Special Issue "Fungal Architectures"

A special issue of Biomimetics (ISSN 2313-7673). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomimetics of Materials and Structures".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 25836

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Andrew Adamatzky
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Unconventional Computing Lab, Department of Computer Science and Creative Technology, University of the West of England, Bristol BS16 1QY, UK
Interests: unconventional computing; fungal computing; reaction-diffusion computing; cellular automata; Physarum computing; massive parallel computation; applied mathematics; collective intelligence and robotics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Han A.B. Wösten
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Microbiology, Department of Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Interests: mushroom formation; fungal materials; fungal cell factories; fungal
Dr. Phil Ayres
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre for IT and Architecture, IBT, Royal Danish Academy, Copenhagen, Denmark
Interests: bio-hybrid architecture; living architecture; integrated design; computational design; bio-fabrication; kagome weaving

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Against a context of resource depletion, resource scarcity and projections of a surging increase in material demand over the coming decades, fungal materials offer a promising realm for expanding our material base. In this rapidly developing field, research has predominantly focused on the protocols of production and properties of denatured fungal materials. This remains a rich field of investigation with many emerging perspectives that promise to enhance and expand potentials for application.

In addition, new research perspectives are enriching the field of fungal materials by drawing upon understandings of the role fungi have played in the shaping and maintenance of Earth’s ecosystems; the roles they play as regulating networks for interspecies communication within forests; and of the fact that fungi demonstrate a high degree of proto-intelligence and show evidence of long-distance communication within their extended bodies, including decision making. This nascent research territory is predicated on working with and maintaining the living organism, with early studies focusing on the sensorial physiology of fungi and the analysis of the computational potential of mycelium networks.

In this Special Issue, we seek to bring together current research trajectories, with the anticipation that this can stimulate cross-over and the further enrichment of the field by exposing interfaces and methods for linking these efforts. We invite biologists, mycologists, material scientists, computer scientists, engineers, architects, physicists, and those from other disciplines to present results of their research within the field of fungal materials.

This Special Issue will open new horizons and research perspectives relevant to bio-fabrication and provide a body of insight that can spur developments in the design and synthesis of intelligent fungal architectures.

Topics considered  include but are not limited to:

  • Chemical, mechanical and optical sensing of fungi;
  • Communication and information transfer in fungal networks and ecosystems;
  • Fabrication of pure mycelium materials and mycelium-bound composites and their applications;
  • Construction approaches for large-scale structures;
  • Functional grading and tuning of properties in mycelium-bound composites;
  • Modelling and simulation of fungal dynamics and/or fungal materials;
  • Methodologies for characterizing living fungal materials;
  • Enhancing the durability of fungal materials;
  • LCA of fungal materials.

Prof. Dr. Andrew Adamatzky
Prof. Dr. Han Wösten
Dr. Phil Ayres
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information 

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biomimetics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fungi
  • biomaterials
  • unconventional computing
  • bio-hybrid architecture
  • living architecture
  • biosensors
  • fungal materials
  • mycelium materials
  • intelligent materials
  • engineered living materials
  • bio-fabrication
  • construction integration

