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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Experimental Analysis of Thermal Runaway in 18650 Cylindrical Li-Ion Cells Using an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter

Institute of Applied Materials-Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
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Academic Editor: Andreas Jossen
Batteries 2017, 3(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries3020014
Received: 10 February 2017 / Revised: 27 March 2017 / Accepted: 5 April 2017 / Published: 12 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal and Safety Properties of Materials, Cells and Batteries)
In this work, commercial 18650 lithium-ion cells with LiMn2O4, LiFePO4, and Li(Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33)O2 cathodes were exposed to external heating in an accelerating rate calorimeter (es-ARC, Thermal Hazard Technology (THT), Bletchley, UK), to investigate the thermal behavior under abuse conditions. New procedures for measuring the external and internal pressure change of cells were developed. The external pressure was measured utilizing a gas-tight cylinder inside the calorimeter chamber, in order to detect the venting of the cells. For internal pressure measurements, a pressure line connected to a pressure transducer was directly inserted into the cell. During the thermal runaway experiments, three stages (low rate, medium rate, and high rate reactions) were observed. Both the pressure and temperature change indicated different stages of exothermic reactions, which produced gases or/and heat. The onset temperature of the thermal runaway was estimated according to the temperature and pressure changes. Moreover, the different activation energies for the exothermic reactions could be derived from Arrhenius plots. View Full-Text
Keywords: Li-ion cell; thermal runaway; accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC); pressure change Li-ion cell; thermal runaway; accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC); pressure change
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Lei, B.; Zhao, W.; Ziebert, C.; Uhlmann, N.; Rohde, M.; Seifert, H.J. Experimental Analysis of Thermal Runaway in 18650 Cylindrical Li-Ion Cells Using an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter. Batteries 2017, 3, 14.

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