Special Issue "Thermal and Safety Properties of Materials, Cells and Batteries"

A special issue of Batteries (ISSN 2313-0105).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Carlos Ziebert
Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Head of Calorimeter Center, Institute for Applied Materials-Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
Interests: lithium and post-lithium ion batteries; battery calorimetry; thermal characterization of materials/cells/batteries; safety testing; thermal management; multiscale electric, electrochemical, and thermal modeling of cells and batteries
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The thermal behaviour of (post) lithium-ion batteries and their active materials depend on a large variety of internal and environmental physicochemical parameters, which are still not deeply understood. Additionally, the specific materials design and especially the use of nanoscale materials influences heat generation and heat dissipation during operation of the electrochemical cells. Safe lithium-ion batteries are urgently required for an extensive market penetration of electric vehicles and stationary storage systems. Therefore characterization of thermal and safety properties of the cells, batteries and their individual active and passive materials is required in combination with multiscale electrical electrochemical, thermal and thermodynamic modelling to obtain quantitative and reliable thermal and thermodynamic data.

This special issue addresses all techniques that are needed for such a holistic approach from materials to battery level. I want to invite you to publish your original research paper or a review paper in this Special Issue.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Thermal characterisation techniques (DSC, DTA, TG, drop solution calorimetry, battery calorimetry, laser flash, hot-plate, thermography,...) for materials, cells and batteries
  • Studies on different modes of heat generation
  • Studies on the influence of nanoscale materials on the thermal properties
  • Development of safer materials and cell designs for thermal runaway prevention
  • Development and validation of safety tests
  • Studies on the influence of ageing phenomena on thermal properties
  • Thermodynamic Modelling (CALPHAD, kinetic modelling) and database generation
  • Multiscale electric, electrochemical and thermal modelling of batteries
  • Using thermal and thermodynamic data in battery management systems (BMS) and thermal management systems (TMS)

Share your results to get a deeper understanding of the processes that lead to heat generation in cells and batteries both under normal use and abuse conditions. This will be an important milestone to increase their safety and to fully use their potential, because the thermal and safety data are important inputs for battery and thermal management systems.

Dr. Carlos Ziebert
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Batteries is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

 

Keywords

  • Thermal Characterization
  • Active and passive materials
  • Heat generation and dissipation
  • Battery calorimetry
  • Safety Testing
  • Battery management systems
  • Thermal management systems
  • Multiscale electric, electrochemical and thermal modelling
  • Thermodynamic modelling

