Special Issue "Climate Extremes in the Pannonian Basin: Current Approaches and Challenges"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Climatology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021) | Viewed by 24779

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Adina-Eliza Croitoru
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physical and Technical Geography, Faculty of Geography, Babeș-Bolyai University, 400347 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Interests: climate extreme; extreme temperature and precipitation indices; heat waves impact; agroclimatology; human biometeorology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent decades, most of the regions around the world have experienced increasingly significant climate changes. Changes in climate extremes are one of the most important topics in modern climate science, due to their major impact on the environment and society. The aim of this Special Issue is to address different approaches and methodologies in analysing climate extremes in the Pannonian Basin, which is the focus area of the Pannonian Basin Experiment (PannEx) Regional Hydroclimate Project of the Global Energy and Water Exchanges Project of the World Meteorological Organisation (GEWEX). This Special Issue intends to cover topics to support our ability to understand and predict climate extremes on both continental and local scales by improving the knowledge of environmental water and energy exchanges on a regional scale related to: the analysis of observation data; synoptic and seasonal conditions generating climate extremes and their impact on a local scale; changes detected in the historical records or estimated based on the modelled data; the social, economic, and environmental impacts of climate extremes; perception, public policies and strategies to be implemented at urban, local and/or regional levels. We invite researchers to submit papers for this Special Issue focusing on climate extremes in the Pannonian Basin region.

This Special Issue is open to all publications on climate extremes (research or review papers) in the Pannonian Basin.

Prof. Dr. Adina-Eliza Croitoru
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • climate extremes
  • climate extremes impact
  • climate extreme policy
  • climate change
  • Pannonian Basin

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Article
Variations in the Peczely Macro-Synoptic Types (1881–2020) with Attention to Weather Extremes in the Pannonian Basin
Atmosphere 2021, 12(8), 1071; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12081071 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 937
Abstract
Daily Peczely circulation types are investigated over 140 years (1881–2020). After presenting monthly mean frequencies and durations of the 13 circulation types, two further questions are investigated: (i) How do the circulation types influence local weather extremes?; (ii) Are there significant trends in [...] Read more.
Daily Peczely circulation types are investigated over 140 years (1881–2020). After presenting monthly mean frequencies and durations of the 13 circulation types, two further questions are investigated: (i) How do the circulation types influence local weather extremes?; (ii) Are there significant trends in the frequency of the original and the grouped circulation types in the recent monotonically warming 50 year period (1971–2020)? The answers are as follows: (i) Four local weather extremes were investigated in nine grid-points of the Pannonian Basin and analyzed in the central months of the seasons. It was established that high precipitation and wind maxima occur in almost all circulation types and months, whereas for both high temperature maxima and low temperature minima, there are six circulation types, where no extremity occurred in one, two, or three investigated months. (ii) In the last 50 years, 37% of the linear seasonal frequency trends have been significant. However, these trends are rarely significant in the shorter monotonously warming (1911–1940) and cooling (1941–1970) 30-year periods. Therefore, the significant trends of the last 50 years are unlikely to be the direct consequences of the monotonous hemispherical warming. Since these hemispherical temperature trends are most likely caused by different sets of physical reasons, the reality of the presented circulation frequency trends needs to be validated by climate models. Full article
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Article
Regional Climate Models Validation for Agroclimatology in Romania
Atmosphere 2021, 12(8), 978; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12080978 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1300
Abstract
Regional climate projections are widely used in impact studies such as adaptations in agronomy. The big challenge of the climate modeling community is to serve valuable instructions regarding the reliability of these simulations to encourage agronomists to use this kind of information properly. [...] Read more.
