Special Issue "Long Term Climate Variability in the Mediterranean Region"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Climatology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (9 July 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Pedro Ribera
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems Department, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
Interests: climate variability; climate dynamics; climate reconstruction; historical climatology
Dr. M. Carmen Alvarez-Castro
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Climate Simulation and Prediction Division (CSP), Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici, CMCC, 40127 Bologna, Italy
Interests: historical climatology; climate dynamics; extreme events; Mediterranean climate variability; seasonal forecast

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Mediterranean region is an area where prediction at different timescales (subseasonal to decadal or even longer timescales) keeps being a challenge. In order to improve future predictions, the study of the past climate is crucial. By improving our knowledge about the past and the current climate, our knowledge about the future climate will be improved. This Special Issue aims to collect as much information as possible about long-term climate variability in the Mediterranean region. We welcome different studies using observations, proxies, re-analyses and models for assessing the characteristics, the main processes, and the variability of the Mediterranean Climate from the past to the future.

Potential topics include but are not limited to:

  • The past of the Mediterranean region: from the last millennium to historical climatology in the Mediterranean area (using models, proxies or observations);
  • Mechanisms associated with extreme events in the Mediterranean region;
  • Compounds events affecting the Mediterranean region;
  • Assessing the role of the oceanic and atmospheric modes of variability in the Mediterranean region climate using models, observations or proxies;
  • Teleconnections associated to the Mediterranean region;
  • The future of the Mediterranean region: from subseasonal to decadal predictions;
  • Climate change and the Mediterranean region: attribution studies of extreme events associated to the climate change;
  • Risks, vulnerability, and impacts in the Mediterranean region: assessment, mitigation, and adaptation strategies.

Prof. Dr. Pedro Ribera
Dr. M. Carmen Alvarez-Castro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Mediterranean climate
  • climate variability
  • historical climatology
  • climate reconstruction
  • climate models
  • extreme events
  • climate forecast

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Long-Term Climate Variability in the Mediterranean Region
Atmosphere 2020, 11(11), 1172; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11111172 - 30 Oct 2020
Viewed by 576
Abstract
The Mediterranean region is an area where prediction at different timescales (subseasonal to decadal or even longer) is challenging. In order to help constrain future projections, the study of past climate is crucial. By improving our knowledge about the past and current climate, [...] Read more.
The Mediterranean region is an area where prediction at different timescales (subseasonal to decadal or even longer) is challenging. In order to help constrain future projections, the study of past climate is crucial. By improving our knowledge about the past and current climate, our confidence in understanding the future climate will be improved. In this Special Issue, information about long-term climate variability in the Mediterranean region is assessed, including in particular historical climatology and model applications to assess past climate variability, present climate evolution, and future climate projections. The seven articles included in this Special Issue explore observations, proxies, re-analyses, and models for assessing the main characteristics, processes, and variability of the Mediterranean climate. The temporal range of these articles not only covers a wide period going from the present day to as far back as 25 centuries into the past but also covers projections of future climate over the next century. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long Term Climate Variability in the Mediterranean Region)

