Special Issue "Interaction between Urban Microclimates and the Buildings"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Climatology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (4 September 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Emmanuel Bozonnet
Website
Guest Editor
Laboratoire des Sciences de l’Ingénieur pour l’Environnement, Université de La Rochelle, 17000 La Rochelle, France
Interests: urban heat island; building energy; cool roof; green roof
Prof. Dr. Christian Inard
Website
Guest Editor
Laboratoire des Sciences de l’Ingénieur pour l’Environnement, Université de La Rochelle, 17000 La Rochelle, France
Interests: design of low energy buildings; indoor thermal comfort and air quality; urban microclimate modelling
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are looking forward to your contribution to this Special Issue on the interaction between urban microclimates and the buildings to answer new environmental challenges and scientific problems.

In the context of urban population growth, maintaining or developing a sustainable environment is a scientific challenge including questions about modelling and understanding interactions between urban microclimates and buildings. From urban atmosphere and air pollution fields over the last 50 years, an increasing number of studies have focused on urban heat island (UHI) effects. The urban microclimate is strongly linked to modified urban surfaces, including the design or the use of buildings and districts. Indoor and outdoor space design impact thermal stress, especially in the context of increasing heatwave risks.

This Special Issue will present new tools or knowledge to better assess the coupling effects between buildings and the urban atmosphere, and include innovative UHI mitigation strategies. The proposed papers could cover, but are not limited to, various spatial scales from city to street or building zones, energy and environmental challenges, urban cooling techniques from the district layout to the building component or material design, as well as key performance indicators or decision support criteria for better urban design.

Dr. Emmanuel Bozonnet
Prof. Dr. Christian Inard
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Urban microclimate
  • Urban heat island
  • Building physics
  • Passive cooling
  • Building energy

