Special Issue "Immunoanalytical Tool with Electrochemical and Optical Detection"

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 September 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Laura Micheli

Department of Chemical Science and Technologies, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: electrochemistry; screen printed electrode; immune/bio sensor; flow injection assay

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biosensor technology, based on specific antigen–antibody interactions, and in which the transducer detects, either directly or indirectly, immunochemical reactions are called Immunosensors. Recently, integration of new materials into biosensors, such as magnetic particles, has offered the possibility to obtain fast and automated screening methods, with increased sensitivity. More importantly, the advantages of using magnetic particles in magnetic separation of bacteria, virus, and dangerous toxins coupled with different detection techniques (electrochemical and optical methods) have contributed significantly not only clinical analysis, (the traditional field of application of immunoanalysis), but also environmental analyses, quality control in pharmaceutical and food industries, biosecurity and prevention of bioterrorism to avoid harmful contaminations for human and the environment.

Prof. Dr. Laura Micheli
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 650 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • immunosensors
  • immunoassays
  • Later flow immunosensors
  • electrochemical immunosensors
  • optical immunosensors
  • label-free immunosensors
  • protein immobilization
  • Langmuir-Blodgett films
  • Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) immunosensors
  • Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)
  • protein chips
  • immunochips
  • microarrays
  • flow immunosensors
  • magnetic beads
  • Nanoperticles
  • Enzyme Linked ImmunoMagnetic Electrochemical assay (ELIME)
  • Enzyme Linked ImmunoMagnetic Colorimetric assay (ELIMC)