Research

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Article
An Assessment of Observed and Simulated Temperature Variability in Sierra de Guadarrama
Atmosphere 2020, 11(9), 985; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090985 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 694
Abstract
This work provides a first assessment of temperature variability at interannual and decadal timescales in Sierra de Guadarrama, a high mountain protected area of the Central System in the Iberian Peninsula. Observational data from stations located in the area and simulated data from [...] Read more.
This work provides a first assessment of temperature variability at interannual and decadal timescales in Sierra de Guadarrama, a high mountain protected area of the Central System in the Iberian Peninsula. Observational data from stations located in the area and simulated data from a high-resolution simulation (1 km) with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, fed from ERA Interim reanalysis, are used in order to analyse the temperature variability in the period 2000–2018. Comparison among all datasets allows evaluation of the realism of the model simulations. The results show that the model tends to underestimate the observational mean temperatures and anomalies at high-altitude stations. A linear mean temperature vertical gradient of −5.81 °C/km is observed, but it is overestimated by the model (−6.56 °C/km). The variability of the daily temperature anomalies for both observations and, to a lesser extent, simulations increases with height. The added value that the WRF offers against the use of the ERA Interim is evaluated. The results show that the WRF provides a better performance than the reanalysis, as it shows smaller biases with respect to observational temperature anomalies. Finally, the study of temperature trends over the Sierra de Guadarrama and its surroundings for the period 2000–2018 shows a warming in the area, significantly pronounced in autumn. When extended to the last decades, observations show that this warming has been happening since the first half of the 20th century, especially during the period 1970–2018, but not as much as during 2000–2018. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long Term Climate Variability in the Mediterranean Region)
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Article
The Role of Weather during the Greek–Persian “Naval Battle of Salamis” in 480 B.C.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(8), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080838 - 08 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 8956
Abstract
The Battle of Salamis in 480 B.C. is one of the most important naval battles of all times. This work examines in detail the climatically prevailing weather conditions during the Persian invasion in Greece. We perform a climatological analysis of the wind regime [...] Read more.
The Battle of Salamis in 480 B.C. is one of the most important naval battles of all times. This work examines in detail the climatically prevailing weather conditions during the Persian invasion in Greece. We perform a climatological analysis of the wind regime in the narrow straits of Salamis, where this historic battle took place, based on available station measurements, reanalysis and modeling simulations (ERA5, WRF) spanning through the period of 1960–2019. Our results are compared to ancient sources before and during the course of the conflict and can be summarized as follows: (i) Our climatological station measurements and model runs describing the prevailing winds in the area of interest are consistent with the eyewitness descriptions reported by ancient historians and (ii) The ancient Greeks and particularly Themistocles must have been aware of the local wind climatology since their strategic plan was carefully designed and implemented to take advantage of the diurnal wind variation. The combination of northwest wind during the night and early morning, converging with a south sea breeze after 10:00 A.M., formed a “pincer” that aided the Greeks at the beginning of the clash in the morning, while it brought turmoil to the Persian fleet and prevented them to escape to the open sea in the early afternoon hours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long Term Climate Variability in the Mediterranean Region)
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Article
Contrasting Signals of the Westerly Index and North Atlantic Oscillation over the Drought Sensitivity of Tree-Ring Chronologies from the Mediterranean Basin
Atmosphere 2020, 11(6), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11060644 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 780
Abstract
Extreme drought events are becoming increasingly frequent and extended, particularly in Mediterranean drought-prone regions. In this sense, atmospheric oscillations patterns, such as those represented by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and the Westerly Index (WI) have been widely proven as reliable proxies [...] Read more.
Extreme drought events are becoming increasingly frequent and extended, particularly in Mediterranean drought-prone regions. In this sense, atmospheric oscillations patterns, such as those represented by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and the Westerly Index (WI) have been widely proven as reliable proxies of drought trends. Here, we used the Standardized Precipitation–Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), as a reliable indicator of drought, to investigate the drought sensitivity of tree-ring width data (TRW) from several long-lived tree species (Abies borisii-regis, Abies cilicica, Abies pinsapo, Cedrus atlantica, Cedrus libanii, Pinus nigra, Pinus heldreichii). NAO and WI relations with TRW were also investigated in order to identify potential non-stationary responses among those drought proxies. Our temporal and spatial analyses support contrasting Mediterranean dipole patterns regarding the drought sensitivity of tree growth for each tree species. The spatial assessment of NAO and WI relationships regarding SPEI and TRW showed on average stronger correlations westward with non-stationary correlations between annual WI index and TRW in all species. The results indicate that the drought variability and the inferred drought-sensitive trees species (e.g., C. atlantica) are related to the NAO and the WI, showing that TRW is a feasible proxy to long-term reconstructions of Westerly Index (WI) variability in the Western Mediterranean region. Spatial variability of drought severity suggests a complex association between NAO and WI, likely modulated by an east–west Mediterranean climate dipole. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long Term Climate Variability in the Mediterranean Region)
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Article
Heavy Rainfall and Landslide Event in January 1831 at the Pedregoso Mountains (Cabeza Del Buey, SW Spain)
Atmosphere 2020, 11(5), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11050544 - 23 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1051
Abstract
