitative-CHecklist for Autism in Toddlers: A Longitudinal Study
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(10), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10100729 - 13 Oct 2020
Viewed by 472
Abstract
Pediatric surveillance through screening procedures is needed to detect warning signs of risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder under 24 months of age and to promote early diagnosis and treatment. The main purpose of this study is to extend the literature regarding the psychometric [...] Read more.
Pediatric surveillance through screening procedures is needed to detect warning signs of risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder under 24 months of age and to promote early diagnosis and treatment. The main purpose of this study is to extend the literature regarding the psychometric properties of two screening tools, the First Year Inventory (FYI) and the Quantitative-CHecklist for Autism in Toddler (Q-CHAT), testing their criterion validity. They were administered during a three-wave approach involving the general population. At T1, 657 children were tested with the FYI and 36 of them were found to be at risk. At T2, 545 were tested with the Q-CHAT and 29 of them were found to be at risk. At T3, 12 out of the 36 children with a high score on the FYI and 11 out of the 29 children with a high score on the Q-CHAT were compared to 15 typically developing children. The criterion validity was tested considering the severity of the autistic symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and limited global functioning as criteria. Accuracy parameters were also calculated. Furthermore, we investigated which dimension of each questionnaire better predicted the aforementioned criterion. The results corroborated the hypotheses and confirmed the criterion validity of FYI and Q-CHAT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Brain Structural and Functional Alterations in Mice Prenatally Exposed to LPS Are Only Partially Rescued by Anti-Inflammatory Treatment
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(9), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10090620 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 750
Abstract
Aberrant immune activity during neurodevelopment could participate in the generation of neurological dysfunctions characteristic of several neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Numerous epidemiological studies have shown a link between maternal infections and NDDs risk; animal models of maternal immune activation (MIA) have confirmed this association. [...] Read more.
Aberrant immune activity during neurodevelopment could participate in the generation of neurological dysfunctions characteristic of several neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Numerous epidemiological studies have shown a link between maternal infections and NDDs risk; animal models of maternal immune activation (MIA) have confirmed this association. Activation of maternal immune system during pregnancy induces behavioral and functional alterations in offspring but the biological mechanisms at the basis of these effects are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in peripheral and central inflammation, cortical cytoarchitecture and behavior of offspring (LPS-mice). LPS-mice reported a significant increase in interleukin-1β (IL-1β) serum level, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)- and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1)-positive cells in the cortex. Furthermore, cytoarchitecture analysis in specific brain areas, showed aberrant alterations in minicolumns’ organization in LPS-mice adult brain. In addition, we demonstrated that LPS-mice presented behavioral alterations throughout life. In order to better understand biological mechanisms whereby LPS induced these alterations, dams were treated with meloxicam. We demonstrated for the first time that exposure to LPS throughout pregnancy induces structural permanent alterations in offspring brain. LPS-mice also present severe behavioral impairments. Preventive treatment with meloxicam reduced inflammation in offspring but did not rescue them from structural and behavioral alterations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
A Preliminary Study on Cranio-Facial Characteristics Associated with Minor Neurological Dysfunctions (MNDs) in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(8), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10080566 - 18 Aug 2020
Viewed by 791
Abstract
Background. Craniofacial anomalies and minor neurological dysfunction (MNDs) have been identified, in literature, as risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders. They represent physical indicators of embryonic development suggesting a possible contributory role of complications during early, even pre-conceptional, phases of ontogeny in autism spectrum [...] Read more.