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Microwave Spectroscopic Detection of Human Hsp70 Protein on Annealed Gold Nanostructures on ITO Glass Strips
Biosensors 2018, 8(4), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8040118
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 10 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
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Abstract
Conductive indium-tin oxide (ITO) and non-conductive glass substrates were successfully modified with embedded gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) formed by controlled thermal annealing at 550 °C for 8 h in a preselected oven. The authors characterized the formation of AuNPs using two microscopic techniques: scanning
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Conductive indium-tin oxide (ITO) and non-conductive glass substrates were successfully modified with embedded gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) formed by controlled thermal annealing at 550 °C for 8 h in a preselected oven. The authors characterized the formation of AuNPs using two microscopic techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The analytical performances of the nanostructured-glasses were compared regarding biosensing of Hsp70, an ATP-driven molecular chaperone. In this work, the human heat-shock protein (Hsp70), was chosen as a model biomarker of body stress disorders for microwave spectroscopic investigations. It was found that microwave screening at 4 GHz allowed for the first time the detection of 12 ng/µL/cm2 of Hsp70. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunoanalytical Tool with Electrochemical and Optical Detection)
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Open AccessArticle Optimization and Application of Electrochemical Transducer for Detection of Specific Oligonucleotide Sequence for Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030084
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
In this study, the electropolymerization of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPA) over graphite electrodes (GE) was optimized, aiming its application as a functionalized electrochemical platform for oligonucleotides immobilization. It was investigated for the number of potential cycles and the scan rate influence on the monomer
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In this study, the electropolymerization of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPA) over graphite electrodes (GE) was optimized, aiming its application as a functionalized electrochemical platform for oligonucleotides immobilization. It was investigated for the number of potential cycles and the scan rate influence on the monomer electropolymerization by using cyclic voltammetry technique. It was observed that the polymeric film showed a redox response in the region of +0.53/+0.38 V and the increase in the number of cycles produces more electroactive platforms because of the better electrode coverage. On the other hand, the decrease of scan rate produces more electroactive platforms because of the occurrence of more organized coupling. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the number of potential cycles influences the coverage and morphology of the electrodeposited polymeric film. However, the images also showed that at different scan rates a more organized material was produced. The influence of these optimized polymerization parameters was evaluated both in the immobilization of specific oligonucleotides and in the detection of hybridization with complementary target. Poly(4-HPA)/GE platform has shown efficient and sensitive for oligonucleotides immobilization, as well as for a hybridization event with the complementary oligonucleotide in all investigated cases. The electrode was modified with 100 cycles at 75 mV/s presented the best responses in function of the amplitude at the monitored peak current values for the Methylene Blue and Ethidium Bromide intercalators. The construction of the genosensor to detect a specific oligonucleotide sequence for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacillus confirmed the results regarding the poly(4-HPA)/GE platform efficiency since it showed excellent sensitivity. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification was found to be 0.56 (±0.05) μM and 8.6 (±0.7) μM, respectively operating with very low solution volumes (15 µL of probe and 10 µL target). The biosensor development was possible with optimization of the probe adsorption parameters and target hybridization, which led to an improvement in the decrease of the Methylene Blue (MB) reduction signal from 14% to 34%. In addition, interference studies showed that the genosensor has satisfactory selectivity since the hybridization with a non-specific probe resulted in a signal decrease (46% lower) when compared to the specific target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunoanalytical Tool with Electrochemical and Optical Detection)
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Open AccessCommunication Cytokeratins Biosensing Using Tilted Fiber Gratings
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030074
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract
Optical fiber gratings have widely proven their applicability in biosensing, especially when they are coupled with antibodies for specific antigen recognition. While this is customarily done with fibers coated by a thin metal film to benefit from plasmonic enhancement, in this paper, we
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Optical fiber gratings have widely proven their applicability in biosensing, especially when they are coupled with antibodies for specific antigen recognition. While this is customarily done with fibers coated by a thin metal film to benefit from plasmonic enhancement, in this paper, we propose to study their intrinsic properties, developing a label-free sensor for the detection of biomarkers in real-time without metal coatings for surface plasmon resonances. We focus on the inner properties of our modal sensor by immobilizing receptors directly on the silica surface, and reporting the sensitivity of bare tilted fiber Bragg gratings (TFBGs) used at near infrared wavelengths. We test different strategies to build our sensing surface against cytokeratins and show that the most reliable functionalization method is the electrostatic adsorption of antibodies on the fiber, allowing a limit of detection reaching 14 pM by following the guided cladding modes near the cut-off area. These results present the biodetection performance that TFBGs bring through their modal properties for different functionalizations and data processing strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunoanalytical Tool with Electrochemical and Optical Detection)
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Open AccessArticle Label-Free Monitoring of Human IgG/Anti-IgG Recognition Using Bloch Surface Waves on 1D Photonic Crystals
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030071
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
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Abstract
Optical biosensors based on one-dimensional photonic crystals sustaining Bloch surface waves are proposed to study antibody interactions and perform affinity studies. The presented approach utilizes two types of different antibodies anchored at the sensitive area of a photonic crystal-based biosensor. Such a strategy