Published Papers (16 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
A Modular Chain Bioreactor Design for Fungal Productions
Biomimetics 2022, 7(4), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics7040179 - 27 Oct 2022
Viewed by 273
Abstract
Plastic bag bioreactors are single-use bioreactors, frequently used in solid culture fermentation. This study developed plastic bag bioreactors with more effective aeration conditions and particular connection elements that yield sensors, environmental control, and modular connectivity. This bioreactor system integrates the bags in a [...] Read more.
Plastic bag bioreactors are single-use bioreactors, frequently used in solid culture fermentation. This study developed plastic bag bioreactors with more effective aeration conditions and particular connection elements that yield sensors, environmental control, and modular connectivity. This bioreactor system integrates the bags in a chain that circulates air and moisture through filtered connections. Within the present scope, this study also aimed to reveal that cultures in different plastic bags can be produced without affecting each other. In this direction, biomass production in the modular chain bioreactor (MCB) system developed in this study was compared to traditional bag systems. In addition, contamination experiments were carried out between the bags in the system, and it was observed that the filters in the developed system did not affect the microorganisms in different bags. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Architectures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Strategies for Growing Large-Scale Mycelium Structures
Biomimetics 2022, 7(3), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics7030129 - 11 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 761
Abstract
Fungi-based materials (myco-materials) have been celebrated and experimented with for their architectural and structural potential for over a decade. This paper describes research applied to assembly strategies for growing large building units and assembling them into efficiently formed wall prototypes. A major concern [...] Read more.
Fungi-based materials (myco-materials) have been celebrated and experimented with for their architectural and structural potential for over a decade. This paper describes research applied to assembly strategies for growing large building units and assembling them into efficiently formed wall prototypes. A major concern in the development of these two fabrication strategies is to design re-usable formwork systems. La Parete Fungina demonstrates two undulating wall units standing side-by-side, each composed of seventeen myco-welded slabs. L’Orso Fungino revisits the in situ monolithic fabric forming of units that are repeated, stacked, and post-tensioned. Although the design and research presented in this paper focuses on overcoming the challenges of growing large-scale building components, this work also touches on issues of accessibility and technology, economic and logistical systems needed for building-scale applications, and material ethics of energy and waste associated with emerging biomaterial production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Architectures)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Growth and Mechanical Characterization of Mycelium-Based Composites towards Future Bioremediation and Food Production in the Material Manufacturing Cycle
Biomimetics 2022, 7(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics7030103 - 28 Jul 2022
Viewed by 854
Abstract
Today’s architectural and agricultural practices negatively impact the planet. Mycelium-based composites are widely researched with the aim of producing sustainable building materials by upcycling organic byproducts. To go further, this study analyzed the growth process and tested the mechanical behavior of composite materials [...] Read more.
Today’s architectural and agricultural practices negatively impact the planet. Mycelium-based composites are widely researched with the aim of producing sustainable building materials by upcycling organic byproducts. To go further, this study analyzed the growth process and tested the mechanical behavior of composite materials grown from fungal species used in bioremediation. Agricultural waste containing high levels of fertilizers serves as the substrate for mycelium growth to reduce chemical dispersal in the environment. Compression and three-point bending tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of the following variables on the mechanical behavior of mycelium-based materials: substrate particle size (with or without micro-particles), fungal species (Pleurotus ostreatus and Coprinus comatus), and post-growth treatment (dried, baked, compacted then dried, and compacted then baked). Overall, the density of the material positively correlated with its Young’s and elastic moduli, showing higher moduli for composites made from substrate with micro-particles and for compacted composites. Compacted then baked composites grown on the substrate with micro-particles provided the highest elastic moduli in compression and flexural testing. In conclusion, this study provides valuable insight into the selection of substrate particle size, fungal species, and post-growth treatment for various applications with a focus on material manufacturing, food production, and bioremediation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Architectures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Study on the Sound Absorption Properties of Mycelium-Based Composites Cultivated on Waste Paper-Based Substrates
Biomimetics 2022, 7(3), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics7030100 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1010
Abstract
Mycelium-based composites have the potential to replace petrochemical-based materials within architectural systems and can propose biodegradable alternatives to synthetic sound absorbing materials. Sound absorbing materials help improve acoustic comfort, which in turn benefit our health and productivity. Mycelium-based composites are novel materials that [...] Read more.
