Special Issue "Interaction Processes between Atmosphere and Sea-Land-Snow-Ice in the Polar Regions"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosphere/Hydrosphere/Land–Atmosphere Interactions".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Mauro Mazzola
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (CNR-ISAC)
Tel. +39 051 639 9592
Interests: : my main research interest is the study of the atmospheric constituents (specifically aerosols) and physical processes in the boundary layer, as well as the interactions of the atmosphere with the other components of the climatic system, in particular in Polar regions
Dr. Angelo P. Viola
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (CNR-ISAC)
Interests: My main research activities are concerned with the study of the local processes in the atmosheric boundary layer, energy fluxes and interaction between the interfaces (sea, land, snow) and the atmosphere at different time and space scales

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The environment of the Polar regions is experiencing enormous and rapid changes compared to other areas of Earth, with a strong impact on local ecosystems. The air temperature in the Arctic has increased in the last decades at a rate of 2–3 times that of the global average temperature and sea ice is reaching new negative records from year to year. Even in the Antarctic, the ice sheets have experienced a melting acceleration in the last two decades. Although the main feedback schemes that amplify these changes in polar areas have long been known, current forecasting models still cannot correctly quantify the scope of these changes. Furthermore, changes in the Polar regions are not only influenced by the mid-latitude activities, but have counterpart effects on the entire planet.

The above considerations justify the need to conduct further studies of the processes occurring in these areas of the planet. In these places, the atmosphere interacts and connects all the terrestrial components that determine the climate: the hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Only a greater understanding of the processes of interaction between all these components can help us to improve the models and therefore our knowledge of the future evolution of the Polar regions and, consequently, of the global climate.

This Special Issue will collect contributions that will promote this general aim, including these specific topics: atmospheric deposition, mass and heat fluxes over ocean, exchanges with the snowpack, ice and snow albedo, permafrost thawing and carbon release, particle nucleation from biota, etc.

Dr. Mauro Mazzola
Dr. Angelo P. Viola
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Polar Regions
  • Interaction Processes
  • Atmosphere
  • Hydrosphere
  • Cryosphere
  • Lithosphere
  • Biosphere
  • Climate Change

