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Special Issue "Alcoholic Beverages Aging Technologies"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Flavours and Fragrances".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Ignacio Nevares
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural and Forestry Engineering, University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain
Interests: oxygen; micro-oxygenation; woods for enology; oak barrel; permeability; solubility; automatization; wine aging; oak chips
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. María Del Alamo-Sanza
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain
Interests: wine aging; oxygen; oak barrel; oak chips; micro-oxygenation; bottle; woods for enology; analytical chemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Barrel aging is a desirable and valuable process, commonly used to improve wine and other alcoholic beverages’ quality, and traditionally carried out in oak wooden casks. The correct use of oak barrels and the ever-increasing demand for barrels in the different production areas of the world has led to a constant search for technological alternatives to reproduce the chemical and physical processes undergone by alcoholic beverages during their stay in barrels.

The aim of this Special Issue is to publish a compilation of original research and revision works that cover different aspects of the aging processes of wine, beer, spirits, and other alcoholic beverages in casks and other alternative systems that reproduce, with different technologies, the transformations that take place in the barrel.

Important aspects to be addressed are:

  • The type of technological solutions that exist for barrel aging;
  • The impact of these new technologies on the final product;
  • Comparison of the effect of emerging and traditional technologies on the chemical and sensorial characteristics in aged alcoholic beverages;
  • Differentiation of beverages undergoing different aging systems to avoid fraud
  • characterization of the new materials used in cooperage and in the alternative systems to barrel;
  • Accelerated aging of beverages with wood and oxygen;
  • New woods in cooperage;
  • Reductive aging in bottle and alternative containers (BiB, etc.);
  • Influence of cooperage technologies in the aging process.

Original and review papers dealing with all aspects of alcoholic beverage aging or aging technologies are welcome for inclusion in this Special Issue of Molecules.

Prof. Dr. Ignacio Nevares
Prof. Dr. Maria del Alamo Sanza
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Wine aging
  • Barrel
  • Alcoholic beverages
  • Micro-oxygenation
  • Alternatives
  • Oxygen
  • Maturation
  • Bottle aging