Mycelium-based composites have the potential to replace petrochemical-based materials within architectural systems and can propose biodegradable alternatives to synthetic sound absorbing materials. Sound absorbing materials help improve acoustic comfort, which in turn benefit our health and productivity. Mycelium-based composites are novel materials that result when mycelium, the vegetative root of fungi, is grown on agricultural plant-based residues. This research presents a material study that explores how substrate variants and fabrication methods affect the sound absorption properties of mycelium-based composites grown on paper-based waste substrate materials. Samples were grown using Pleurotus ostreatus fungi species on waste cardboard, paper, and newsprint substrates of varying processing techniques. Measurements of the normal-incidence sound absorption coefficient were presented and analyzed. This paper outlines two consecutive acoustic tests: the first round of experimentation gathered broad comparative data, useful for selecting materials for sound absorption purposes. The second acoustic test built on the results of the first, collecting more specific performance data and assessing material variability. The results of this study display that cardboard-based mycelium materials perform well acoustically and structurally and could successfully be used in acoustic panels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Architectures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Exploring the Binding Capacity of Mycelium and Wood-Based Composites for Use in Construction
Biomimetics 2022, 7(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics7020078 - 11 Jun 2022
Viewed by 989
Abstract
Existing research on mycelium-based materials recognizes the binding capacity of fungal hyphae. Fungal hyphae digest and bond to the surface of the substrate, form entangled networks, and enhance the mechanical strength of mycelium-based composites. This investigation was driven by the results of an [...] Read more.
Existing research on mycelium-based materials recognizes the binding capacity of fungal hyphae. Fungal hyphae digest and bond to the surface of the substrate, form entangled networks, and enhance the mechanical strength of mycelium-based composites. This investigation was driven by the results of an ongoing project, where we attempt to provide basic concepts for a broad application of a mycelium and chipped wood composite for building components. Simultaneously, we further explore the binding capacity of mycelium and chipped wood composites with a series of experiments involving different mechanical interlocking patterns. Although the matrix material was analyzed on a micro-scale, the samples were developed on a meso-scale to enhance the bonding surface. The meso-scale allows exploring the potential of the bio-based material for use in novel construction systems. The outcome of this study provides a better understanding of the material and geometrical features of mycelium-based building elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Architectures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Mycelial Beehives of HIVEOPOLIS: Designing and Building Therapeutic Inner Nest Environments for Honeybees
Biomimetics 2022, 7(2), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics7020075 - 07 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1306
Abstract
The perceptions and definitions of healthy indoor environments have changed significantly throughout architectural history. Today, molecular biology teaches us that microbes play important roles in human health, and that isolation from them puts not only us but also other inhabitants of urban landscapes, [...] Read more.
The perceptions and definitions of healthy indoor environments have changed significantly throughout architectural history. Today, molecular biology teaches us that microbes play important roles in human health, and that isolation from them puts not only us but also other inhabitants of urban landscapes, at risk. In order to provide an environment that makes honeybees more resilient to environmental changes, we aim for combining the thermal insulation functionality of mycelium materials with bioactive therapeutic properties within beehive constructions. By identifying mycelial fungi’s interactions with nest-related materials, using digital methods to design a hive structure, and engaging in additive manufacturing, we were able to develop a set of methods for designing and fabricating a fully grown hive. We propose two digital methods for modelling 3D scaffolds for micro-super organism co-occupation scenarios: “variable-offset” and “iterative-subtraction”, followed by two inoculation methods for the biofabrication of scaffolded fungal composites. The HIVEOPOLIS project aims to diversify and complexify urban ecological niches to make them more resilient to future game changers such as climate change. The combined functions of mycelium materials have the potential to provide a therapeutic environment for honeybees and, potentially, humans in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Architectures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Are Mushrooms Parametric?
Biomimetics 2022, 7(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics7020060 - 10 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1197
Abstract
Designing with biological materials as a burgeoning approach in the architecture field requires the development of new design strategies and fabrication methods. In this paper, we question if designers can use a parametric design approach while working with living materials. The research uses [...] Read more.
Designing with biological materials as a burgeoning approach in the architecture field requires the development of new design strategies and fabrication methods. In this paper, we question if designers can use a parametric design approach while working with living materials. The research uses fungi as a biomaterial probe to experiment with the parametric behavior of living systems. Running design experiments using fungi helps to understand the extent to which biological systems can be considered parametric and, if so, what kind of parametric systems they are. Answering these questions provides a method to work with complex biological systems and may lead to new approaches of fabricating materials by tuning the environmental parameters of biological growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Architectures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Functional Grading of Mycelium Materials with Inorganic Particles: The Effect of Nanoclay on the Biological, Chemical and Mechanical Properties