Regional climate projections are widely used in impact studies such as adaptations in agronomy. The big challenge of the climate modeling community is to serve valuable instructions regarding the reliability of these simulations to encourage agronomists to use this kind of information properly. The study validates 15 high-resolution ensembles from the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment-European Domain (EURO-CORDEX) for maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and precipitation to fulfill this task. Three evaluation metrics are calculated (mean absolute error, root mean square error, and correlation) for the means and the 5th and 95th percentiles. The analyses are elaborated for annual and monthly means and the vegetation periods of maize and winter wheat. Only arable lands are considered to exclude the effects of the topography. Furthermore, an ensemble selection is applied based on the evaluation metrics to reduce the data use. The five models with the best performance in the case of winter wheat are CNRM-CM5-CLMcom-CCLM4-8-17_v1, MOHC-HadGEM2-ES-IPSL-WRF381P_v1, MOHC-HadGEM2-ES-KNMI-RACMO22E_v2, MOHC-HadGEM2-ES-CLMcom-CCLM4-8-17_v1, and MPI-M-MPI-ESM-LR-KNMI-RACMO22E_v1. In the case of the vegetation period of maize, the models with the best skills are MPI-M-MPI-ESM-LR-KNMI-RACMO22E_v1, CNRM-CM5-IPSL-WRF381P_v2, MPI-M-MPI-ESM-LR-SMHI-RCA4_v1a, MOHC-HadGEM2-ES-IPSL-WRF381P_v1, and MOHC-HadGEM2-ES-KNMI-RACMO22E_v2. Quantifying the errors in climate simulations against observations and elaborating a selection procedure, we developed a consistent ensemble of high time and space resolution climate projections for agricultural use in Romania. Full article
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Article
Assimilation of Leaf Area Index and Soil Water Index from Satellite Observations in a Land Surface Model in Hungary
Atmosphere 2021, 12(8), 944; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12080944 - 23 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1249
Abstract
In this study, a Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) is applied over the Carpathian Basin at the Hungarian Meteorological Service to monitor the above-ground biomass, surface fluxes (carbon and water), and the associated root-zone soil moisture at the regional scale (spatial resolution of [...] Read more.
In this study, a Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) is applied over the Carpathian Basin at the Hungarian Meteorological Service to monitor the above-ground biomass, surface fluxes (carbon and water), and the associated root-zone soil moisture at the regional scale (spatial resolution of 8 km × 8 km) in quasi-real-time. In this system the SURFEX model is used, which applies the vegetation growth version of the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere (ISBA-A-gs) photosynthesis scheme to describe the evolution of vegetation. SURFEX is forced using the outputs of the ALADIN numerical weather prediction model run operationally at the Hungarian Meteorological Service. First, SURFEX is run in an open-loop (i.e., no assimilation) mode for the period 2008–2015. Secondly, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) method is used to assimilate Leaf Area Index (LAI) Spot/Vegetation (until May 2014) and PROBA-V (from June 2014) and Soil Water Index (SWI) ASCAT/Metop satellite measurements. The benefit of LDAS is proved over the whole country and to a selected site in West Hungary (Hegyhátsál). It is demonstrated that the EKF can provide useful information both in wet and dry seasons as well. It is shown that the data assimilation is efficient to describe the inter-annual variability of biomass and soil moisture values. The vegetation development and the water and carbon fluxes vary from season to season and LDAS is a capable tool to monitor the variability of these parameters. Full article
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Article
Assessments of Solar, Thermal and Net Irradiance from Simple Solar Geometry and Routine Meteorological Measurements in the Pannonian Basin
Atmosphere 2021, 12(8), 935; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12080935 - 21 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1186
Abstract
In this paper, we discussed several different procedures for calculating irradiation from routine weather measurements and observations. There are between four and eight frequently used parameterizations of radiation balance components in meteorological preprocessors, and we investigated them. First of all, the estimated and [...] Read more.