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Novel Methods to Manipulate Autolysis in Sparkling Wine: Effects on Yeast
Molecules 2021, 26(2), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26020387 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1098
Abstract
Sparkling wine made by the traditional method (Méthode Traditionelle) develops a distinct and desirable flavour and aroma profile attributed to proteolytic processes during prolonged ageing on lees. Microwave, ultrasound and addition of β-glucanase enzymes were applied to accelerate the disruption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae [...] Read more.
Sparkling wine made by the traditional method (Méthode Traditionelle) develops a distinct and desirable flavour and aroma profile attributed to proteolytic processes during prolonged ageing on lees. Microwave, ultrasound and addition of β-glucanase enzymes were applied to accelerate the disruption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and added to the tirage solution for secondary fermentation in traditional sparkling winemaking. Scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometry analyses were used to observe and describe yeast whole-cell anatomy, and cell integrity and structure via propidium iodide (PI) permeability after 6-, 12- and 18-months post-tirage. Treatments applied produced features on lees that were distinct from that of the untreated control yeast. Whilst control yeast displayed budding cells (growth features) with smooth, cavitated and flat external cell appearances; microwave treated yeast cells exhibited modifications like ‘doughnut’ shapes immediately after treatment (time 0). Similar ‘doughnut’-shaped and ‘pitted/porous’ cell features were observed on progressively older lees from the control. Flow cytometry was used to discriminate yeast populations; features consistent with cell disruption were observed in the microwave, ultrasound and enzyme treatments, as evidenced by up to 4-fold increase in PI signal in the microwave treatment. Forward and side scatter signals reflected changes in size and structure of yeast cells, in all treatments applied. When flow cytometry was interpreted alongside the scanning electron microscopy images, bimodal populations of yeast cells with low and high PI intensities were revealed and distinctive ‘doughnut’-shaped cell features observed in association with the microwave treatment only at tirage, that were not observed until 12 months wine ageing in older lees from the control. This work offers both a rapid approach to visualise alterations to yeast cell surfaces and a better understanding of the mechanisms of yeast lysis. Microwave, ultrasound or β-glucanase enzymes are tools that could potentially initiate the release of yeast cell compounds into wine. Further investigation into the impact of such treatments on the flavour and aroma profiles of the wines through sensory evaluation is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcoholic Beverages Aging Technologies)
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Article
Evaluation of the Storage Conditions and Type of Cork Stopper on the Quality of Bottled White Wines
Molecules 2021, 26(1), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010232 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 875
Abstract
The effects of different storage conditions, light exposure, temperature and different commercially available cork stoppers on the phenolic, volatile and sensorial profile of Verdejo wines were studied. Two natural corks of different visual quality and a microgranulated cork stopper were investigated over one [...] Read more.
The effects of different storage conditions, light exposure, temperature and different commercially available cork stoppers on the phenolic, volatile and sensorial profile of Verdejo wines were studied. Two natural corks of different visual quality and a microgranulated cork stopper were investigated over one year at two different storage conditions. One simulating light exposure and temperature in retail outlets and the other simulating optimal cellar conditions (darkness and 12 °C). The wines stored under commercial conditions showed greater losses of total and free SO2 and higher levels of brown-yellowish tones, related to the oxidation of flavan-3-ols. Although these wines underwent a decrease in the total content of stilbenes, a significant increase in trans-piceid was observed. In addition, these wines suffered important changes in their volatile and sensory profile. Volatile compounds with fruity and floral aromas decreased significantly, while volatile compounds related to aged-type characters, as linalool oxides, vitispirane, TDN or furan derivatives increased. Wines stored in darkness at 12 °C underwent minor changes and their sensory profiles were similar to wine before bottling. The high-quality natural corks and microgranulated corks better preserved the quality of the white wines from a sensory point of view. These results showed that temperature and light exposure conditions (diffuse white LEDs and 24 ± 2 °C) in retail outlets considerably decrease the quality of bottled white wines and, consequently, their shelf life, due to the premature development of aged-type characters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcoholic Beverages Aging Technologies)
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Article
Characterization of Anthocyanins and Anthocyanin-Derivatives in Red Wines during Ageing in Custom Oxygenation Oak Wood Barrels
Molecules 2021, 26(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010064 - 25 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 999
Abstract
The ageing of wines in oak barrels is a key stage in the production of high-quality red wines, with the type of oak chosen and the amount of oxygen received by the wine being the determining factors of the process. This work analyses [...] Read more.
The ageing of wines in oak barrels is a key stage in the production of high-quality red wines, with the type of oak chosen and the amount of oxygen received by the wine being the determining factors of the process. This work analyses the effect of ageing the same red wine in barrels with different oxygenation rates for one year (OTR), specifically the effect on the evolution of anthocyanins, their derivatives and the appearance of new pigments according to the oxygen dosage in barrels. Results show that wines aged in High-Wood-OTR barrels have a large quantity of monomeric anthocyanins and wine aged in Low-Wood-OTR barrels presents a major intensity of colour. Moreover, using LC-MS analysis, it was possible to detect and identify different families of anthocyanin derivatives, including the tentative identification of two new aldehyde-flavanol-methylpyranoanthocyanin pigments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcoholic Beverages Aging Technologies)
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Article
Behaviour of Low Molecular Weight Compounds, Iron and Copper of Wine Spirit Aged with Chestnut Staves under Different Levels of Micro-Oxygenation
Molecules 2020, 25(22), 5266; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225266 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 718
Abstract
Alternative technologies for a more sustainable wine spirits’ ageing have been studied but a lack of knowledge on the effect of oxygenation level remains. This work examined the behaviour of low molecular weight compounds, iron and copper of a wine spirit aged in [...] Read more.
Alternative technologies for a more sustainable wine spirits’ ageing have been studied but a lack of knowledge on the effect of oxygenation level remains. This work examined the behaviour of low molecular weight compounds, iron and copper of a wine spirit aged in 50 L demijohns with chestnut wood staves combined with three levels of micro-oxygenation or nitrogen. Compounds and mineral elements were quantified by HPLC and FAAS, respectively, in samples collected at 8, 21, 60, 180, 270 and 365 days of ageing. Results showed that most of the compounds underwent significant changes in their content over time and behave differently depending on the wine spirit’s oxygenation level: higher contents of gallic acid, syringic acid and vanillin were associated with lower micro-oxygenation level while higher contents of ellagic acid, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde resulted from higher one; lowest contents of these compounds were found in the nitrogen modality. Weak correlation between copper and the studied compounds was evidenced whereas closer relationship between iron, vanillin, gallic, syringic and ellagic acids at end of ageing was observed. This study provides innovative information on the role of oxygen in wine spirit’s ageing, and on chestnut wood effect on wine spirit’s mineral composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcoholic Beverages Aging Technologies)
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Article
Artificial Intelligence Methods for Constructing Wine Barrels with a Controlled Oxygen Transmission Rate
Molecules 2020, 25(14), 3312; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25143312 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 852
Abstract
Oxygen is an important factor in the wine aging process, and the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) is the parameter of the wood that reflects its oxygen permeation. OTR has not been considered in the cooperage industry yet; however, recent studies proposed a nondestructive [...] Read more.
Oxygen is an important factor in the wine aging process, and the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) is the parameter of the wood that reflects its oxygen permeation. OTR has not been considered in the cooperage industry yet; however, recent studies proposed a nondestructive method for estimating the OTR of barrel staves, but an efficient method to combine these staves to build barrels with a desired OTR is needed to implement it in the industry. This article proposes artificial intelligence methods for selecting staves for the construction of barrel heads or bodies with a desired target OTR. Genetic algorithms were used to implement these methods in consideration of the known OTR of the staves and the geometry of the wine barrels. The proposed methods were evaluated in several scenarios: homogenizing the OTR of the actual constructed barrels, constructing low-OTR and high-OTR barrels based on a preclassification of the staves and implementing the proposed method in real cooperage conditions. The results of these experiments suggest the suitability of the proposed methods for their implementation in a cooperage in order to build controlled OTR barrels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcoholic Beverages Aging Technologies)
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Article
Use of Oak and Cherry Wood Chips during Alcoholic Fermentation and the Maturation Process of Rosé Wines: Impact on Phenolic Composition and Sensory Profile
Molecules 2020, 25(5), 1236; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051236 - 09 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1604
Abstract
There is a lack of knowledge about the use of different wood species on rosé wine production. Thus, this work focused on the impact of the addition of wood chips from oak and cherry trees during the alcoholic fermentation and maturation process on [...] Read more.
There is a lack of knowledge about the use of different wood species on rosé wine production. Thus, this work focused on the impact of the addition of wood chips from oak and cherry trees during the alcoholic fermentation and maturation process on rosé wine characteristics. Therefore, phenolic composition and sensory characteristics were monitored during the rosé wines’ production. The use of wood chips during alcoholic fermentation induced a significant increase of phenolic content in rosé musts. During rosé wine maturation, the wood chip contact induced significantly higher values of colored anthocyanins, color intensity, and polymeric pigments, and significantly lower values of color hue in the corresponding rosé wines. In terms of sensory profile, a tendency for lower scores of “overall appreciation” were attributed to control rosé wine, while significantly higher scores for “color intensity” descriptor were attributed to all rosé wines matured in contact with wood chips. For the majority of phenolic parameters and individual phenolic compounds quantified, a clear and specific influence of the use of oak and cherry wood chips was not detected, except for (+)-catechin, where the rosé wines produced in contact with cherry chips showed the highest values. This study provides relevant information for winemakers about the impact of the use of wood chips on rosé wine quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcoholic Beverages Aging Technologies)
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Review