Biomimetics 2022, 7(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics7020057 - 05 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1726
Abstract
Biological materials that are created by growing mycelium-forming fungal microorganisms on natural fibers can form a solution to environmental pollution and scarcity of natural resources. Recent studies on the hybridization of mycelium materials with glass improved fire performance; however, the effect of inorganic [...] Read more.
Biological materials that are created by growing mycelium-forming fungal microorganisms on natural fibers can form a solution to environmental pollution and scarcity of natural resources. Recent studies on the hybridization of mycelium materials with glass improved fire performance; however, the effect of inorganic particles on growth performance and mechanical properties was not previously investigated. Yet, due to the wide variety of reinforcement particles, mycelium nanocomposites can potentially be designed for specific functions and applications, such as fire resistance and mechanical improvement. The objectives of this paper are to first determine whether mycelium materials reinforced with montmorillonite nanoclay can be produced given its inorganic nature, and then to study the influence of these nanoparticles on material properties. Nanoclay–mycelium materials are evaluated in terms of morphological, chemical, and mechanical properties. The first steps are taken in unravelling challenges that exist in combining myco-fabrication with nanomaterials. Results indicate that nanoclay causes a decreased growth rate, although the clay particles are able to penetrate into the fibers’ cell-wall structure. The FTIR study demonstrates that T. versicolor has more difficulty accessing and decaying the hemicellulose and lignin when the amount of nanoclay increases. Moreover, the addition of nanoclay results in low mechanical properties. While nanoclay enhances the properties of polymer composites, the hybridization with mycelium composites was not successful. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Architectures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Multi-Organism Composites: Combined Growth Potential of Mycelium and Bacterial Cellulose
Biomimetics 2022, 7(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics7020055 - 03 May 2022
Viewed by 1234
Abstract
The demand for sustainable materials derived from renewable resources has led to significant research exploring the performance and functionality of biomaterials such as mycelium and bacterial cellulose. Whilst the growing conditions and performance of individual biomaterials are understood, to achieve additional new and [...] Read more.
The demand for sustainable materials derived from renewable resources has led to significant research exploring the performance and functionality of biomaterials such as mycelium and bacterial cellulose. Whilst the growing conditions and performance of individual biomaterials are understood, to achieve additional new and enhanced functionality, an understanding of how biomaterials can be used together as composites and hybrids is required. This paper investigates the compatibility of mycelium and bacterial cellulose as two biomaterials with different qualities for the development of a large-scale biohybrid structure, the BioKnit prototype. Their compatibility was tested through preliminary design experiments and a material tinkering approach. The findings demonstrate that under optimal conditions mycelium and bacterial cellulose can grow in each other’s presence and create composites with an extensive array of functions. However, there is a need to develop further fabrication settings that help to maintain optimal growing conditions and nutrition levels, whilst eliminating problems such as contamination and competition during growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Architectures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of Composition Strategies on Mycelium-Based Composites Flexural Behaviour
Biomimetics 2022, 7(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics7020053 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1492
Abstract
Mycelium-based composites (MBC) are a promising class of relatively novel materials that leverage mycelium colonisation of substrates. Being predicated on biological growth, rather than extraction based material sourcing from the geosphere, MBC are garnering attention as potential alternatives for certain fossil-based materials. In [...] Read more.
Mycelium-based composites (MBC) are a promising class of relatively novel materials that leverage mycelium colonisation of substrates. Being predicated on biological growth, rather than extraction based material sourcing from the geosphere, MBC are garnering attention as potential alternatives for certain fossil-based materials. In addition, their protocols of production point towards more sustainable and circular practices. MBC remains an emerging practice in both production and analysis of materials, particularly with regard to standardisation and repeatability of protocols. Here, we show a series of flexural tests following ASTM D1037, reporting flexural modulus and flexural modulus of rupture. To increase the mechanical proprieties, we contribute with an approach that follows the composition strategy of reinforcement by considering fibre topology and implementing structural components to the substrate. We explore four models that consist of a control group, the integration of inner hessian, hessian jacketing and rattan fibres. Apart from the inner hessian group, the introduction of rattan fibres and hessian jacketing led to significant increases in both strength and stiffness (α = 0.05). The mean of the flexural modulus for the most performative rattan series (1.34 GPa) is still close to three times lower than that of Medium-Density Fibreboard, and approximately 16 times lower in modulus of rupture. A future investigation could focus on developing a hybrid strategy of composition and densification so as to improve aggregate interlocking and resulting strength and stiffness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Architectures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Basic Research of Material Properties of Mycelium-Based Composites
