Special Issue "Phytochemical Constituents of Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Inflammatory Disease 2021"

A special issue of Biomolecules (ISSN 2218-273X). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural and Bio-inspired Molecules".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2022) | Viewed by 4118

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Ki Sung Kang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Korean Medicine, Gachon University, Seongnam-si 13120, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
Interests: diabetic complications; NASH; IBD; toll like receptor signal pathway; innate immune
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Chang-Eop Kim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Korean Medicine, Gachon University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13120, Korea
Interests: network pharmacology; multicompounds-multitargets effects; AI-based drug-target interaction prediction
Dr. Young-Joo Kim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Natural Product Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung, Gangwon-do, Korea
Interests: telomere; telomerase; aging; hepatocellular carcinoma; metastasis
Dr. Ik-Hyun Cho
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Korea
Interests: neuroinflammation; neurodegeneration; autoimmune diseases; neuroglia; herbal medicine; nano-technology in herbal medicines

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plant-derived phytochemicals have emerged as novel agents for protecting against chronic disorders. Owing to the diversity of phytochemicals, they cover a wide spectrum of therapeutic indications against various inflammation-related diseases, such as cancer, inflammation, cardiovascular, rheumatoid, autoimmune, and neurological disease, and have been a productive source of lead compounds for the development of novel medications. Recently, efforts to understand the disease by integrating conventional molecular biological experiments, bio-big data analysis, and AI technologies have increased rapidly. In order to know the polypharmacological effects of multicomponents, a lot of time and effort is required only through conventional experiments. Therefore, it is possible to develop a deeper understanding of the disease and better treatments through a more integrated approach. 

An important direction for future investigation is to further optimize integrated phytochemical analysis and network pharmacology to predict multitargets. Combinatorial strategies which target multiple mechanisms, such as increasing anti-inflammatory efficacy and triggering a response of innate immune systems controlling chromosome stability, may offer a better chance for clinically meaningful treatment. This Special Issue aims to identify lead compounds for inflammation-related diseases through in-depth mechanism studies of medicinal plant components. The studies on complex mixtures of natural products must focus on specific compounds in regards to the pharmacological properties of the mixture.

Dr. Ki Sung Kang
Dr. Ik-Hyun Cho
Dr. Chang-Eop Kim
Dr. Young-Joo Kim
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Bioactive natural compounds
  • Innate immunity
  • Inflammatory-related diseases
  • Telomere and telomerase
  • Metastasis