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Climatology and Trend of Surface Wind Speed over Antarctica and the Southern Ocean and the Implication to Wind Energy Application
Atmosphere 2020, 11(1), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11010108 - 16 Jan 2020
Abstract
Surface wind trends and variability over Antarctica and the Southern Ocean and their implications to wind energy in the region are analyzed using the gridded ERA-Interim reanalysis data between 1979 and 2017 and the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) technique. In general, surface winds are [...] Read more.
Surface wind trends and variability over Antarctica and the Southern Ocean and their implications to wind energy in the region are analyzed using the gridded ERA-Interim reanalysis data between 1979 and 2017 and the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) technique. In general, surface winds are stronger over the coastal regions of East Antarctica and the Transantarctic Mountains and weaker over the Ross and Ronne ice shelves and the Antarctic Peninsula; and stronger in winter and weaker in summer. Winds in the southern Indian and Pacific Oceans and along coastal regions exhibit a strong interannual variability that appears to be correlated to the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) index. A significantly positive trend in surface wind speeds is found across most regions and about 20% and 17% of the austral autumn and summer wind trends, respectively, and less than 1% of the winter and spring wind trends may be explained by the trends in the AAO index. Except for the Antarctic Peninsula, Ronne and Ross ice shelves, and small areas in the interior East Antarctica, most of the continent is found to be suitable for the development of wind power. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of a Sea Fog Episode at King George Island, Antarctica
Atmosphere 2019, 10(10), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10100585 - 26 Sep 2019
Abstract
In this study, a marine fog episode at King George Island off the Antarctic Peninsula from 26–30 January 2017 was investigated using surface observations, upper-air soundings, and re-analysis data as well as the air mass backward trajectory method. The marine fog episode resulted [...] Read more.
In this study, a marine fog episode at King George Island off the Antarctic Peninsula from 26–30 January 2017 was investigated using surface observations, upper-air soundings, and re-analysis data as well as the air mass backward trajectory method. The marine fog episode resulted from an approaching low-pressure system, was maintained at high wind speeds, and quickly dissipated when the low-pressure system passed the observation site. During this episode, cloud lay existed above the fog and stratus, the atmosphere was stably stratified for 1600 m, and the air close to the surface was more mixed than air in the upper layer. The air-sea temperature difference (ASTD) of 1–2 °C and a strong surface wind parallel to the gradient of SST were two important factors in the formation and maintenance of the marine fog near the Antarctic region. The convergence of flux for both water vapor and heat during the fog episode was also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Radiosonde-Observed Vertical Profiles and Increasing Trends of Temperature and Humidity during 2005–2018 at the South Pole
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10070365 - 01 Jul 2019
Abstract
The vertical profiles and trends of temperature and humidity at the South Pole up to 10 km above mean sea level (amsl) were investigated by using radiosonde data collected from March 2005 to February 2018. During an average year between 2005 and 2018, [...] Read more.
The vertical profiles and trends of temperature and humidity at the South Pole up to 10 km above mean sea level (amsl) were investigated by using radiosonde data collected from March 2005 to February 2018. During an average year between 2005 and 2018, the highest (lowest) temperature in the lower troposphere was approximately −25 °C (−60 °C) in December (July) at a height of about 500 m above the surface (at the surface). A temperature inversion layer above the surface was found during the whole year but was weaker during the summer, while the inversion layers at the tropopause (about 8 km amsl) mostly disappeared during spring and winter. General warming trends were found at all heights and months, but in a few heights and months cooling trends still occurred (e.g., in September below 7 km amsl). Nevertheless, seasonal and yearly averaged temperatures all presented warming trends: 1.1, 1.3, 0.6, 1.5 and 1.1 °C/decade at the surface, and 0.7, 1.0, 0.3, 0.3 and 0.6 °C/decade for the layer average from the surface to 10 km amsl, for spring, summer, autumn, winter, and yearly average, respectively. Most of the water vapor was confined in the lowermost 3 km of the atmosphere with a maximum of 0.35 g kg−1 in December at a 200 m height above surface, and the specific humidity had the similar characteristic of annual cycle and inversion layers as the temperature. At heights below 5 km amsl, increasing trends of specific humidity larger than 0.02 g kg−1/decade occurred during summer months, including the late spring and early autumn, and the annual mean showed an increasing trend of about 0.01–0.02 g kg−1/decade. Meanwhile, above 5 km amsl, the trends became small and generally less than 0.02 g kg−1/decade in all the months, and beyond 7 km amsl the specific humidity remained almost invariant due to its small moisture content as compared with lower levels. From the surface to 10 km amsl, the specific humidity averaged trends of 0.0062, 0.019, 0.0013, 0.002 and 0.007 g kg−1/decade for spring, summer, autumn, winter and yearly average, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Intraseasonal and Interannual Variability of Arctic Temperature and Specific Humidity Inversions
Atmosphere 2019, 10(4), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10040214 - 22 Apr 2019
Abstract
Temperature and humidity inversions are common in the Arctic’s lower troposphere, and are a crucial component of the Arctic’s climate system. In this study, we quantify the intraseasonal oscillation of Arctic temperature and specific humidity inversions and investigate its interannual variability using data [...] Read more.
Temperature and humidity inversions are common in the Arctic’s lower troposphere, and are a crucial component of the Arctic’s climate system. In this study, we quantify the intraseasonal oscillation of Arctic temperature and specific humidity inversions and investigate its interannual variability using data from the Surface Heat Balance of the Arctic (SHEBA) experiment from October 1997 to September 1998 and the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts (ECMWF) Reanalysis (ERA)-interim for the 1979–2017 period. In January 1998, there were two noticeable elevated inversions and one surface inversion. The transitions between elevated and surface-based inversions were associated with the intraseasonal variability of the temperature and humidity differences between 850 and 950 hPa. The self-organizing map (SOM) technique is utilized to obtain the main modes of surface and elevated temperature and humidity inversions on intraseasonal time scales. Low (high) pressure and more (less) cloud cover are related to elevated (surface) temperature and humidity inversions. The frequency of strong (weak) elevated inversions over the eastern hemisphere has decreased (increased) in the past three decades. The wintertime Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Arctic Dipole (AD) during their positive phases have a significant effect on the occurrence of surface and elevated inversions for two Nodes only. Full article
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