Special Issue "Weather and Climate Extremes: Current Developments"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Climatology and Meteorology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Anita Drumond

Universidad de Vigo, EPhysLab (Environmental Physics Laboratory), Vigo, Spain
E-Mail
Interests: climate variability; precipitation; moisture transport; extreme events; numerical
Guest Editor
Dr. Margarida L.R. Liberato

Instituto Dom Luiz, Universidade de Lisboa, & Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal
E-Mail
Interests: climate variability and change; natural hazards and impacts; extratropical cyclones; windstorms; storm surges; precipitation; flash-floods; droughts; heatwaves; renewable
Guest Editor
Dr. Michelle Simões Reboita

Universidade Federal de Itajuba, Brazil
E-Mail
Interests: synoptic meteorology; climate modeling; extreme events; climate
Guest Editor
Dr. Andréa S. Taschetto

Climate Change Research Centre and ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate Extremes, University of New South Wales, Australia
E-Mail
Interests: ENSO; Australian precipitation; climate modes of variability; large scale

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

An increasing number of extreme events have been observed around the world over the past few decades, some of them arguably attributed to changes in global temperatures during the 21st century. The uncertainties associated with climate change have resulted in a large amount of interest by scientists on extremes. This Special Issue aims to gather the latest understanding of weather and climate extreme events worldwide from a broad perspective. We welcome different approaches using observations, reanalysis and numerical models for assessing the characteristics and processes of extremes.

Potential topics include, but not limited to:

  • Case studies and climatology of wind extremes, wet and dry spells, as well as of heatwaves and cold spells
  • Variability of wind, precipitation and temperature and the occurrence of extremes at different temporal and spatial scales
  • Droughts and floods: Case studies and climatological analysis
  • Marine heatwaves and marine cold spells
  • Approaches and methods (e.g., indices, metrics, techniques) developed to measure extreme events
  • Mechanisms associated with extreme events: Genesis, development, and termination. Observational and numerical analysis 
  • The role of the oceanic and atmospheric modes of variability for extreme events
  • Extremes and climate change
  • Risks, vulnerability and impacts: Assessment, mitigation and adaptation strategies

Dr. Anita Drumond
Dr. Margarida L.R. Liberato
Dr. Michelle Simões Reboita
Dr. Andréa S. Taschetto
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • weather extremes
  • climate extremes
  • climate variability
  • methods to measure extreme events
  • climate change

