Recycling of Lithium-Ion Batteries: Processes and Technologies

A special issue of Batteries (ISSN 2313-0105). This special issue belongs to the section "Battery Processing, Manufacturing and Recycling".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2024) | Viewed by 5559

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Nuclear Waste Disposal Research & Analysis, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), 1515 Eubank Boulevard SE, Albuquerque, NM 87123, USA
Interests: lithium-ion batteries; recycling LIB cathode materials; recycling LIB anode materials; lithium-ion battery electrolytes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The recent expansion of the use of lithium-ion batteries (LIB) for various applications, including consumer electronics, electric vehicles, commercial buildings, and electrical grids, in an order of incremental scale, exponentially increases the demand for lithium resources.  The virgin lithium resources are primarily from brines with high concentrations of lithium at ambient temperatures, geothermal brines and spodumene [LiAl(SiO3)2] ores. On the one hand, primary lithium resources are limited, and on the other hand, the extraction of lithium from the primary sources produces environmental impacts, which will result in the applications of LIBs being unsustainable. Therefore, for LIB applications to be sustainable, LIBs must be recycled, as exemplified by the practice of recycling lead acid batteries.  The recycling of LIBs provides not only lithium resources, but also other valuable elements such as Co, Ni, etc., which are used in the production of LIBs. Additionally, this would lead to the reduction of LIBs’ environmental footprint.  This Special Issue is devoted to the recycling of LIBs with regard to the processes and technologies. 

Potential topics for this Special Issue include, but are not limited to:

  • Recycling LIB cathode materials such as LiCoO2, LiNixMnyCoO2, LiMnO2, LiFePO4, etc.;
  • Recycling LIB anode materials such as Li4TiO12, etc.;
  • Recycling LIB electrolytes such as LiPF6, LiBF4, LiClO4, LiSO2, LiB(C2O4)2, etc.;
  • Recycling byproducts formed after the electrolytes react with LIB anode/cathode materials;
  • Thermodynamic constraints for LIB processes and technologies.

Dr. Yongliang Xiong
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • lithium-ion battery anode
  • lithium-ion battery cathode
  • recycling
  • lithium-ion battery electrolytes
  • lithium secondary sources for lithium-ion batteries

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 3665 KiB  
Article
Hydrometallurgical Method of Producing Lithium Perrhenate from Solutions Obtained during the Processing of Li-Ion Battery Scrap
by Katarzyna Leszczyńska-Sejda, Michał Ochmański, Arkadiusz Palmowski, Grzegorz Benke, Alicja Grzybek, Szymon Orda, Karolina Goc, Joanna Malarz and Dorota Kopyto
Batteries 2024, 10(5), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10050151 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 974
Abstract
The work presents the research results regarding the development of an innovative technology for the production of lithium perrhenate. The new technology is based entirely on hydrometallurgical processes. The source of lithium was solutions created during the processing of Li-ion battery masses, and [...] Read more.
The work presents the research results regarding the development of an innovative technology for the production of lithium perrhenate. The new technology is based entirely on hydrometallurgical processes. The source of lithium was solutions created during the processing of Li-ion battery masses, and the source of rhenium was perrhenic acid, produced from the scraps of Ni-based superalloys. The research showed that with the use of lithium carbonate, obtained from post-leaching solutions of Li-ion battery waste and properly purified (by washing with water, alcohol, and cyclic purification with CO2), and perrhenic acid, lithium perrhenate can be obtained. The following conditions: room temperature, time 1 h, 30% excess of lithium carbonate, and rhenium concentration in the acid from 20 g/dm3 to 300 g/dm3, allowed to produce a compound containing a total of 1000 ppm of metal impurities. The developed technology is characterized by the management of all aqueous waste solutions and solid waste and the lack of loss of valuable metals such as rhenium and lithium after the initial precipitation step of lithium carbonate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling of Lithium-Ion Batteries: Processes and Technologies)
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11 pages, 2401 KiB  
Article
Room-Temperature Eutectic Synthesis for Upcycling of Cathode Materials
by W. Blake Hawley, Mengya Li and Jianlin Li
Batteries 2023, 9(10), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9100498 - 28 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1588
Abstract
Ni-rich LiNixMnyCo1−x−yO2 (NMC) materials have been adopted in a range of applications, including electric vehicles. The recycled NMC material from a spent cell would be much more valuable if it could be upgraded to a Ni-rich, [...] Read more.
Ni-rich LiNixMnyCo1−x−yO2 (NMC) materials have been adopted in a range of applications, including electric vehicles. The recycled NMC material from a spent cell would be much more valuable if it could be upgraded to a Ni-rich, more energy-dense version of the material. This work demonstrates a simple, inexpensive, and facile method to upcycle LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC111, 160 mAh∙g−1), a cathode used in early generations of electric vehicle batteries, to LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 (NMC811, 190 mAh∙g−1), a more energy-dense cathode material. In this study, a preliminary investigation into a room-temperature eutectic synthesis of NMC811 is performed using NMC111, LiOH, and nickel nitrate as precursors. The synthesized material showed the desired crystal structure and stoichiometry, though the cycle life and Li diffusion coefficient need improvement when compared to commercially available NMC811. This study demonstrates an interesting proof of concept of the room-temperature eutectic synthesis process for LIB cathodes and could be improved by tuning the synthesis conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling of Lithium-Ion Batteries: Processes and Technologies)
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Review

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23 pages, 3026 KiB  
Review
The Review of Existing Strategies of End-of-Life Graphite Anode Processing Using 3Rs Approach: Recovery, Recycle, Reuse
by Alexandra Kosenko, Konstantin Pushnitsa, Alexander A. Pavlovskii, Pavel Novikov and Anatoliy A. Popovich
Batteries 2023, 9(12), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9120579 - 30 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2416
Abstract
While past recycling efforts have primarily concentrated on extracting valuable metals from discarded cathode materials, the focus is now shifting towards anode materials, particularly graphite, which makes up 10–20% of LIB mass. Escalating prices of battery-grade graphite and environmental considerations surrounding its production [...] Read more.
While past recycling efforts have primarily concentrated on extracting valuable metals from discarded cathode materials, the focus is now shifting towards anode materials, particularly graphite, which makes up 10–20% of LIB mass. Escalating prices of battery-grade graphite and environmental considerations surrounding its production highlight the significance of graphite recycling. This review categorizes methods for graphite recovery into three approaches: recovery, recycle, and reuse. Moreover, it explores their potential applications and comparative electrochemical performance analysis, shedding light on the promising prospects of utilizing spent graphite-based functional materials. The review underscores the importance of sustainable recycling practices to address the environmental and economic challenges posed by the proliferation of LIBs and the growing demand for graphite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling of Lithium-Ion Batteries: Processes and Technologies)
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