Special Issue "Ultrashort Optical Pulses"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Optics and Lasers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2016).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Antonella Bogoni Website E-Mail
Integrated Research Center for Photonic Networks Technologies, Photonic Networks National Laboratory – CNIT, Italy
Interests: microwave photonics; ultra-fast optical communications; photonic digital processing and nonlinear optics
Guest Editor
Dr. Luca Poletto E-Mail
Senior Research Scientist, National Council for Research of Italy - Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies (CNR-IFN), via Trasea 7 35131 Padova - Italy
Interests: high-order laser harmonics, free-electron lasers, attosecond pulses, extreme-ultraviolet optics, ultrafast beamlines

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Techniques for generating, controlling, manipulating, and measuring ultrashort optical pulses have become increasingly important in many scientific areas including, among others, ultrahigh speed optical communications, photonic signal processing, microwave photonics, optical sensing, biophotonics, spectroscopy and characterization of ultrafast phenomena. Besides the ultrashort pulsewidth, ultra-low phase and amplitude noise are important features for the most of the ultrashort pulse applications. For this reason it is also important to be capable of their characterization. This Special Issues aims to represent a snapshot of the state of the art in ultrashort pulse generation and shaping, ultrashort pulse characterization and utilization. Ultra-short pulses in the whole optical spectrum from near infrared to soft X-rays with low or high repetition rate will be included. Fundamentals, enabling technologies, new techniques and applications will be covered.

Dr. Antonella Bogoni
Dr. Luca Poletto
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • ultrashort optical pulses
  • ultrafast phenomena
  • nonlinear optics
  • ultra-wideband laser
  • optical clock