In this paper, we discussed several different procedures for calculating irradiation from routine weather measurements and observations. There are between four and eight frequently used parameterizations of radiation balance components in meteorological preprocessors, and we investigated them. First of all, the estimated and measured solar and net irradiance were compared. Afterwards, the estimated and measured longwave irradiance were investigated. Then, we recalculated the net irradiance from the sum of global solar irradiance, longwave downwelling irradiance, reflect solar irradiance and upwelling longwave irradiance. Statistical estimates of the described methods were also recalculated compared with each shortwave and longwave radiation budget component measured separately with WMO first-class radiation instruments (Kipp&Zonen CMP6 and CMP11 and CGR3 and CGR4) in the Agrometeorological Observatory Debrecen, Hungary during one-year time period. Finally, we compared the calculated and measured values for longer periods (2008–2010 and 2008–2017) through statistical errors. The suggested parameterizations of the net radiation based on the separately parameterized all radiation balance components were: Foken’s calculation for clear sky solar global irradiance, Beljaars and Bosveld parameterization for albedo, Dilley and O’Brien methodology for the clear sky incoming longwave (LW) irradiance and Holstlag and Van Ulden cloudiness correction for all sky incoming LW and for the LW outgoing irradiance. Full article
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Article
A New Approach for the Analysis of Deep Convective Events: Thunderstorm Intensity Index
Atmosphere 2021, 12(7), 908; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12070908 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1490
Abstract
In this study, an investigation of a new thunderstorm intensity index (TSII) derived from lightning data is performed, along with its relationship to rain, wind, hail and waterspouts as well as instability indices (CAPE, LI, KI, and DLS). The study area is located [...] Read more.
In this study, an investigation of a new thunderstorm intensity index (TSII) derived from lightning data is performed, along with its relationship to rain, wind, hail and waterspouts as well as instability indices (CAPE, LI, KI, and DLS). The study area is located in the northeastern Adriatic and includes various terrain types in a relatively small area (coastal, flatlands, hills and valleys, and mountain regions). The investigated period covers 11 years (2008–2018). The mathematical algorithm standing behind the TSII is based on the well-established methodology of lightning jump, allowing us to recognize areas where intensification in thunderstorms occurred. Our results suggest that these areas (with a positive TSII) experience significantly higher rain intensities and have higher total amounts of precipitation compared with areas where thunderstorms did not generate a TSII. Moreover, 76% of thunderstorm hail cases were associated with the presence of a TSII within a 15 km distance. The maximum reported wind speed also has higher values on a day with a TSII. Out of 27 waterspout events associated with lightning, 77% were related to a TSII. Due to the good spatial (3 km × 3 km) and high temporal (2 min) resolution of lightning data, the TSII can recognize even a local and short-lived intense system that is often misread by radars and satellites due to their inferior temporal resolution. The TSII is designed to be used as a climatological and diagnostic variable that could serve in lieu of more established data sources (e.g., station measurements and observations, radar imagery, etc.) if they are unavailable. Full article
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Article
Analysis of Sub-Daily Precipitation for the PannEx Region
Atmosphere 2021, 12(7), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12070838 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2054
Abstract
The PannEx is a GEWEX-initiated, community driven research network in the Pannonian Basin. One of the main scientific issues to address in PannEx is the investigation of precipitation extremes. Meteorological Services in the PannEx area collected the hourly precipitation data and commonly used [...] Read more.
The PannEx is a GEWEX-initiated, community driven research network in the Pannonian Basin. One of the main scientific issues to address in PannEx is the investigation of precipitation extremes. Meteorological Services in the PannEx area collected the hourly precipitation data and commonly used a computer program, which was developed in the INTENSE project, to produce a set of global hydro-climatic indices. Calculations are carried out on data aggregated 1-, 3- and 6-h intervals. Selected indices are analyzed in this paper to assess the general climatology of the short-term precipitation in the Pannonian basin. The following indices are illustrated on maps and graphs: the annual mean and maxima of 1-h, 3-h and 6-h sums, the count of 3-hr periods greater than 20 mm thresholds, the maximum length of wet hours, the timing of wettest hour and the 1-h precipitation intensity. The seasonal trends of the 1-h precipitation intensity were tested from 1998 to 2019. Analysis of sub-daily precipitation has been limited by the availability of data on a global or a regional scale. The international effort made in this work through collaboration in the PannEx initiative contributes to enlarging the data availability for regional and global analysis of sub-daily precipitation extremes. Full article
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Article
Assessing Hydrological Impact of Forested Area Change: A Remote Sensing Case Study
Atmosphere 2021, 12(7), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12070817 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1308
Abstract
The interaction between precipitation and vegetation plays a significant role in the formation of runoff, and it is still a widely discussed issue in hydrology. The difficulty lies in estimating the degree to which a forest influences runoff generation, especially flood peaks, on [...] Read more.