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Observational Practices for Urban Microclimates Using Meteorologically Instrumented Unmanned Aircraft Systems
Atmosphere 2020, 11(9), 1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11091008 - 21 Sep 2020
Abstract
The urban boundary layer (UBL) is one of the most important and least understood atmospheric domains and, consequently, warrants deep understanding and rigorous analysis via sophisticated experimental and numerical tools. When field experiments have been undertaken, they have primarily been accomplished with either [...] Read more.
The urban boundary layer (UBL) is one of the most important and least understood atmospheric domains and, consequently, warrants deep understanding and rigorous analysis via sophisticated experimental and numerical tools. When field experiments have been undertaken, they have primarily been accomplished with either a coarse network of in-situ sensors or slow response sensors based on timing or Doppler shifts, resulting in low resolution and decreasing performance with height. Small unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) offer an opportunity to improve on traditional UBL observational strategies that may require substantive infrastructure or prove impractical in a vibrant city, prohibitively expensive, or coarse in resolution. Multirotor UASs are compact, have the ability to take-off and land vertically, hover for long periods of time, and maneuver easily in all three spatial dimensions, making them advantageous for probing an obstacle-laden environment. Fixed-wing UASs offer an opportunity to cover vast horizontal and vertical distances, at low altitudes, in a continuous manner with high spatial resolution. Hence, fixed-wing UASs are advantageous for observing the roughness sublayer above the highest building height where traditional manned aircraft cannot safely fly. This work presents a methodology for UBL investigations using meteorologically instrumented UASs and discusses lessons learned and best practices garnered from a proof of concept field campaign that focused on the urban canopy layer and roughness sublayer of a large modern city with a high-rise urban canopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction between Urban Microclimates and the Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Cooling and Humidification Effects of Different Coverage Types in Small Green Spaces (SGS) in the Context of Urban Homogenization: A Case of HAU Campus Green Spaces in Summer in Zhengzhou, China
Atmosphere 2020, 11(8), 862; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080862 - 14 Aug 2020
Abstract
In the context of global warming, more and more cities are experiencing extreme Urban Heat Island (UHI) effects and extreme weather phenomena, but urban green spaces are proven to mitigate UHI. Most of UHI’s research focuses on the large scale and uses remote [...] Read more.
In the context of global warming, more and more cities are experiencing extreme Urban Heat Island (UHI) effects and extreme weather phenomena, but urban green spaces are proven to mitigate UHI. Most of UHI’s research focuses on the large scale and uses remote sensing methods, which do not reflect the dynamic characteristics in detail and do not detect internal influencing factors of the green space cooling effect. Therefore, this study focused on Small Green Spaces (SGS), carrying out the measurement of the meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity, wind direction, wind speed, photosynthetic radiation) of the 16 sites in four types of coverage (Impervious surface; Shrub-grass; Tree-grass; Tree-shrub-grass) in a university campus. At the same time, the coverage characteristic parameters, such as Canopy Density (CD), Leaf Area Index (LAI), Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR), Mean Leaf Angle (MLA), of each plot were analyzed and compared. The results showed that there were significant differences in temperature among different coverage types in SGS. The biggest difference was concentrated in the noon period when solar radiation is strongest during the day. The difference between the four types of coverage with vegetation at night was small. The maximum air temperature difference among the four types could reach 8.9 ℃ and the maximum relative humidity difference was 28.5%. The cooling effect of the multi-layer vegetation-covered (Tree-shrub-grass) area was the largest compared to the impervious surface, indicating that tree cover was the core factor affecting the temperature. Temperature and relative humidity had a close correlation with surface coverage types and some plant community characteristics (such as CD and LAI). The cooling and humidifying effects of plants were also related to PAR and leaf angle. The results provide suggestions for green space management and landscape design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction between Urban Microclimates and the Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Impacts of Vegetation and Topography on Land Surface Temperature Variability over the Semi-Arid Mountain Cities of Saudi Arabia
Atmosphere 2020, 11(7), 762; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11070762 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Land surface temperature (LST) can fully reflect the water–heat exchange cycle of the earth surface that is important for the study of environmental change. There is little research on LST in the semi-arid region of Abha-Khamis-Mushyet, which has a complex topography. The study [...] Read more.
Land surface temperature (LST) can fully reflect the water–heat exchange cycle of the earth surface that is important for the study of environmental change. There is little research on LST in the semi-arid region of Abha-Khamis-Mushyet, which has a complex topography. The study used LST data, retrieved from ASTER data in semi-arid mountain areas and discussed its relationship with land use/land cover (LULC), topography and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The results showed that the LST was significantly influenced by altitude and corresponding LULC type. In the study area, during the summer season, extreme high-temperature zones were observed, possibly due to dense concrete surfaces. LST among different types of land use differed significantly, being the highest in exposed rocky areas and built-up land, and the lowest in dense vegetation. NDVI and LST spatial distributions showed opposite trends. The LST–NDVI feature space showed a unique ABC obtuse-angled triangle shape and showed an overall negative linear correlation. In brief, the LST could be retrieved well by the emissivity derived NDVI TES method, which relied on upwelling, downwelling, and transmittance. In addition, the LST of the semi-arid mountain areas was influenced by elevation, slope zenith angle, aspect and LULC, among which vegetation and elevation played a key role in the overall LST. This research provides a roadmap for land-use planning and environmental conservation in mountainous urban areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction between Urban Microclimates and the Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Environment Map in Street Canyon for Implementing Extreme High Temperature Measures
Atmosphere 2020, 11(6), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11060550 - 26 May 2020
Abstract
The thermal environment map in street canyon is derived by using GIS building data and more detailed calculation, and its effectiveness is considered for implementing extreme high temperature measures. The influence of mean radiant temperature (MRT) is more dominant than the wind velocity [...] Read more.
The thermal environment map in street canyon is derived by using GIS building data and more detailed calculation, and its effectiveness is considered for implementing extreme high temperature measures. The influence of mean radiant temperature (MRT) is more dominant than the wind velocity on the distribution of standard new effective temperature (SET*) on the typical summer day in street canyon in the urban area of Kobe city, and the solar radiation shading is more effective in suppressing the rise of SET* in the daytime than improving the land coverage. The following strategy of extreme high temperature measures is derived by considering the thermal environment map in street canyon. Pedestrians may find the shaded places on the north-south road until 10:00 a.m. and after 3:00 p.m., due to the eastern building’s shade in the morning and the western building’s shade in the afternoon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction between Urban Microclimates and the Buildings)
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