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Review
Bottle Aging and Storage of Wines: A Review
Molecules 2021, 26(3), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26030713 - 29 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
Wine is perhaps the most ancient and popular alcoholic beverage worldwide. Winemaking practices involve careful vineyard management alongside controlled alcoholic fermentation and potential aging of the wine in barrels. Afterwards, the wine is placed in bottles and stored or distributed in retail. Yet, [...] Read more.
Wine is perhaps the most ancient and popular alcoholic beverage worldwide. Winemaking practices involve careful vineyard management alongside controlled alcoholic fermentation and potential aging of the wine in barrels. Afterwards, the wine is placed in bottles and stored or distributed in retail. Yet, it is considered that wine achieves its optimum properties after a certain storage time in the bottle. The main outcome of bottle storage is a decrease of astringency and bitterness, improvement of aroma and a lighter and more stable color. This is due to a series of complex chemical changes of its components revolving around the minimized and controlled passage of oxygen into the bottle. For this matter, antioxidants like sulfur oxide are added to avoid excessive oxidation and consequent degradation of the wine. In the same sense, bottles must be closed with appropriate stoppers and stored in adequate, stable conditions, as the wine may develop unappealing color, aromas and flavors otherwise. In this review, features of bottle aging, relevance of stoppers, involved chemical reactions and storage conditions affecting wine quality will be addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcoholic Beverages Aging Technologies)
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Review
Alternative Woods in Enology: Characterization of Tannin and Low Molecular Weight Phenol Compounds with Respect to Traditional Oak Woods. A Review
Molecules 2020, 25(6), 1474; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25061474 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
Wood is one of the most highly valued materials in enology since the chemical composition and sensorial properties of wine change significantly when in contact with it. The need for wood in cooperage and the concern of enologists in their search for new [...] Read more.
Wood is one of the most highly valued materials in enology since the chemical composition and sensorial properties of wine change significantly when in contact with it. The need for wood in cooperage and the concern of enologists in their search for new materials to endow their wines with a special personality has generated interest in the use of other Quercus genus materials different from the traditional ones (Q. petraea, Q. robur and Q. alba) and even other wood genera. Thereby, species from same genera such as Q. pyrenaica Willd., Q. faginea Lam., Q. humboldtti Bonpl., Q. oocarpa Liebm., Q. stellata Wangenh, Q. frainetto Ten., Q. lyrata Walt., Q. bicolor Willd. and other genera such as Castanea sativa Mill. (chestnut), Robinia pseudoacacia L. (false acacia), Prunus avium L. and P. cereaus L. (cherry), Fraxinus excelsior L. (European ash) and F. americana L. (American ash) have been studied with the aim of discovering whether they could be a new reservoir of wood for cooperage. This review aims to summarize the characterization of tannin and low molecular weight phenol compositions of these alternative woods for enology in their different cooperage stages and compare them to traditional oak woods, as both are essential to proposing their use in cooperage for aging wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcoholic Beverages Aging Technologies)
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