Background. Craniofacial anomalies and minor neurological dysfunction (MNDs) have been identified, in literature, as risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders. They represent physical indicators of embryonic development suggesting a possible contributory role of complications during early, even pre-conceptional, phases of ontogeny in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Limited research has been conducted about the co-occurrence of the two biomarkers in children with ASD. This study investigates the associative patterns of cranio-facial anomalies and MNDs in ASD children, and whether these neurodevelopmental markers correlate with intensity of ASD symptoms and overall functioning. Methods. Caucasian children with ASD (n = 33) were examined. Measures were based on five anthropometric cranio-facial indexes and a standardized and detailed neurological examination according to Touwen. Relationships between anthropometric z-scores, MNDs and participant characteristics (i.e., age, cognitive abilities, severity of autistic symptoms measured using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) checklist) were assessed. Results. With respect to specific MNDs, significant positive correlations were found between Cephalic Index and Sensory deficits (p-value < 0.001), which did not correlate with CARS score. Importantly, CARS score was positively linked with Intercanthal Index (p-value < 0.001), and negatively associated with posture and muscle tone (p-value = 0.027) and Facial Index (p-value = 0.004). Conclusion. Our data show a link between a specific facial phenotype and anomalies in motor responses, suggesting early brain dysmaturation involving subcortical structures in cerebro-craniofacial development of autistic children. This research supports the concept of a “social brain functional morphology” in autism spectrum disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Neuropeptides’ Hypothalamic Regulation of Sleep Control in Children Affected by Functional Non-Retentive Fecal Incontinence
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(3), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10030129 - 25 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1190
Abstract
Functional non-retentive fecal incontinence (FNRFI) is a common problem in pediatric age. FNRFI is defined as unintended loss of stool in a 4-year-old or older child after organic causes have been excluded. FNRFI tends to affects up to 3% of children older than [...] Read more.
Functional non-retentive fecal incontinence (FNRFI) is a common problem in pediatric age. FNRFI is defined as unintended loss of stool in a 4-year-old or older child after organic causes have been excluded. FNRFI tends to affects up to 3% of children older than 4 years, with males being affected more frequently than females. Clinically, children affected by FNRFI have normal intestinal movements and stool consistency. Literature data show that children with fecal incontinence have increased levels of separation anxiety, specific phobias, general anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder. In terms of possible relationship between incontinence and sleep, disorders of sleep organization have been observed in the pathogenesis of enuresis so generating the hypothesis that the orexinergic system may have a crucial role not only for the sleep organization per se but also for the sphincterial control in general. This study aimed to focus on specific neurophysiological aspects to investigate on the possible relationship between sleep organizational abnormalities and FNRFI. Specifically, we aimed to measure orexin serum levels in children with FNRFI and assess their polysomnographic sleep macrostructure patterns. Two study groups were considered: FNFRI (n = 45) and typically developed (TD) (n = 45) group. In both groups, sleep patterns and respiratory events were assessed by polysomnographic recordings (PSG) during a period of two nights at least, and plasma levels of Orexin-A were measured in each participant. The findings of this initial investigation seem to support a major role of Orexin-A in sleep organization alterations in children with FNFRI. Also, our data suggest that sleep habits evaluation should be considered as screening and complementary tool for the diagnosis of fecal incontinence in children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders)

Review

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Open AccessReview
A Bibliometric Insight of Genetic Factors in ASD: Emerging Trends and New Developments
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11010033 - 31 Dec 2020
Viewed by 484
Abstract
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases have increased rapidly in recent decades, which is associated with various genetic abnormalities. To provide a better understanding of the genetic factors in ASD, we assessed the global scientific output of the related studies. A total of 2944 [...] Read more.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases have increased rapidly in recent decades, which is associated with various genetic abnormalities. To provide a better understanding of the genetic factors in ASD, we assessed the global scientific output of the related studies. A total of 2944 studies published between 1997 and 2018 were included by systematic retrieval from the Web of Science (WoS) database, whose scientific landscapes were drawn and the tendencies and research frontiers were explored through bibliometric methods. The United States has been acting as a leading explorer of the field worldwide in recent years. The rapid development of high-throughput technologies and bioinformatics transferred the research method from the traditional classic method to a big data-based pipeline. As a consequence, the focused research area and tendency were also changed, as the contribution of de novo mutations in ASD has been a research hotspot in the past several years and probably will remain one into the near future, which is consistent with the current opinions of the major etiology of ASD. Therefore, more attention and financial support should be paid to the deciphering of the de novo mutations in ASD. Meanwhile, the effective cooperation of multi-research centers and scientists in different fields should be advocated in the next step of scientific research undertaken. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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Open AccessReview
Role of Oligodendrocytes and Myelin in the Pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(12), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10120951 - 08 Dec 2020
Viewed by 674
Abstract
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is an early neurodevelopmental disorder that involves deficits in interpersonal communication, social interaction, and repetitive behaviors. Although ASD pathophysiology is still uncertain, alterations in the abnormal development of the frontal lobe, limbic areas, and putamen generate an imbalance between [...] Read more.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is an early neurodevelopmental disorder that involves deficits in interpersonal communication, social interaction, and repetitive behaviors. Although ASD pathophysiology is still uncertain, alterations in the abnormal development of the frontal lobe, limbic areas, and putamen generate an imbalance between inhibition and excitation of neuronal activity. Interestingly, recent findings suggest that a disruption in neuronal connectivity is associated with neural alterations in white matter production and myelination in diverse brain regions of patients with ASD. This review is aimed to summarize the most recent evidence that supports the notion that abnormalities in the oligodendrocyte generation and axonal myelination in specific brain regions are involved in the pathophysiology of ASD. Fundamental molecular mediators of these pathological processes are also examined. Determining the role of alterations in oligodendrogenesis and myelination is a fundamental step to understand the pathophysiology of ASD and identify possible therapeutic targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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Open AccessReview
Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Effect of High-Fat Diet on Synaptic Plasticity and Mitochondrial Functions
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(11), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10110805 - 31 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 719
Abstract
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) include diverse neuropathologies characterized by abnormal brain development leading to impaired cognition, communication and social skills. A common feature of NDDs is defective synaptic plasticity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are only partially known. Several studies have indicated that people’s [...] Read more.