Biomimetics 2022, 7(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics7020051 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1451
Abstract
The subject of this research is growing mycelium-based composites and exploring their basic material properties. Since the building industry is responsible for a large amount of annual CO2 emissions, rethinking building materials is an important task for future practices. Using such composites [...] Read more.
The subject of this research is growing mycelium-based composites and exploring their basic material properties. Since the building industry is responsible for a large amount of annual CO2 emissions, rethinking building materials is an important task for future practices. Using such composites is a carbon-neutral strategy that offers alternatives to conventional building materials. Yet, in order to become competitive, their basic research is still needed. In order to create mycelium-based composites, it was necessary to establish a sterile work environment and develop shaping procedures for objects on a scale of architectural building elements. The composite material exhibited qualities that make it suitable for compression-only structures, temporary assemblies, and acoustic and thermal insulation. The methodology includes evaluating several substrates, focused on beech sawdust, with two mycelium strains (Pleurotus ostreatus and Ganoderma lucidum), density calculations, compression tests, three-point flexural tests and capillary water absorption. The results of this study are presented through graphical and numerical values comparing material and mechanical properties. This study established a database for succeeding investigations and for defining the potentials and limitations of this material. Furthermore, future applications and relevant examinations have been addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Architectures)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Mycelium-Based Composite Graded Materials: Assessing the Effects of Time and Substrate Mixture on Mechanical Properties
Biomimetics 2022, 7(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics7020048 - 19 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1526
Abstract
Mycelium-based composites (MBC) are biodegradable, lightweight, and regenerative materials. Mycelium is the vegetative root of fungi through which they decompose organic matter. The proper treatment of the decomposition process results in MBC. MBC have been used in different industries to substitute common materials [...] Read more.
Mycelium-based composites (MBC) are biodegradable, lightweight, and regenerative materials. Mycelium is the vegetative root of fungi through which they decompose organic matter. The proper treatment of the decomposition process results in MBC. MBC have been used in different industries to substitute common materials to address several challenges such as limited resources and large landfill waste after the lifecycle. One of the industries which started using this material is the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry. Therefore, scholars have made several efforts to introduce this material to the building industry. The cultivation process of MBC includes multiple parameters that affect the material properties of the outcome. In this paper, as a part of a larger research on defining a framework to use MBC as a structural material in the building industry, we defined different grades of MBC to address various functions. Furthermore, we tested the role of substrate mixture and the cultivation time on the mechanical behavior of the material. Our tests show a direct relationship between the density of the substrate and the mechanical strength. At the same time, there is a reverse relation between the cultivation time and the material mechanical performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Architectures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Mycomerge: Fabrication of Mycelium-Based Natural Fiber Reinforced Composites on a Rattan Framework
Biomimetics 2022, 7(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics7020042 - 08 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1778
Abstract
There is an essential need for a change in the way we build our physical environment. To prevent our ecosystems from collapsing, raising awareness of already available bio-based materials is vital. Mycelium, a living fungal organism, has the potential to replace conventional materials, [...] Read more.
There is an essential need for a change in the way we build our physical environment. To prevent our ecosystems from collapsing, raising awareness of already available bio-based materials is vital. Mycelium, a living fungal organism, has the potential to replace conventional materials, having the ability to act as a binding agent of various natural fibers, such as hemp, flax, or other agricultural waste products. This study aims to showcase mycelium’s load-bearing capacities when reinforced with bio-based materials and specifically natural fibers, in an alternative merging design approach. Counteracting the usual fabrication techniques, the proposed design method aims to guide mycelium’s growth on a natural rattan framework that serves as a supportive structure for the mycelium substrate and its fiber reinforcement. The rattan skeleton is integrated into the finished composite product, where both components merge, forming a fully biodegradable unit. Using digital form-finding tools, the geometry of a compressive structure is computed. The occurring multi-layer biobased component can support a load beyond 20 times its own weight. An initial physical prototype in furniture scale is realized. Further applications in architectural scale are studied and proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Architectures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Wood-Veneer-Reinforced Mycelium Composites for Sustainable Building Components
