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Role of Obesity, Mesenteric Adipose Tissue, and Adipokines in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

1
Department of Ergonomics and Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 20 Grzegorzecka Street, 31-531 Cracow, Poland
2
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 16 Grzegorzecka Street, 31-531 Cracow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(12), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9120780
Received: 1 October 2019 / Revised: 14 November 2019 / Accepted: 15 November 2019 / Published: 26 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity and Hormones)
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are a group of disorders which include ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Obesity is becoming increasingly more common among patients with inflammatory bowel disease and plays a role in the development and course of the disease. This is especially true in the case of Crohn’s disease. The recent results indicate a special role of visceral adipose tissue and particularly mesenteric adipose tissue, also known as “creeping fat”, in pathomechanism, leading to intestinal inflammation. The involvement of altered adipocyte function and the deregulated production of adipokines, such as leptin and adiponectin, has been suggested in pathogenesis of IBD. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology and pathophysiology of obesity in IBD, the influence of a Western diet on the course of Crohn’s disease and colitis in IBD patients and animal’s models, and the potential role of adipokines in these disorders. Since altered body composition, decrease of skeletal muscle mass, and development of pathologically changed mesenteric white adipose tissue are well-known features of IBD and especially of Crohn’s disease, we discuss the possible crosstalk between adipokines and myokines released from skeletal muscle during exercise with moderate or forced intensity. The emerging role of microbiota and the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory enzymes such as intestinal alkaline phosphatase is also discussed, in order to open new avenues for the therapy against intestinal perturbations associated with IBD. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease; Crohn’s disease; ulcerative colitis obesity; adipose tissue; adipokines; inflammation inflammatory bowel disease; Crohn’s disease; ulcerative colitis obesity; adipose tissue; adipokines; inflammation
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Bilski, J.; Mazur-Bialy, A.; Wojcik, D.; Surmiak, M.; Magierowski, M.; Sliwowski, Z.; Pajdo, R.; Kwiecien, S.; Danielak, A.; Ptak-Belowska, A.; Brzozowski, T. Role of Obesity, Mesenteric Adipose Tissue, and Adipokines in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 780.

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