Special Issue "Obesity and Hormones"

A special issue of Biomolecules (ISSN 2218-273X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Srinivas Nammi

School of Science and Health, Western Sydney University, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: obesity; metabolic syndrome; diabetes; dyslipidaemia; fatty liver disease; chronic kidney disease

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Obesity is a complex multi-factorial chronic medical condition characterized by overweight with excess or abnormal body fat accumulation. It is considered as a strong risk factor in the development of serious diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke, gastrointestinal disorders, and certain cancers. In general, obesity is caused by increased intake of energy rich foods and/or decreased exercise and physical activity. Among the genetic factors, hormonal imbalance as a cause and consequence of obesity play a role with adverse health effects of obesity. Several hormones, including insulin, leptin, sex hormones and growth hormone, have been studied extensively and play a role in appetite, metabolism, body fat distribution and increased storage of excess energy as fats. Thus, excess or deficit of hormones leads to obesity and, on the other hand, obesity also results in changes in certain hormones that contribute to the adverse metabolic effects of obesity leading to life-threatening chronic diseases. Although past research in understanding the etiology of hormonal imbalance as a cause of obesity, recent technological and analytical advances have enabled detection of a number of obesity susceptible genes involved in the regulation of food intake and in adipocyte function. These results provide plausible biological pathways that may be targeted in the future as part of treatment or prevention strategies.

We invite scientists to contribute both original research articles or reviews covering studies on hormonal intervention on obesity and its complications. Both basic and translational research papers are welcome.

Dr. Srinivas Nammi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • obesity
  • leptin
  • insulin
  • estrogens
  • androgens
  • growth hormone

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Integrative Analyses of Genes Associated with Subcutaneous Insulin Resistance
Biomolecules 2019, 9(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9020037
Received: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
PDF Full-text (7193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Insulin resistance is present in the majority of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and obesity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the key genes and potential molecular mechanism in insulin resistance. Expression profiles of the genes were extracted from the Gene [...] Read more.
Insulin resistance is present in the majority of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and obesity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the key genes and potential molecular mechanism in insulin resistance. Expression profiles of the genes were extracted from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Pathway and Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analyses were conducted at Enrichr. The protein–protein interaction (PPI) network was settled and analyzed using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) database constructed by Cytoscape software. Modules were extracted and identified by the PEWCC1 plugin. The microRNAs (miRNAs) and transcription factors (TFs) which control the expression of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed using the NetworkAnalyst algorithm. A database (GSE73108) was downloaded from the GEO databases. Our results identified 873 DEGs (435 up-regulated and 438 down-regulated) genetically associated with insulin resistance. The pathways which were enriched were pathways in complement and coagulation cascades and complement activation for up-regulated DEGs, while biosynthesis of amino acids and the Notch signaling pathway were among the down-regulated DEGs. Showing GO enrichment were cardiac muscle cell–cardiac muscle cell adhesion and microvillus membrane for up-regulated DEGs and negative regulation of osteoblast differentiation and dendrites for down-regulated DEGs. Subsequently, myosin VB (MYO5B), discs, large homolog 2(DLG2), axin 2 (AXIN2), protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7), Notch homolog 1 (NOTCH1), androgen receptor (AR), cyclin D1 (CCND1) and Rho family GTPase 3 (RND3) were diagnosed as the top hub genes in the up- and down-regulated PPI network and modules. In addition, GATA binding protein 6 (GATA6), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 5 (ENPP5), cyclin D1 (CCND1) and tubulin, beta 2A (TUBB2A) were diagnosed as the top hub genes in the up- and down-regulated target gene–miRNA network, while tubulin, beta 2A (TUBB2A), olfactomedin-like 1 (OLFML1), prostate adrogen-regulated mucin-like protein 1 (PARM1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 4 family, member A1 (ALDH4A1)were diagnosed as the top hub genes in the up- and down-regulated target gene–TF network. The current study based on the GEO database provides a novel understanding regarding the mechanism of insulin resistance and may provide novel therapeutic targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity and Hormones)
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Open AccessCommunication Simple Analysis of Lipid Inhibition Activity on an Adipocyte Micro-Cell Pattern Chip
Biomolecules 2018, 8(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom8020037
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
PDF Full-text (2549 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) is often applied to fabricate cell chips. In this study, we fabricated an adipocyte microcell pattern chips using PDMS to analyze the inhibition activity of lipid droplets in mouse embryo fibroblast cells (3T3-L1) with anti-obesity agents. To form the PDMS based [...] Read more.
Polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) is often applied to fabricate cell chips. In this study, we fabricated an adipocyte microcell pattern chips using PDMS to analyze the inhibition activity of lipid droplets in mouse embryo fibroblast cells (3T3-L1) with anti-obesity agents. To form the PDMS based micropattern, we applied the micro-contact printing technique using PDMS micro-stamps that had been fabricated by conventional soft lithography. This PDMS micro-pattern enabled the selective growth of 3T3-L1 cells onto the specific region by preventing cell adhesion on the PDMS region. It then allowed growth of the 3T3-L1 cells in the chip for 10 days and confirmed that lipid droplets were formed in the 3T3-L1 cells. After treatment of orlistat and quercetin were treated in an adipocyte micro-cell pattern chip with 3T3-L1 cells for six days, we found that orlistat and quercetin exhibited fat inhibition capacities of 19.3% and 24.4% from 0.2 μM of lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 cells. In addition, we conducted a direct quantitative analysis of 3T3-L1 cell differentiation using Oil Red O staining. In conclusion, PDMS-based adipocyte micro-cell pattern chips may contribute to the development of novel bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity and Hormones)
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Figure 1

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