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) include diverse neuropathologies characterized by abnormal brain development leading to impaired cognition, communication and social skills. A common feature of NDDs is defective synaptic plasticity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are only partially known. Several studies have indicated that people’s lifestyles such as diet pattern and physical exercise have significant influence on synaptic plasticity of the brain. Indeed, it has been reported that a high-fat diet (HFD, with 30–50% fat content), which leads to systemic low-grade inflammation, has also a detrimental effect on synaptic efficiency. Interestingly, metabolic alterations associated with obesity in pregnant woman may represent a risk factor for NDDs in the offspring. In this review, we have discussed the potential molecular mechanisms linking the HFD-induced metabolic dysfunctions to altered synaptic plasticity underlying NDDs, with a special emphasis on the roles played by synaptic protein synthesis and mitochondrial functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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Open AccessReview
Effects of Social Isolation and Loneliness in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities: A Scoping Review
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(11), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10110786 - 28 Oct 2020
Viewed by 672
Abstract
Loneliness and social isolation have negative consequences on physical and mental health in both adult and pediatric populations. Children with neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDD) are often excluded and experience more loneliness than their typically developing peers. This scoping review aims to identify the type [...] Read more.
Loneliness and social isolation have negative consequences on physical and mental health in both adult and pediatric populations. Children with neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDD) are often excluded and experience more loneliness than their typically developing peers. This scoping review aims to identify the type of studies conducted in children with NDD to determine the effects of loneliness and/or social isolation. Three electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO) were searched from inception until 5 February 2019. Two independent reviewers screened the citations for inclusion and extracted data from the included articles. Quantitative (i.e., frequency analysis) and qualitative analyses (i.e., content analysis) were completed. From our search, 5768 citations were screened, 29 were read in full, and 12 were included. Ten were case-control comparisons with cross-sectional assessment of various outcomes, which limited inference. Autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and learning disorder were the most commonly studied NDD. This review showed that loneliness among children with NDD was associated with negative consequences on mental health, behaviour, and psychosocial/emotional development, with a likely long-term impact in adulthood. Lack of research in this area suggests that loneliness is not yet considered a problem in children with NDD. More studies are warranted using prospective designs and a larger sample size with a focus on the dynamic aspect of loneliness development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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Open AccessReview
Brain Opioid Activity and Oxidative Injury: Different Molecular Scenarios Connecting Celiac Disease and Autistic Spectrum Disorder
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(7), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10070437 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1564
Abstract
Celiac Disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease triggered by the ingestion of wheat gliadin and related prolamins from other cereals, such as barley and rye. Immunity against these cereal-derived proteins is mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by both innate and adaptive system response [...] Read more.
Celiac Disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease triggered by the ingestion of wheat gliadin and related prolamins from other cereals, such as barley and rye. Immunity against these cereal-derived proteins is mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by both innate and adaptive system response in individuals unable to adequately digest them. Peptides generated in this condition are absorbed across the gut barrier, which in these patients is characterized by the deregulation of its permeability. Here, we discuss a possible correlation between CD and Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) pathogenesis. ASD can be induced by an excessive and inappropriate brain opioid activity during the neonatal period. Cereal-derived peptides produced in celiac patients cross the blood–brain barrier and bind to endogenous opioid receptors interfering with neurotransmission and generating deleterious effects on brain maturation, learning and social relations. Moreover, an increase in oxidative stress and a decrease in the antioxidant capacity, as well as an extended mitochondrial impairment in the brain, could represent a possible connection between ASD and CD. Therefore, we critically discuss the proposed relationship between ASD and CD and the possible usefulness of a gluten-free diet in ASD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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Open AccessReview
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Subtype/Presentation: Research Progress and Translational Studies
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(5), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10050292 - 14 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1330
Abstract
Research on the predominantly inattentive attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-PI) subtype/presentation is important given its high prevalence, but paradoxically it is under-recognized and undertreated. The temporal stability of the inattention symptom could impact the high worldwide prevalence of ADHD-PI. Some evidence suggests differences in the [...] Read more.