The interaction between precipitation and vegetation plays a significant role in the formation of runoff, and it is still a widely discussed issue in hydrology. The difficulty lies in estimating the degree to which a forest influences runoff generation, especially flood peaks, on the one hand, due to the small amount of information regarding the evolution of the forest area and density, and, on the other hand, the correlations between these indicators and the runoff and precipitation values. The analysis focuses on a small basin in the mountain region of Romania, the upper basin of the Ruscova River located in northwestern Romania. In this river basin, there is no significant anthropic influence, other than the intense deforestation and reforestation actions. Using satellite images captured by Landsat missions 5, 7 and 8 for the period 1985–2019, the forest canopy density vegetation index was extracted. Using a gridded precipitation dataset, a hydrological model was calibrated based on three scenarios to assess the impact of forest vegetation on the runoff. Analysis of the results of these models conducted on scenarios allowed us to deduce a simple equation for estimating the influence of forest area on maximum river flows. The analysis showed that even small differences in the forest surface area exert an influence on the peak flow, varying between −5.28% and 8.09%. Full article
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Article
Verification of the EURO-CORDEX RCM Historical Run Results over the Pannonian Basin for the Summer Season
Atmosphere 2021, 12(6), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12060714 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
In previous projects that focused on dynamical downscaling over Europe, e.g., PRUDENCE and ENSEMBLES, many regional climate models (RCMs) tended to overestimate summer air temperature and underestimate precipitation in this season in Southern and Southeastern Europe, leading to the so-called summer drying problem. [...] Read more.
In previous projects that focused on dynamical downscaling over Europe, e.g., PRUDENCE and ENSEMBLES, many regional climate models (RCMs) tended to overestimate summer air temperature and underestimate precipitation in this season in Southern and Southeastern Europe, leading to the so-called summer drying problem. This bias pattern occurred not only in the RCM results but also in the global climate model (GCM) results, so knowledge of the model uncertainties and their cascade is crucial for understanding and interpreting future climate. Our intention with this study was to examine whether a warm-and-dry bias is also present in the state-of-the-art EURO-CORDEX multi-model ensemble results in the summer season over the Pannonian Basin. Verification of EURO-CORDEX RCMs was carried out by using the E-OBS gridded dataset of daily mean, minimum, and maximum near-surface air temperature and total precipitation amount with a horizontal resolution of 0.1 degrees (approximately 12 km × 12 km) over the 1971–2000 time period. The model skill for selected period was expressed in terms of four verification scores: bias, centered root mean square error (RMSE), spatial correlation coefficient, and standard deviation. The main findings led us to conclude that most of the RCMs that overestimate temperature also underestimate precipitation. For some models, the positive temperature and negative precipitation bias were more emphasized, which led us to conclude that the problem was still present in most of the analyzed simulations. Full article
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Article
Pannonian Basin Nocturnal Boundary Layer and Fog Formation: Role of Topography
Atmosphere 2021, 12(6), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12060712 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 2140
Abstract
Under high-pressure systems, the nocturnal atmospheric boundary layer in the Pannonian Basin is influenced by gravity flows generated at the mountain ranges and along the valleys, determining the variability of wind and temperature at a local scale and the presence of fog. The [...] Read more.
Under high-pressure systems, the nocturnal atmospheric boundary layer in the Pannonian Basin is influenced by gravity flows generated at the mountain ranges and along the valleys, determining the variability of wind and temperature at a local scale and the presence of fog. The mechanisms at the mountain foothills are explored at Zagreb Airport using data from a sodar and high-resolution WRF-ARW numerical simulations, allowing identification of how the downslope flows from the nearby Medvednica mountain range condition the temperature inversion and the visibility at night and early morning. These flows may progress tens of kilometres away from the mountain ranges, merging with valley flows and converging in the central areas of the basin. The ECMWF model outputs allow us to explore the mesoscale structures generated in form of low-level jets, how they interact when they meet, and what is the effect of the synoptic pressure field over eastern Europe, to illustrate the formation of a basin-wide cold air pool and the generation of fog in winter. Full article
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Article
Assessment of the Urban Impact on Surface and Screen-Level Temperature in the ALADIN-Climate Driven SURFEX Land Surface Model for Budapest
Atmosphere 2021, 12(6), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12060709 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1509
Abstract
Land surface models with detailed urban parameterization schemes provide adequate tools to estimate the impact of climate change in cities, because they rely on the results of the regional climate model, while operating on km scale at low cost. In this paper, the [...] Read more.
