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Review

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Subtype/Presentation: Research Progress and Translational Studies

1
Department of Pharmaceutical and Administrative Sciences, Loma Linda University School of Pharmacy, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA
2
Department of Psychology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
3
Division of Social Sciences, University of the Philippines Visayas Tacloban College, Tacloban 6500, Philippines
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(5), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10050292
Received: 23 April 2020 / Revised: 8 May 2020 / Accepted: 9 May 2020 / Published: 14 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
Research on the predominantly inattentive attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-PI) subtype/presentation is important given its high prevalence, but paradoxically it is under-recognized and undertreated. The temporal stability of the inattention symptom could impact the high worldwide prevalence of ADHD-PI. Some evidence suggests differences in the nature of attentional deficit in ADHD-PI vs. that in other subtypes. Impairments in neuropsychological, neurocognitive, and social functioning are also evident in ADHD-PI, which could be specific to the subtype (e.g., processing speed, social perception, and skills), or differ from others in severity. Neuroimaging studies have also revealed ADHD-PI-specific neuropathological abnormalities and those that are shared with other subtypes. ADHD-PI is highly comorbid with learning and internalizing (e.g., anxiety and depression) disorders. There is no solid evidence for ADHD-PI-specific genetic etiologies and differential responses of subtypes to ADHD medications. Translational studies have used the Wistar Kyoto/NCrl substrain which requires further characterizations as an ADHD-PI model. Overall, ADHD-PI research has been conducted in the context of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, which arguably does not conform to the widely recognized “dimensional” view of ADHD. The Research Domain Criteria has been proposed to provide a novel framework for understanding the nature of neuropsychiatric illnesses and ultimately improve their diagnosis and treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: ADHD predominantly inattentive; inattention; neuroimaging; comorbidity; genetics; pharmacotherapy; Wistar Kyoto/NCrl; RDoC ADHD predominantly inattentive; inattention; neuroimaging; comorbidity; genetics; pharmacotherapy; Wistar Kyoto/NCrl; RDoC
MDPI and ACS Style

de la Peña, I.C.; Pan, M.C.; Thai, C.G.; Alisso, T. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Subtype/Presentation: Research Progress and Translational Studies. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 292. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10050292

AMA Style

de la Peña IC, Pan MC, Thai CG, Alisso T. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Subtype/Presentation: Research Progress and Translational Studies. Brain Sciences. 2020; 10(5):292. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10050292

Chicago/Turabian Style

de la Peña, Ike C., Michael C. Pan, Chau Giang Thai, and Tamara Alisso. 2020. "Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Subtype/Presentation: Research Progress and Translational Studies" Brain Sciences 10, no. 5: 292. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10050292

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