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
Molecular Mechanism of Cinnamomum cassia against Gastric Damage and Identification of Active Compounds
Biomolecules 2022, 12(4), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12040525 - 30 Mar 2022
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Abstract
Cinnamomum cassia is a natural product found in plants that has been used as a folk remedy for inflammation. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of C. cassia extract (ECC) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine [...] Read more.
Cinnamomum cassia is a natural product found in plants that has been used as a folk remedy for inflammation. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of C. cassia extract (ECC) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine RAW 264.7 cells, in comparison with 4-hydroxycinnamaldehyde, a C. cassia extract component. ECC and 4-hydroxycinnamaldehyde inhibited the production of nitrite oxide in a dose-dependent manner and did not show any change in cellular toxicity when treated with the same dose as that used in the nitrite assay. Moreover, they attenuated ROS accumulation after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. ECC and 4-hydroxycinnamaldehyde decreased the mRNA and protein expression levels of inflammatory mediators (iNOS and COX-2) and cytokines such as TNF and IL-6. We also found that ECC and 4-hydroxycinnamaldehyde mitigated the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and transcription factors, such as NF-κB and STAT3, suppressing NF-κB nuclear translocation in LPS-activated macrophages. In addition, administration of ECC in a Sprague Dawley rat model of acute gastric injury caused by indomethacin significantly increased the gastric mucus volume. Analysis of serum and tissue levels of inflammatory mediators revealed a significant decrease in serum PGE2 and myeloperoxidase levels and a reduction in gastric iNOS, COX-2, and p65 protein levels. Collectively, these results suggest that ECC has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and is a potential candidate for curing gastritis. Full article
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Communication
Terminalin from African Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Stimulates Glucose Uptake through Inhibition of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
Biomolecules 2022, 12(2), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12020321 - 17 Feb 2022
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Abstract
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), along with protein tyrosine kinases, control signaling pathways involved in cell growth, metabolism, differentiation, proliferation, and survival. Several PTPs, such as PTPN1, PTPN2, PTPN9, PTPN11, PTPRS, and DUSP9, disrupt insulin signaling and trigger type 2 diabetes, indicating that PTPs [...] Read more.
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), along with protein tyrosine kinases, control signaling pathways involved in cell growth, metabolism, differentiation, proliferation, and survival. Several PTPs, such as PTPN1, PTPN2, PTPN9, PTPN11, PTPRS, and DUSP9, disrupt insulin signaling and trigger type 2 diabetes, indicating that PTPs are promising drug targets for the treatment or prevention of type 2 diabetes. As part of an ongoing study on the discovery of pharmacologically active bioactive natural products, we conducted a phytochemical investigation of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based analysis, which led to the isolation of terminalin as a major component from the extract of the seeds of I. gabonensis. The structure of terminalin was characterized by spectroscopic methods, including one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution (HR) electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectroscopy. Moreover, terminalin was evaluated for its antidiabetic property; terminalin inhibited the catalytic activity of PTPN1, PTPN9, PTPN11, and PTPRS in vitro and led to a significant increase in glucose uptake in differentiated C2C12 muscle cells, indicating that terminalin exhibits antidiabetic effect through the PTP inhibitory mechanism. These findings suggest that terminalin derived from African mango could be used as a functional food ingredient or pharmaceutical supplement for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Full article
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Article
Effect on Osteoclast Differentiation and ER Stress Downregulation by Amygdalin and RANKL Binding Interaction
Biomolecules 2022, 12(2), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12020256 - 04 Feb 2022
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Abstract
Bone diseases such as osteoporosis are the result of osteoclast over-activation. There are many therapeutic agents from natural compounds inhibiting the formation of osteoclast that have been reported and are continuously being interested. Amygdalin (AD) is isolated from seeds of Prunus armeniaca L. [...] Read more.
Bone diseases such as osteoporosis are the result of osteoclast over-activation. There are many therapeutic agents from natural compounds inhibiting the formation of osteoclast that have been reported and are continuously being interested. Amygdalin (AD) is isolated from seeds of Prunus armeniaca L. which has many pharmaceutical effects; however, the effect of AD on osteoclast formation and function remains unknown. Therefore, the underlying mechanism of AD on RANKL-induced osteoclast in RAW 264.7 cells was investigated. Molecular docking simulation revealed that AD can bind to the active sites of RANKL with negative binding affinities. Through TRAP activity, bone resorption, and migration, AD effectively inhibited osteoclast differentiation and function. Expression of transcription factors, such as NFATc1, c-fos, and osteospecific genes (including dcstamp, acp5, ATP6v0d2, and ctsk results) showed an osteoclast differentiated inhibitory effect by AD treatment. In addition, RANKL-induced activation of MAPK, ER stress, and ROS levels in RANKL-induced osteoclast was significantly inhibited while antioxidant enzymes were recovered in the presence of AD. These results suggest that AD may be a potential candidate derived from natural sources for the treatment of osteoclast bone-related diseases. Full article
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Article
A System-Level Mechanism of Anmyungambi Decoction for Obesity: A Network Pharmacological Approach
Biomolecules 2021, 11(12), 1881; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11121881 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 896
Abstract
Obesity is a low-grade systemic inflammatory disease involving adipocytokines. As though Anmyungambi decoction (AMGB) showed significant improvement on obesity in a clinical trial, the molecular mechanism of AMGB in obesity remains unknown. Therefore, we explored the potential mechanisms of action of AMGB on [...] Read more.
Obesity is a low-grade systemic inflammatory disease involving adipocytokines. As though Anmyungambi decoction (AMGB) showed significant improvement on obesity in a clinical trial, the molecular mechanism of AMGB in obesity remains unknown. Therefore, we explored the potential mechanisms of action of AMGB on obesity through network pharmacological approaches. We revealed that targets of AMGB are significantly associated with obesity-related and adipocyte-elevated genes. Evodiamine, berberine, genipin, palmitic acid, genistein, and quercetin were shown to regulate adipocytokine signaling pathway proteins which mainly involved tumor necrosis factor receptor 1, leptin receptor. In terms of the regulatory pathway of lipolysis in adipocytes, norephedrine, pseudoephedrine, quercetin, and limonin were shown to affect adrenergic receptor-beta, protein kinase A, etc. We also found that AMGB has the potentials to enhance the insulin signaling pathway thereby preventing type II diabetes mellitus. Additionally, AMGB was discovered to be able to control not only insulin-related proteins but also inflammatory mediators and apoptotic regulators and caspases, hence reducing hepatocyte injury in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Our findings help develop a better understanding of how AMGB controls obesity. Full article
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Article
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 3-Dehydroxyceanothetric Acid 2-Methyl Ester Isolated from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. against Cisplatin-Induced Kidney Epithelial Cell Death
Biomolecules 2021, 11(11), 1614; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11111614 - 31 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Cisplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent for treating solid tumors; however, it presents a risk factor for nephropathy. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of 3-dehydroxyceanothetric acid 2-methyl ester (3DC2ME) isolated from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. in LLC-PK1 cells [...] Read more.
Cisplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent for treating solid tumors; however, it presents a risk factor for nephropathy. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of 3-dehydroxyceanothetric acid 2-methyl ester (3DC2ME) isolated from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. in LLC-PK1 cells following cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. These cells were exposed to 3DC2ME for 2 h, followed by treatment with cisplatin for 24 h. The treated cells were subjected to cell viability analysis using the Ez-Cytox assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected via 2′, 7′- dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) staining. In addition, western blotting and fluorescent immunostaining were performed to evaluate protein expressions related to oxidative stress and inflammation pathways. Pretreatment with 3DC2ME protected LLC-PK1 cells from cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. In addition, pretreatment with 3DC2ME upregulated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) via the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway in the cisplatin-treated LLC-PK1 cells. Furthermore, the increase in the expressions of IκB kinase α/β (IKKα/β), inhibitor of kappa B alpha (IκBα), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in these cells was inhibited. These results provide basic scientific evidence for understanding the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of 3DC2ME isolated from Z. jujuba against cisplatin-induced kidney epithelial cell death. Full article
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