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Open AccessArticle

Periodontitis Stage III–IV, Grade C and Correlated Factors: A Histomorphometric Study

1
Division of Anatomy and Physiopathology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy
2
Section of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, Department of Surgical Specialties, Radiological Science and Public Health, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy
3
Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy
4
Big & Open Data Innovation Laboratory (BODaI-Lab), University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy
5
Department of Health Sciences, University of Piemonte Orientale “UPO”, 28100 Novara, Italy
6
Center for Translational Research on Autoimmune & Allergic Diseases—CAAD, University of Piemonte Orientale “UPO”, 28100 Novara, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Biomedicines 2019, 7(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7020043
Received: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
Background: Periodontitis is a disease that leads to serious functional and esthetic dysfunctions. Periodontitis exists in different forms, and its etiology is related to multiple component causes. Two key processes involved in the evolution of this pathology are angiogenesis and inflammatory infiltrate. The aim of this study was to understand if important factors such as smoking, gender, age, plaque, pus, and probing pocket depth could influence the histomorphological pattern of generalized stage III–IV, grade C periodontitis (GPIII–IVC), which is a particular form of periodontitis. Methods: Eighteen subjects with GPIII–IVC were enrolled in this study. The percentage of inflammatory cells and the vascular area were measured and evaluated in relation to each periodontal disease-associated factor. Results: Females showed a significant increase in the percentage of inflammatory cells compared to males (6.29% vs. 2.28%, p-value = 0.020) and it was higher in non-smokers than in smokers (4.56% vs. 3.14%, p-value = 0.048). Young patients showed a significant increase in vascular area percentage compared to older patients (0.60% vs. 0.46%, p-value = 0.0006) and this percentage was also higher in non-smokers compared to smokers (0.41% vs. 0.55%, p-value = 0.0008). The vascular area was also more than halved in subjects with residual plaque on tooth surfaces (0.74% vs. 0.36%, p-value = 0.0005). Conclusions: These results suggested that even if these factors are commonly related to the worsening of periodontal status, some of them (pus and periodontal probing depth (PPD)) do not affect the inflammatory and vascular patterns. View Full-Text
Keywords: periodontitis; histomorphometric analysis; smoke; plaque; aging periodontitis; histomorphometric analysis; smoke; plaque; aging
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Buffoli, B.; Garzetti, G.; Calza, S.; Scotti, E.; Borsani, E.; Cappa, V.; Rimondini, L.; Mensi, M. Periodontitis Stage III–IV, Grade C and Correlated Factors: A Histomorphometric Study. Biomedicines 2019, 7, 43.

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Biomedicines, EISSN 2227-9059, Published by MDPI AG
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