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Optical biosensors based on one-dimensional photonic crystals sustaining Bloch surface waves are proposed to study antibody interactions and perform affinity studies. The presented approach utilizes two types of different antibodies anchored at the sensitive area of a photonic crystal-based biosensor. Such a strategy allows for creating two or more on-chip regions with different biochemical features as well as studying the binding kinetics of biomolecules in real time. In particular, the proposed detection system shows an estimated limit of detection for the target antibody (anti-human IgG) smaller than 0.19 nM (28 ng/mL), corresponding to a minimum surface mass coverage of 10.3 ng/cm2. Moreover, from the binding curves we successfully derived the equilibrium association and dissociation constants (KA = 7.5 × 107 M−1; KD = 13.26 nM) of the human IgG–anti-human IgG interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunoanalytical Tool with Electrochemical and Optical Detection)
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Open AccessArticle Label-Free Electrochemical Immunoassay for C-Reactive Protein
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020034
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
C-reactive protein (CRP) is one of the most expressed proteins in blood during acute phase inflammation, and its minute level increase has also been recognized for the clinical diagnosis of cardio vascular diseases. Unfortunately, the available commercial immunoassays are labour intensive, require large
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C-reactive protein (CRP) is one of the most expressed proteins in blood during acute phase inflammation, and its minute level increase has also been recognized for the clinical diagnosis of cardio vascular diseases. Unfortunately, the available commercial immunoassays are labour intensive, require large sample volumes, and have practical limitations, such as low stability and high production costs. Hence, we have developed a simple, cost effective, and label-free electrochemical immunoassay for the measurement of CRP in a drop of serum sample using an immunosensor strip made up of a screen printed carbon electrode (SPE) modified with anti-CRP functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The measurement relies on the decrease of the oxidation current of the redox indicator Fe3+/Fe2+, resulting from the immunoreaction between CRP and anti-CRP. Under optimal conditions, the present immunoassay measures CRP in a linear range from 0.4–200 nM (0.047–23.6 µg mL−1), with a detection limit of 0.15 nM (17 ng mL−1, S/N = 3) and sensitivity of 90.7 nA nM−1, in addition to a good reproducibility and storage stability. The analytical applicability of the presented immunoassay is verified by CRP measurements in human blood serum samples. This work provides the basis for a low-priced, safe, and easy-to-use point-of-care immunosensor assay to measure CRP at clinically relevant concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunoanalytical Tool with Electrochemical and Optical Detection)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Multiplex Lateral Flow Immunoassay: An Overview of Strategies towards High-throughput Point-of-Need Testing
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010002
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 23 December 2018 / Published: 26 December 2018
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Abstract
Simultaneous measurement of different substances from a single sample is an emerging issue for achieving efficient and high-throughput detection in several fields of application. Although immunoanalytical techniques have well-established and prevailing advantages over alternative screening analytical platforms, one of the incoming challenges for
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Simultaneous measurement of different substances from a single sample is an emerging issue for achieving efficient and high-throughput detection in several fields of application. Although immunoanalytical techniques have well-established and prevailing advantages over alternative screening analytical platforms, one of the incoming challenges for immunoassay is exact multiplexing. Lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) is a leading immunoanalytical technique for onsite analysis, thanks to its simplicity, rapidity, and cost-effectiveness. Moreover, LFIA architecture is adaptable to multiplexing, and is therefore a possible answer to the pressing demand of multiplexing point-of-need analysis. This review presents an overview of diverse approaches for multiplex LFIA, with a special focus on strategies based on new types of magnetic, fluorescent, and colored labels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunoanalytical Tool with Electrochemical and Optical Detection)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Surface Plasmon Resonance Optical Sensor: A Review on Light Source Technology
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030080
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 26 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5646 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The notion of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor research emerged more than eight decades ago from the first observed phenomena in 1902 until the first introduced principles for gas sensing and biosensing in 1983. The sensing platform has been hand-in-hand with the plethora
[...] Read more.
The notion of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor research emerged more than eight decades ago from the first observed phenomena in 1902 until the first introduced principles for gas sensing and biosensing in 1983. The sensing platform has been hand-in-hand with the plethora of sensing technology advancement including nanostructuring, optical technology, fluidic technology, and light source technology, which contribute to substantial progress in SPR sensor evolution. Nevertheless, the commercial products of SPR sensors in the market still require high-cost investment, component, and operation, leading to unaffordability for their implementation in a low-cost point of care (PoC) or laboratories. In this article, we present a comprehensive review of SPR sensor development including the state of the art from a perspective of light source technology trends. Based on our review, the trend of SPR sensor configurations, as well as its methodology and optical designs are strongly influenced by the development of light source technology as a critical component. These simultaneously offer new underlying principles of SPR sensor towards miniaturization, portability, and disposability features. The low-cost solid-state light source technology, such as laser diode, light-emitting diode (LED), organic light emitting diode (OLED) and smartphone display have been reported as proof of concept for the future of low-cost SPR sensor platforms. Finally, this review provides a comprehensive overview, particularly for SPR sensor designers, including emerging engineers or experts in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunoanalytical Tool with Electrochemical and Optical Detection)
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