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Mapping of a Lithium Polymer Batteries Pack with FBGs Network
Batteries 2018, 4(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries4040067 - 07 Dec 2018
Abstract
In this paper, a network of 37 fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors is proposed for real-time, in situ, and operando multipoint monitoring of the surface temperature distribution on a pack of three prismatic lithium polymer batteries (LiPBs). Using the network, a spatial [...] Read more.
In this paper, a network of 37 fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors is proposed for real-time, in situ, and operando multipoint monitoring of the surface temperature distribution on a pack of three prismatic lithium polymer batteries (LiPBs). Using the network, a spatial and temporal thermal mapping of all pack interfaces was performed. In each interface, nine strategic locations were monitored by considering a three-by-three matrix, corresponding to the LiPBs top, middle and bottom zones. The batteries were subjected to charge and discharge cycles, where the charge was carried out at 1.0 C, whereas the discharge rates were 0.7 C and 1.4 C. The results show that in general, a thermal gradient is recognized from the top to the bottom, but is less prominent in the end-of-charge steps. The results also indicate the presence of hot spots between two of the three batteries, which were located near the positive tab collector. This occurs due to the higher current density of the lithium ions in this area. The presented FBG sensing network can be used to improve the thermal management of batteries by performing a spatiotemporal thermal mapping, as well as by identifying the zones which are more conducive to the possibility of the existence of hot spots, thereby preventing severe consequences such as thermal runaway and promoting their safety. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a spatial and temporal thermal mapping is reported for this specific application using a network of FBG sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal and Safety Properties of Materials, Cells and Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle
Simultaneous Sensing of Temperature and Bi-Directional Strain in a Prismatic Li-Ion Battery
Batteries 2018, 4(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries4020023 - 10 May 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Thermal and pressure stability of Li-ion batteries (LiB) are the most important parameters for safety. In abuse operating conditions, the rapid increase of temperature and pressure can cause the appearance of hot-spots, which may lead to an increasing degradation rate or even to [...] Read more.
Thermal and pressure stability of Li-ion batteries (LiB) are the most important parameters for safety. In abuse operating conditions, the rapid increase of temperature and pressure can cause the appearance of hot-spots, which may lead to an increasing degradation rate or even to the battery’s explosion and/or combustion. A sensing network of fiber Bragg gratings is attached to the surface of a prismatic LiB to monitor its temperature and bi-directional strain variations through normal charge (0.70 C) and two different discharge rates (1.32 C and 5.77 C) in the x- and y-directions. More significant variations are registered when the LiB operates in abnormal conditions. A maximum temperature variation of 27.52 ± 0.13 °C is detected by the sensors located close to the positive electrode side. Regarding strain and consequent length variations, maximum values of 593.58 ± 0.01 µε and 51.05 ± 0.05 µm are respectively obtained by the sensors placed on the y-direction. The sensing network presented can be a solution for the real-time monitoring, multipoint and in operando temperature and bi-directional strain variations in the LiBs, promoting their safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal and Safety Properties of Materials, Cells and Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Characteristics of Conversion-Type FeOF Cathode in Li-ion Batteries
Batteries 2017, 3(4), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries3040033 - 23 Oct 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Rutile FeOF was used as a conversion-type cathode material for Li-ion batteries. In the present study, 0.6Li, 1.4Li, and 2.7Li per mole lithiation reactions were carried out by changing the electrochemical discharge reaction depth. The thermal characteristics of the FeOF cathode were investigated [...] Read more.
Rutile FeOF was used as a conversion-type cathode material for Li-ion batteries. In the present study, 0.6Li, 1.4Li, and 2.7Li per mole lithiation reactions were carried out by changing the electrochemical discharge reaction depth. The thermal characteristics of the FeOF cathode were investigated by thermogravimetric mass spectrometric (TG-MS) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) systems. No remarkable HF release was detected, even up to 700 °C, which indicated a low toxic risk for the FeOF cathode. Changes in the thermal properties of the FeOF cathode via different conversion reaction depths in the associated electrolyte were studied by changing the cathode/electrolyte ratio in the mixture. LiFeOF was found to exothermically react with the electrolyte at about 210 °C. Similar exothermic reactions were found with charged FeOF cathodes because of the irreversible Li ions. Among the products of the conversion reaction of FeOF, Li2O was found to exothermically react with the electrolyte at about 120 °C, which induced the main thermal risk of the FeOF cathode. It suggests that the oxygen-containing conversion-type cathodes have a higher thermal risk than the oxygen-free ones, but controlling the cathode/electrolyte ratio in cells successfully reduced the thermal risk. Finally, the thermal stability of the FeOF cathode was evaluated in comparison with FeF3 and LiFePO4 cathodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal and Safety Properties of Materials, Cells and Batteries)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Experimental Analysis of Thermal Runaway in 18650 Cylindrical Li-Ion Cells Using an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter
Batteries 2017, 3(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries3020014 - 12 Apr 2017
Cited by 22
Abstract
In this work, commercial 18650 lithium-ion cells with LiMn2O4, LiFePO4, and Li(Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33)O2 cathodes were exposed to external heating in an accelerating rate calorimeter (es-ARC, Thermal Hazard Technology (THT), Bletchley, UK), [...] Read more.
In this work, commercial 18650 lithium-ion cells with LiMn2O4, LiFePO4, and Li(Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33)O2 cathodes were exposed to external heating in an accelerating rate calorimeter (es-ARC, Thermal Hazard Technology (THT), Bletchley, UK), to investigate the thermal behavior under abuse conditions. New procedures for measuring the external and internal pressure change of cells were developed. The external pressure was measured utilizing a gas-tight cylinder inside the calorimeter chamber, in order to detect the venting of the cells. For internal pressure measurements, a pressure line connected to a pressure transducer was directly inserted into the cell. During the thermal runaway experiments, three stages (low rate, medium rate, and high rate reactions) were observed. Both the pressure and temperature change indicated different stages of exothermic reactions, which produced gases or/and heat. The onset temperature of the thermal runaway was estimated according to the temperature and pressure changes. Moreover, the different activation energies for the exothermic reactions could be derived from Arrhenius plots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal and Safety Properties of Materials, Cells and Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle
Test Method for Thermal Characterization of Li-Ion Cells and Verification of Cooling Concepts
Batteries 2017, 3(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries3010003 - 26 Jan 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
Temperature gradients, thermal cycling and temperatures outside the optimal operation range can have a significant influence on the reliability and lifetime of Li-ion battery cells. Therefore, it is essential for the developer of large-scale battery systems to know the thermal characteristics, such as [...] Read more.
Temperature gradients, thermal cycling and temperatures outside the optimal operation range can have a significant influence on the reliability and lifetime of Li-ion battery cells. Therefore, it is essential for the developer of large-scale battery systems to know the thermal characteristics, such as heat source location, heat capacity and thermal conductivity, of a single cell in order to design appropriate cooling measures. This paper describes an advanced test facility, which allows not only an estimation of the thermal properties of a battery cell, but also the verification of proposed cooling strategies in operation. To do this, an active measuring unit consisting of a temperature and heat flux density sensor and a Peltier element was developed. These temperature/heat flux sensing (THFS) units are uniformly arranged around a battery cell with a spatial resolution of 25 mm. Consequently, the temperature or heat flux density can be controlled individually, thus forming regions with constant temperature (cooling) or zero heat flux (insulation). This test setup covers the whole development loop from thermal characterization to the design and verification of the proposed cooling strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal and Safety Properties of Materials, Cells and Batteries)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Methods for Durability Testing and Lifetime Estimation of Thermal Interface Materials in Batteries
Batteries 2019, 5(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5010034 - 18 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
To ensure sufficient thermal performance within electric vehicle (EV) batteries, thermal interface materials (TIMs), such as pastes or adhesives, are widely used to fill thermally insulating voids between cells and cooling components. However, TIMs are composite materials that are subject to degradation over [...] Read more.
To ensure sufficient thermal performance within electric vehicle (EV) batteries, thermal interface materials (TIMs), such as pastes or adhesives, are widely used to fill thermally insulating voids between cells and cooling components. However, TIMs are composite materials that are subject to degradation over the battery’s lifetime. Using TIMs for battery applications is a new and emerging topic, creating the need to rapidly acquire knowledge about appropriate lifetime testing and evaluation methods, in close collaboration with the battery manufacturers. This paper reviews suitable methods for durability testing as well as basic modeling approaches which allow for the transfer of laboratory results to the longtime behavior of interface materials during a vehicle’s lifetime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal and Safety Properties of Materials, Cells and Batteries)
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