Land surface models with detailed urban parameterization schemes provide adequate tools to estimate the impact of climate change in cities, because they rely on the results of the regional climate model, while operating on km scale at low cost. In this paper, the SURFEX land surface model driven by the evaluation and control runs of ALADIN-Climate regional climate model is validated over Budapest from the aspect of urban impact on temperature. First, surface temperature of SURFEX with forcings from ERA-Interim driven ALADIN-Climate was compared against the MODIS land surface temperature for a 3-year period. Second, the impact of the ARPEGE global climate model driven ALADIN-Climate was assessed on the 2 m temperature of SURFEX and was validated against measurements of a suburban station for 30 years. The spatial extent of surface urban heat island (SUHI) is exaggerated in SURFEX from spring to autumn, because the urbanized gridcells are generally warmer than their rural vicinity, while the observed SUHI extent is more variable. The model reasonably simulates the seasonal means and diurnal cycle of the 2 m temperature in the suburban gridpoint, except summer when strong positive bias occurs. However, comparing the two experiments from the aspect of nocturnal UHI, only minor differences arose. The thorough validation underpins the applicability of SURFEX driven by ALADIN-Climate for future urban climate projections. Full article
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Article
Dry Spells in Croatia: Observed Climate Change and Climate Projections
Atmosphere 2021, 12(5), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12050652 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2101
Abstract
This study performs a systematic analysis of the recent and future changes of dry spells (DS) in Croatia. DS are defined as consecutive sequences of days with daily precipitation less than 5 mm of the precipitation-per-day threshold (DS5). Daily precipitation data come from [...] Read more.
This study performs a systematic analysis of the recent and future changes of dry spells (DS) in Croatia. DS are defined as consecutive sequences of days with daily precipitation less than 5 mm of the precipitation-per-day threshold (DS5). Daily precipitation data come from a dense national rain gauge network (covering seven regions) and span the period 1961–2015. The spatial and temporal changes of the observed mean (MDS5) and maximum (MxDS5) seasonal and annual dry spells were analysed by means of the Kendall tau method and the partial trend method. Future changes of DS5 were assessed by employing the three regional climate models (RegCM4, CCLM4 and RCA4) covering the EURO-CORDEX domain with a 12.5-km horizontal resolution, resulting in a realistic orography and land–sea border over Croatia. The models were forced at their boundaries by the four CMIP5 global climate models. For the reference period 1971–2000, the observed, as well as modelled, DS5 were analysed, and the systematic model errors were assessed. Finally, the projections and future changes of the DS5 statistics based on simulations under the high and medium greenhouse gases concentration scenarios (i.e., RCP8.5 and RCP4.5) with a focus on the climate change signal between 1971–2000 and two future periods, 2011–2040 and 2041–2070, were examined. A prevailing increasing trend of MDS5 was found in the warm part of the year, being significant in the mountainous littoral and North Adriatic coastal region. An increasing trend of MxDS5 was also found in the warm part of the year (both the spring and summer), and it was particularly pronounced along the Adriatic coast, while a coherent negative trend pattern was found in the autumn. By applying the partial trend methodology, an increase was found in the very long DS5 (above the 90th percentile) in the recent half of the analysed 55-year period in all seasons, except in the autumn when shortening in the DS5 was detected. The climate change signal during the two analysed future periods was positive for the summer in all regions, weakly negative for the winter and not conclusive for the spring, autumn and year. It was found that no RCM-GCM combination is the best in all cases, since the most successful model combinations depend on the season and location. Full article
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Article
Comparative Analysis between Daily Extreme Temperature and Precipitation Values Derived from Observations and Gridded Datasets in North-Western Romania
Atmosphere 2021, 12(3), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12030361 - 09 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1472
Abstract
Climate gridded datasets are highly needed and useful in conducting data analysis for research and practical purposes. They provide long-term information on various climatic variables for large areas worldwide, making them suitable for use at any spatial level. It is essential to assess [...] Read more.