In this work, a landslide event that took place on January 1831 at the Pedregoso Mountains, Cabeza del Buey, SW Spain, is described. This landslide had not been documented to date and was only described in the local press. This event involved an [...] Read more.
In this work, a landslide event that took place on January 1831 at the Pedregoso Mountains, Cabeza del Buey, SW Spain, is described. This landslide had not been documented to date and was only described in the local press. This event involved an estimated amount of dislodged material in the order of 104 m3. The amount of meteorological data is very scarce as the event occurred before the setting up of the national meteorological service in Spain. However, data from the relatively near location of SW Iberia suggest that the landslide was preceded by a prolonged period of unusually high precipitation totals and that this intense wet period is compatible with the large-scale atmospheric configuration in the winter of 1829–1830. In fact, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index for that winter achieved one of the most negative values observed in the bicentennial period spanning 1821 to 2019. This multidisciplinary work represents the first attempt to report and describe the main triggering mechanism for an historical landslide in the Extremadura region that is similar to other great historical landslides which have already been documented for other locations in Spain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long Term Climate Variability in the Mediterranean Region)
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Article
Analysis of Extreme Temperature Events over the Iberian Peninsula during the 21st Century Using Dynamic Climate Projections Chosen Using Max-Stable Processes
Atmosphere 2020, 11(5), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11050506 - 14 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1088
Abstract
Due to climate change, the Iberian Peninsula is suffering an increasing trend of extreme temperature events. The main objective of this study is to analyse this trends in frequency, duration and intensity of warm events and heat waves. The datasets used are 14 [...] Read more.
Due to climate change, the Iberian Peninsula is suffering an increasing trend of extreme temperature events. The main objective of this study is to analyse this trends in frequency, duration and intensity of warm events and heat waves. The datasets used are 14 different regionalized dynamic climate projections. We choose the projections that present a spatial dependence similar to that of observed data. The spatial dependence is calculated by adjusting the data to max-stable processes. The observed data belong to the SPAIN02 grid for the period 1961–2000. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Theil-Sen estimator to calculate model trends in the future period (2011–2099). We have studied future extreme temperature events using two different definitions. One varying the threshold for each period and the other keeping it constant. The results show that the variability of maximum temperatures is decreasing for the western region of the Peninsula, while the Mediterranean area will see an increase in this variability. There will be an increase in the frequency of warm events for the southwestern corner of the Peninsula. Also, maximum temperatures will be higher in this area at the end of the century. However, in the Mediterranean region the warm events will last longer. Heat waves will be more frequent throughout the territory and more lasting in the Mediterranean area. We also found that studying extreme events using a varying threshold allows these events to be studied from the point of view of the variability of maximum temperatures, while if the study is carried out maintaining the threshold constant the results will be more direct. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long Term Climate Variability in the Mediterranean Region)
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Article
Recovering Climate Data from Documentary Sources: A Study on the Climate in the South of Spain from 1792 to 1808
Atmosphere 2020, 11(3), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11030296 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 797
Abstract
This work analyses new climate data on Southern Spain during the period 1792–1808. The data source is the periodical Correo Mercantil de España y sus Indias (Mercantile Mail of Spain and the Spanish Indies), which published weekly summaries of the weather conditions in [...] Read more.
This work analyses new climate data on Southern Spain during the period 1792–1808. The data source is the periodical Correo Mercantil de España y sus Indias (Mercantile Mail of Spain and the Spanish Indies), which published weekly summaries of the weather conditions in Spain over this period. The study focuses on the southern provinces, providing 2788 new records, some of them corresponding to areas with no previously recorded data (Córdoba, Jaén). The analysis indicates the predominance of cold and dry winters, cold and wet springs, warm and dry summers, and variable autumn conditions, cold and humid in the western provinces while warm and dry in the eastern provinces. Some examples of these situations are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long Term Climate Variability in the Mediterranean Region)
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Article
Pro-Pluvia Rogation Ceremonies in Extremadura (Spain): Are They a Good Proxy of Winter NAO?
Atmosphere 2020, 11(3), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11030282 - 14 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1017
Abstract
Rogation ceremonies are religious requests to God. Pro-pluvia rogations were celebrated during dry conditions to ask God for rain. In this work, we have recovered 37 pro-pluvia rogations from 14 documentary sources (e.g.,: ecclesiastical manuscripts, books, and different magazines and newspapers). All of [...] Read more.
Rogation ceremonies are religious requests to God. Pro-pluvia rogations were celebrated during dry conditions to ask God for rain. In this work, we have recovered 37 pro-pluvia rogations from 14 documentary sources (e.g.,: ecclesiastical manuscripts, books, and different magazines and newspapers). All of the rogations were celebrated in Extremadura region (interior of southwest of Spain) during the period 1824–1931. Climate of Extremadura is strongly dominated by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Therefore, pro-pluvia rogations have been associated to the NAO index and the relationship between them has been analyzed. The most relevant results are found in the relationship between pro-pluvia rogations in month n and the positive values of the NAO index for months n-1 and n-2, being statistically significant at 95% confidence level. Thus, the results evidence that the rogation ceremonies of Extremadura are a good proxy for the NAO index. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long Term Climate Variability in the Mediterranean Region)
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