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Ultrafast Optical Heating Induced Polarization-Dependent Optical Switching in Gold Nanowires
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7010046 - 12 Jan 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Excitation using femtosecond laser pulses induced ultrafast heating of discontinuous gold nanowires, resulting in transient thermal expansion of the gold nanostructures that constitute the nanowires. The cross-plasmon resulting from the closely arranged gold nanostructures along the nanowires was modified by the change in [...] Read more.
Excitation using femtosecond laser pulses induced ultrafast heating of discontinuous gold nanowires, resulting in transient thermal expansion of the gold nanostructures that constitute the nanowires. The cross-plasmon resulting from the closely arranged gold nanostructures along the nanowires was modified by the change in the small gaps due to the thermal effect. This led to the spectral shift of the cross-plasmon resonance and laid the photophysical basis for the optical switching. A femtosecond pump-probe scheme was used to investigate the ultrafast optical switching dynamics. The most efficient optical switching effect was observed when the pump and probe laser pulses were polarized perpendicular and parallel to the discontinuous gold nanowires, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrashort Optical Pulses)
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Open AccessArticle
Unstable and Multiple Pulsing Can Be Invisible to Ultrashort Pulse Measurement Techniques
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7010040 - 29 Dec 2016
Cited by 9
Abstract
Multiple pulsing occurs in most ultrashort-pulse laser systems when pumped at excessively high powers, and small fluctuations in pump power in certain regimes can cause unusual variations in the temporal separations of sub-pulses. Unfortunately, the ability of modern intensity-and-phase pulse measurement techniques to [...] Read more.
Multiple pulsing occurs in most ultrashort-pulse laser systems when pumped at excessively high powers, and small fluctuations in pump power in certain regimes can cause unusual variations in the temporal separations of sub-pulses. Unfortunately, the ability of modern intensity-and-phase pulse measurement techniques to measure such unstable multi-pulsing has not been studied. Here we report calculations and simulations finding that allowing variations in just the relative phase of a satellite pulse causes the second pulse to completely disappear from a spectral interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction (SPIDER) measurement. We find that, although neither frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) nor autocorrelation can determine the precise properties of satellite pulses due to the presence of instability, they always succeed in, at least, seeing the satellite pulses. Also, additional post-processing of the measured FROG trace can determine the correct approximate relative height of the satellite pulse and definitively indicate the presence of unstable multiple-pulsing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrashort Optical Pulses)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantum Control of Population Transfer and Vibrational States via Chirped Pulses in Four Level Density Matrix Equations
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(11), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6110351 - 15 Nov 2016
Cited by 2
Abstract
We investigate the effect of chirped excitation and the excitation detuning on the coherent control of population transfer and vibrational states in a four-level system. Density matrix equations are studied for optimally enhanced processes by considering specific parameters typical of oxazine systems. Our [...] Read more.
We investigate the effect of chirped excitation and the excitation detuning on the coherent control of population transfer and vibrational states in a four-level system. Density matrix equations are studied for optimally enhanced processes by considering specific parameters typical of oxazine systems. Our simulations show a strong dependence on the interplay between chirp and excitation detuning and predict enhancement factors up to 3.2 for population transfer and up to 38.5 for vibrational coherences of electronic excited states. The study of the dynamics of the populations and vibrational coherences involved in the four-level system allows an interpretation of the different enhancement/suppression processes observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrashort Optical Pulses)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Self-Referenced Spectral Interferometry for Femtosecond Pulse Characterization
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7040407 - 18 Apr 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Since its introduction in 2010, self-referenced spectral interferometry (SRSI) has turned out to be an analytical, sensitive, accurate, and fast method for characterizing the temporal profile of femtosecond pulses. We review the underlying principle and the recent progress in the field of SRSI. [...] Read more.
Since its introduction in 2010, self-referenced spectral interferometry (SRSI) has turned out to be an analytical, sensitive, accurate, and fast method for characterizing the temporal profile of femtosecond pulses. We review the underlying principle and the recent progress in the field of SRSI. We present our experimental work on this method, including the development of self-diffraction (SD) effect-based SRSI (SD-SRSI) and transient-grating (TG) effect-based SRSI (TG-SRSI). Three experiments based on TG-SRSI were performed: (1) We built a simple TG-SRSI device and used it to characterize a sub-10 fs pulse with a center wavelength of 1.8 μm. (2) On the basis of the TG effect, we successfully combined SRSI and frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) into a single device. The device has a broad range of application, because it has the advantages of both SRSI and FROG methods. (3) Weak sub-nanojoule pulses from an oscillator were successfully characterized using the TG-SRSI device, the optical setup of which is smaller than the palm of a hand, making it convenient for use in many applications, including sensor monitoring the pulse profile of laser systems. In addition, the SRSI method was extended for single-shot characterization of the temporal contrast of ultraintense and ultrashort laser pulses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrashort Optical Pulses)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Optical Parametric Amplification Techniques for the Generation of High-Energy Few-Optical-Cycles IR Pulses for Strong Field Applications
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7030265 - 08 Mar 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
Over the last few decades, the investigation of ultrafast phenomena occurring in atoms, molecules and solid-state systems under a strong-field regime of light-matter interaction has attracted great attention. The increasing request for a suitable optical technology is significantly boosting the development of powerful [...] Read more.
Over the last few decades, the investigation of ultrafast phenomena occurring in atoms, molecules and solid-state systems under a strong-field regime of light-matter interaction has attracted great attention. The increasing request for a suitable optical technology is significantly boosting the development of powerful ultrafast laser sources. In this framework, Optical Parametric Amplification (OPA) is currently becoming a leading solution for applications in high-power ultra-broadband light burst generation. The main advantage provided by the OPA scheme consists of the possibility of exploring spectral ranges that are inaccessible by other laser technologies, as the InfraRed (IR) window. In this paper, we will give an overview on recent progress in the development of high-power few-optical-cycle parametric amplifiers in the near-IR and in the mid-IR spectral domain. In particular, the design of the most advanced OPA implementations is provided, containing a discussion on the key technical aspects. In addition, a review on their application to the study of strong-field ultrafast physical processes is reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrashort Optical Pulses)
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Open AccessReview
Characteristics and Applications of Spatiotemporally Focused Femtosecond Laser Pulses
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(12), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6120428 - 13 Dec 2016
Cited by 12
Abstract
Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing (SSTF) of femtosecond laser pulses gives rise to strong suppression of nonlinear self-focusing during the propagation of the femtosecond laser beam. In this paper, we begin with an introduction of the principle of SSTF, followed by a review [...] Read more.
Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing (SSTF) of femtosecond laser pulses gives rise to strong suppression of nonlinear self-focusing during the propagation of the femtosecond laser beam. In this paper, we begin with an introduction of the principle of SSTF, followed by a review of our recent experimental results on the characterization and application of the spatiotemporally focused pulses for femtosecond laser micromachining. Finally, we summarize all of the results and give a future perspective of this technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrashort Optical Pulses)
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Open AccessReview
Transient Changes of Optical Properties in Semiconductors in Response to Femtosecond Laser Pulses
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(9), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6090238 - 24 Aug 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this paper we present an overview of our theoretical simulations on the interaction of ultrafast laser pulses with matter. Our dedicated simulation tool, X-ray induced Thermal And Non-thermal Transitions (XTANT) can currently treat semiconductors irradiated with soft to hard X-ray femtosecond pulses. [...] Read more.
In this paper we present an overview of our theoretical simulations on the interaction of ultrafast laser pulses with matter. Our dedicated simulation tool, X-ray induced Thermal And Non-thermal Transitions (XTANT) can currently treat semiconductors irradiated with soft to hard X-ray femtosecond pulses. During the excitation and relaxation of solids, their optical properties such as reflectivity, transmission and absorption, are changing, affected by transient electron excitation and, at sufficiently high dose, by atomic relocations. In this review we report how the transient optical properties can be used for diagnostics of electronic and structural transitions occurring in irradiated semiconductors. The presented methodology for calculation of the complex dielectric function applied in XTANT proves to be capable of describing changes in the optical parameters, when the solids are driven out of equilibrium by intense laser pulses. Comparison of model predictions with the existing experimental data shows a good agreement. Application of transient optical properties to laser pulse diagnostics is indicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrashort Optical Pulses)
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