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Influence of the Antarctic Oscillation on the South Atlantic Convergence Zone
Atmosphere 2018, 9(11), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9110431
Received: 17 June 2018 / Revised: 27 October 2018 / Accepted: 3 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
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Abstract
The South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) is the main summer-typical atmospheric phenomenon occurring in South America, and it is of great interest because it regulates the rainy season in the most populated regions of Brazil. Frequency variability, persistence, and geographical position of the
[...] Read more.
The South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) is the main summer-typical atmospheric phenomenon occurring in South America, and it is of great interest because it regulates the rainy season in the most populated regions of Brazil. Frequency variability, persistence, and geographical position of the SACZ and its relationship with intraseasonal variability is well described in the literature. However, the influence of extratropical forcing on the SACZ is not well understood. Consequently, the aim of this study is to evaluate the role of the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) in SACZ events. The persistence and frequencies of SACZ events, mean, standard deviation of total precipitation per event, lag composite of daily precipitation and geopotential height anomalies were obtained for each phase of the AAO. Therefore, frequency, persistence and total precipitation of SACZ events were higher in positive AAO (AAO+) than negative AAO (AAO−). A teleconnection mechanism between the extratropics and the SACZ region is evident in AAO+, through intensification of the polar and subtropical jets, in the days preceding SACZ. The same was not observed in the AAO−, where the anomalies were confined in the subtropical region and displaced to the South Atlantic Ocean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weather and Climate Extremes: Current Developments)
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Open AccessArticle Tropical Atlantic Response to Last Millennium Volcanic Forcing
Atmosphere 2018, 9(11), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9110421
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 27 October 2018
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Abstract
Climate responses to volcanic eruptions include changes in the distribution of temperature and precipitation such as those associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Recent studies suggest an ENSO-positive phase after a volcanic eruption. In the Atlantic Basin, a similar mode of variability
[...] Read more.
Climate responses to volcanic eruptions include changes in the distribution of temperature and precipitation such as those associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Recent studies suggest an ENSO-positive phase after a volcanic eruption. In the Atlantic Basin, a similar mode of variability is referred as the Atlantic Niño, which is related to precipitation variability in West Africa and South America. Both ENSO and Atlantic Niño are characterized in the tropics by conjoined fluctuations in sea surface temperature (SST), zonal winds, and thermocline depth. Here, we examine possible responses of the Tropical Atlantic to last millennium volcanic forcing via SST, zonal winds, and thermocline changes. We used simulation results from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model Last Millennium Ensemble single-forcing experiment ranging from 850 to 1850 C.E. Our results show an SST cooling in the Tropical Atlantic during the post-eruption year accompanied by differences in the Atlantic Niño associated feedback. However, we found no significant deviations in zonal winds and thermocline depth related to the volcanic forcing in the first 10 years after the eruption. Changes in South America and Africa monsoon precipitation regimes related to the volcanic forcing were detected, as well as in the Intertropical Convergence Zone position and associated precipitation. These precipitation responses derive primarily from Southern and Tropical volcanic eruptions and occur predominantly during the austral summer and autumn of the post-eruption year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weather and Climate Extremes: Current Developments)
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Open AccessArticle Seasonal Changes of Extremes in Isolated and Mesoscale Precipitation for the Southeastern United States
Atmosphere 2018, 9(8), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9080309
Received: 1 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Abstract
The association between instantaneous extreme precipitation and mesoscale organization over the southeastern United States is not well known. This study addresses whether isolated precipitation features have a distinct distribution and spatial pattern of extreme rain compared to mesoscale precipitation features, and how these
[...] Read more.
The association between instantaneous extreme precipitation and mesoscale organization over the southeastern United States is not well known. This study addresses whether isolated precipitation features have a distinct distribution and spatial pattern of extreme rain compared to mesoscale precipitation features, and how these distributions and spatial patterns change from spring to summer. Using a four-year surface radar precipitation data set, hourly images of instantaneous extreme rain rates were separated into isolated and mesoscale precipitation features from March through August for the four-year period of 2009–2012. Results show that that compared to isolated convection, mesoscale precipitation organization is more commonly associated with higher extremes in instantaneous rainfall in the southeastern U.S. Extreme rain values tied to mesoscale organization shift eastward and toward the coasts from spring to summer, while extreme rain from isolated convection is mainly a summer phenomenon concentrated in Florida and along the coastal plain. The implication is that dynamical processes favoring mesoscale organization such as high shear associated with baroclinic circulations are more associated with higher values of extreme rain, while thermodynamic forcing and local circulations favoring isolated convection are associated with lower values of extreme rain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weather and Climate Extremes: Current Developments)
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Open AccessArticle Variations in Moisture Supply from the Mediterranean Sea during Meteorological Drought Episodes over Central Europe
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070278
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 15 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
The climate in Central Europe (CEU) during the 20th century is characterized by an overall temperature increase. Severe and prolonged drought events began occurring towards the end and these have continued into the 21st century. This study aims to analyze variations in the
[...] Read more.
The climate in Central Europe (CEU) during the 20th century is characterized by an overall temperature increase. Severe and prolonged drought events began occurring towards the end and these have continued into the 21st century. This study aims to analyze variations in the moisture supply from the Mediterranean Sea (MDS) during meteorological drought episodes occurring over the CEU region over the last three decades. A total of 51 meteorological drought episodes (22 with summer onsets, and 29 with winter) are identified over the CEU during the period 1980–2015 through the one-month Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI-1), and their respective indicators, including duration, severity, intensity, and peak values, are then computed. Lagrangian forward-in-time analysis reveals that negative anomalies of moisture coming from the MDS prevail in all episodes except seven. Linear regression analysis between variations in the MDS anomalies and indicators of the drought episodes shows a significant linear relationship between severity, duration, peak values (winter), and MDS anomalies, which implies that drought episodes last longer and are more severe with an increase in the negative anomaly of moisture supply from the MDS. Nevertheless, no linear relationship is found between the intensity and peak values (annual, summer) of drought episodes and anomalies in the moisture contribution from the MDS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weather and Climate Extremes: Current Developments)
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Open AccessArticle Combined Effects of Synoptic-Scale Teleconnection Patterns on Summer Precipitation in Southern China
Atmosphere 2018, 9(4), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9040154
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 8 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Using ERA-Interim daily reanalysis and precipitation data, the combined effects of East Asia-Pacific (EAP) and Silk Road (SR) teleconnection patterns on summer precipitation in Southern China were investigated on synoptic to sub-monthly timescales. Combined EAP and SR patterns lead to more persistent and
[...] Read more.
Using ERA-Interim daily reanalysis and precipitation data, the combined effects of East Asia-Pacific (EAP) and Silk Road (SR) teleconnection patterns on summer precipitation in Southern China were investigated on synoptic to sub-monthly timescales. Combined EAP and SR patterns lead to more persistent and extreme precipitation in the Yangtze River Valley (YRV) and exhibit an obvious zonal advance between the South Asia High (SAH) and Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) prior to its onset. During typical combined events, an overlap between the SAH and WPSH remains in a favorable position for Persistent Extreme Precipitation (PEP). Furthermore, SR-induced acceleration of the westerly jet stream and extra positive vorticity advection provide persistent upper-level divergence for YRV precipitation. An anomalous EAP-related cyclone/anticyclone pair over East Asia induces enhanced low-level southwesterlies to the northern anticyclone flank and northerlies from the mid-latitudes, advecting anomalously abundant moisture toward the YRV, resulting in clear moisture convergence. Moreover, the strong ascent of warmer/moister air along a quasi-stationary front may be crucial for PEP. During decay, the SAH and WPSH diverge from each other and retreat to their normal positions, and the strong ascent of warmer/moister air rapidly weakens to dissipation, terminating PEP in the YRV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weather and Climate Extremes: Current Developments)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Tentative Title: Comparisons among circulation anomalies responsible for three distinctive types of heat waves in southern China
Authors: Yi Li 1 and Yang Chen 2
Affiliation: 1. Public Meteorological Service Center of China, Meteorological Administration
                 2. Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences
Abstract:
We anatomize traditional heat waves into three non-overlapping types, daytime-only events (extreme Tmax, normal Tmin), nighttime-only events (normal Tmax, extreme Tmin), and compound heat wave (extreme Tmax and Tmin), based on the configuration between Tmax and Tmin. Based on historical events identified in southern part of China, large-scale circulation anomalies producing these three types of heat waves are investigated and compared. Synoptic precursors for these typical circulation patterns are also portrayed in detail. The identification of typical circulation patterns and their precursors would facilitate the physical understanding of mechanisms and predictions for these heat waves exerting differing impacts and having
various levels of disaster-causing potential for different sectors and systems.
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