Climate gridded datasets are highly needed and useful in conducting data analysis for research and practical purposes. They provide long-term information on various climatic variables for large areas worldwide, making them suitable for use at any spatial level. It is essential to assess the accuracy of gridded data by comparing the data to measured values, especially when they are used as input parameters for hydro-climatic models. From the multitude of databases available for North-western Romania, we selected three, particularly the European Climate Assessment and Dataset (E-OBS), the Romanian Climatic Dataset (ROCADA), and the Climate of the Carpathian Region (CARPATCLIM). In this paper, we analyse the extreme precipitation and temperature data derived from the above-mentioned datasets over a common 50-year period (1961–2010) and compare the data with raw values to estimate the degree of uncertainty for each set of data. The observation data, recorded at two meteorological stations located in a complex topography region, were compared to the output of the gridded datasets, by using descriptive statistics for the mean and extreme annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation data, and trend analyses. The main findings are: the high suitability of the ROCADA gridded database for climate trend analysis and of the E-OBS gridded database for extreme temperature and precipitation analysis. Full article
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Article
Weather in the Hungarian Lowland from the Point of View of Humans
Atmosphere 2021, 12(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12010084 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1794
Abstract
Weather at different locations in the Hungarian lowland in different seasons (winter, summer) and times of day (morning, noon) is investigated from the human biometeorological point of view. Human thermal load characteristics of weather are described in terms of clothing resistance and operative [...] Read more.
Weather at different locations in the Hungarian lowland in different seasons (winter, summer) and times of day (morning, noon) is investigated from the human biometeorological point of view. Human thermal load characteristics of weather are described in terms of clothing resistance and operative temperature. Individual human thermal load–thermal sensation relationships have been estimated to study weather variation in the cities of Sopron (cooler part of Hungary) and Szeged (warmer part of Hungary). In the clothing resistance model, the humans are walking at a speed of 1.1 ms−1 in outdoor conditions without sweating. The main findings are as follows. (1) In the early summer mornings, the weather is sensed as “neutral” or “cool”, in these cases the inter-person variation effect is very small. (2) At noon in summer, heat stresses (clothing resistance parameter values less than −2 clo) are registered. In these cases, high temperature and irradiation, as well as low or moderate wind, characterized the atmospheric environment. Then, the inter-person variation effect is clearly visible. (3) The strength of summer heat excess at noon seems to be larger than the strength of winter heat deficit in the early morning. (4) Clothing resistance differences caused by inter-person variations and by weather variations between the cities of Sopron and Szeged are comparable in the majority of cases. When they are not comparable, the site variation effect is much larger than the inter-person variation effect. The clothing resistance model is constructed for individual use and it can be equally applied on both weather and climate data. Full article
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Article
Aridity in the Central and Southern Pannonian Basin
Atmosphere 2020, 11(12), 1269; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11121269 - 24 Nov 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2269
Abstract
For the investigation of geographical, monthly, seasonal, and annual distributions of aridity and its annual trend in the region of the Central and Southern Pannonian Basin (CSPB), which includes the territories of Hungary and Vojvodina (Northern Serbia), the De Martonne Aridity Index (DMAI) [...] Read more.
For the investigation of geographical, monthly, seasonal, and annual distributions of aridity and its annual trend in the region of the Central and Southern Pannonian Basin (CSPB), which includes the territories of Hungary and Vojvodina (Northern Serbia), the De Martonne Aridity Index (DMAI) was used. The DMAI was originally calculated from a total of 78 meteorological stations with the maximum available time series of climatological data in three cases: 1931–2017 for Hungary; 1949–2017 for Vojvodina; and 1949–2017 for Hungary and Vojvodina jointly. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) was used to control the DMAI results. Temperature and precipitation trends were also investigated to understand their effects on the aridity trend. Three aridity types are distinguished on the annual level, five on the seasonal level, and four on the monthly level. The annual aridity had no trends in all three periods. It seems that aridity can be considered a more stable climate indicator of climate change than the temperature, at least in the CSPB. Full article
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