Research on the predominantly inattentive attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-PI) subtype/presentation is important given its high prevalence, but paradoxically it is under-recognized and undertreated. The temporal stability of the inattention symptom could impact the high worldwide prevalence of ADHD-PI. Some evidence suggests differences in the nature of attentional deficit in ADHD-PI vs. that in other subtypes. Impairments in neuropsychological, neurocognitive, and social functioning are also evident in ADHD-PI, which could be specific to the subtype (e.g., processing speed, social perception, and skills), or differ from others in severity. Neuroimaging studies have also revealed ADHD-PI-specific neuropathological abnormalities and those that are shared with other subtypes. ADHD-PI is highly comorbid with learning and internalizing (e.g., anxiety and depression) disorders. There is no solid evidence for ADHD-PI-specific genetic etiologies and differential responses of subtypes to ADHD medications. Translational studies have used the Wistar Kyoto/NCrl substrain which requires further characterizations as an ADHD-PI model. Overall, ADHD-PI research has been conducted in the context of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, which arguably does not conform to the widely recognized “dimensional” view of ADHD. The Research Domain Criteria has been proposed to provide a novel framework for understanding the nature of neuropsychiatric illnesses and ultimately improve their diagnosis and treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders)

Other

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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceOpinion
The Neurochemistry of Autism
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(3), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10030163 - 13 Mar 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2522
Abstract
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to complex neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior or interests, and altered sensory processing. Environmental, immunological, genetic, and epigenetic factors are implicated in the pathophysiology of autism [...] Read more.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to complex neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior or interests, and altered sensory processing. Environmental, immunological, genetic, and epigenetic factors are implicated in the pathophysiology of autism and provoke the occurrence of neuroanatomical and neurochemical events relatively early in the development of the central nervous system. Many neurochemical pathways are involved in determining ASD; however, how these complex networks interact and cause the onset of the core symptoms of autism remains unclear. Further studies on neurochemical alterations in autism are necessary to clarify the early neurodevelopmental variations behind the enormous heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder, and therefore lead to new approaches for the treatment and prevention of autism. In this review, we aim to delineate the state-of-the-art main research findings about the neurochemical alterations in autism etiology, and focuses on gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, serotonin, dopamine, N-acetyl aspartate, oxytocin and arginine-vasopressin, melatonin, vitamin D, orexin, endogenous opioids, and acetylcholine. We also aim to suggest a possible related therapeutic approach that could improve the quality of ASD interventions. Over one hundred references were collected through electronic database searching in Medline and EMBASE (Ovid), Scopus (Elsevier), ERIC (Proquest), PubMed, and the Web of Science (ISI). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
Open AccessFeature PaperPerspective
Noli Me Tangere: Social Touch, Tactile Defensiveness, and Communication in Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(12), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9120368 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1724
Abstract
Tactile defensiveness is a common feature in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Since the first studies, tactile defensiveness has been described as the result of an abnormal response to sensory stimulation. Moreover, it has been studied how the tactile system is closely linked to socio-communicative [...] Read more.
Tactile defensiveness is a common feature in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Since the first studies, tactile defensiveness has been described as the result of an abnormal response to sensory stimulation. Moreover, it has been studied how the tactile system is closely linked to socio-communicative development and how the interoceptive sensory system supports both a discriminating touch and an affective touch. Therefore, several neurophysiological studies have been conducted to investigate the neurobiological basis of the development and functioning of the tactile system for a better understanding of the tactile defensiveness behavior and the social touch of NDDs. Given the lack of recent literature on tactile defensiveness, the current study provides a brief overview of the original contributions on this research topic in children with NDDs focusing attention on how this behavior has been considered over the years in the clinical setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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