Biomimetics 2022, 7(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics7020039 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2384
Abstract
The demand for building materials has been constantly increasing, which leads to excessive energy consumption for their provision. The looming environmental consequences have triggered the search for sustainable alternatives. Mycelium, as a rapidly renewable, low-carbon natural material that can withstand compressive forces and [...] Read more.
The demand for building materials has been constantly increasing, which leads to excessive energy consumption for their provision. The looming environmental consequences have triggered the search for sustainable alternatives. Mycelium, as a rapidly renewable, low-carbon natural material that can withstand compressive forces and has inherent acoustic and fire-resistance properties, could be a potential solution to this problem. However, due to its low tensile, flexural and shear strength, mycelium is not currently widely used commercially in the construction industry. Therefore, this research focuses on improving the structural performance of mycelium composites for interior use through custom robotic additive manufacturing processes that integrate continuous wood fibers into the mycelial matrix as reinforcement. This creates a novel, 100% bio-based, wood-veneer-reinforced mycelium composite. As base materials, Ganoderma lucidum and hemp hurds for mycelium growth and maple veneer for reinforcement were pre-selected for this study. Compression, pull-out, and three-point bending tests comparing the unreinforced samples to the veneer-reinforced samples were performed, revealing improvements on the bending resistance of the reinforced samples. Additionally, the tensile strength of the reinforcement joints was examined and proved to be stronger than the material itself. The paper presents preliminary experiment results showing the effect of veneer reinforcements on increasing bending resistance, discusses the potential benefits of combining wood veneer and mycelium’s distinct material properties, and highlights methods for the design and production of architectural components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Architectures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Tilted Arch; Implementation of Additive Manufacturing and Bio-Welding of Mycelium-Based Composites
Biomimetics 2021, 6(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6040068 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2253
Abstract
Bio-based materials have found their way to the design and fabrication in the architectural context in recent years. Fungi-based materials, especially mycelium-based composites, are a group of these materials of growing interest among scholars due to their light weight, compostable and regenerative features. [...] Read more.
Bio-based materials have found their way to the design and fabrication in the architectural context in recent years. Fungi-based materials, especially mycelium-based composites, are a group of these materials of growing interest among scholars due to their light weight, compostable and regenerative features. However, after about a decade of introducing this material to the architectural community, the proper ways of design and fabrication with this material are still under investigation. In this paper, we tried to integrate the material properties of mycelium-based composites with computational design and digital fabrication methods to offer a promising method of construction. Regarding different characteristics of the material, we found additive manufacturing parallel to bio-welding is an appropriate fabrication method. To show the feasibility of the proposed method, we manufactured a small-scale prototype, a tilted arch, made of extruded biomass bound with bio-welding. The project is described in the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Architectures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Challenges and Opportunities in Scaling up Architectural Applications of Mycelium-Based Materials with Digital Fabrication
Biomimetics 2022, 7(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics7020044 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1992
Abstract
In an increasing effort to address the environmental challenges caused by the currently linear economic paradigm of “produce, use, and discard”, the construction industry has been shifting towards a more circular model. A circular economy requires closing of the loops, where the end-of-life [...] Read more.
In an increasing effort to address the environmental challenges caused by the currently linear economic paradigm of “produce, use, and discard”, the construction industry has been shifting towards a more circular model. A circular economy requires closing of the loops, where the end-of-life of a building is considered more carefully, and waste is used as a resource. In comparison to traditional building materials such as timber, steel and concrete, mycelium-based materials are renewable alternatives that use organic agricultural and industrial waste as a key ingredient for production, and do not rely on mass extraction or exploitation of valuable finite or non-finite resources. Mycelium-based materials have shown their potential as a more circular and economically competitive alternative to conventional synthetic materials in numerous industries ranging from packaging, electronic prototyping, furniture, fashion to architecture. However, application of mycelium-based materials in the construction industry has been limited to small-scale prototypes and architectural installations due to low mechanical properties, lack of standardisation in production methods and material characterisation. This paper aims to review the current state of the art in research and applications of mycelium-based materials across disciplines, with a particular focus on digital methods of fabrication, production, and design. The information gathered from this review will be synthesised to identify key challenges in scaling up applications of mycelium-based materials as load-bearing structural elements in architecture and suggest opportunities and directions for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Architectures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop