Special Issue "Textile Reinforced Cement Composites: New Insights in Structural and Material Engineering"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Jan Wastiels
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Vrije Universiteit Brussel, dept. Mechanics of Materials and Constructions (MEMC), Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel, Belgium
Prof. Dr. Tine Tysmans
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Vrije Universiteit Brussel, dept. Mechanics of Materials and Constructions (MEMC), Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel, Belgium

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue welcomes new contributions in the field of textile-reinforced cement composites. These materials include cementitious matrix materials reinforced by fibre textiles (textile-reinforced concrete, textile-reinforced mortar, etc.) in such a way that they show strain hardening behavior under tensile loading. We include investigations on material, component and structural level.

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:  

  • Material composition, characterisation and design
  • Mechanical testing on the macro-scale (e.g. static, fatigue, impact, fire) and the micro/meso-scale (e.g. bonds)
  • Analytical and numerical methods for modelling, simulation and prediction
  • Design guidelines
  • Innovative applications and case studies (incl. strengthening, retrofitting and repair, new structures, hybrid structures, …)
  • Durability, LCA, LCC studies
  • Manufacturing processes, quality control and evaluation

Prof. Dr. Jan Wastiels
Prof. Dr. Tine Tysmans
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • textile
  • fibre
  • fabric
  • cementitious matrix
  • TRC
  • TRM
  • cement composites

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Editorial on Special Issue “Textile-Reinforced Cement Composites: New Insights into Structural and Material Engineering”
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020576 - 13 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 846
Abstract
This special issue presents the latest advances in the field of Textile-Reinforced Cement Composites, including Textile-Reinforced Concrete (TRC), Textile-Reinforced Mortar (TRM), Fabric-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (FRCM), etc. These composite materials distinguish themselves from other fibre reinforced concrete materials by their strain-hardening behaviour under tensile [...] Read more.
This special issue presents the latest advances in the field of Textile-Reinforced Cement Composites, including Textile-Reinforced Concrete (TRC), Textile-Reinforced Mortar (TRM), Fabric-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (FRCM), etc. These composite materials distinguish themselves from other fibre reinforced concrete materials by their strain-hardening behaviour under tensile loading. This Special Issue is composed of 14 papers covering new insights in structural and material engineering. The papers include investigations on the level of the fibre reinforcement system as well as on the level of the composites, investigating their impact and fatigue behaviour, durability and fire behaviour. Both strengthening of existing structures and development of new structural systems such as lightweight sandwich systems are presented, and analysis and design methods are discussed. This Special Issue demonstrates the broadness and intensity of the ongoing advancements in the field of Textile-Reinforced Cement composites and the importance of several future research directions. Full article

Research

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Article
The Impact-Tensile Behavior of Cementitious Composites Reinforced with Carbon Textile and Short Polymer Fibers
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(19), 4048; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9194048 - 27 Sep 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1392
Abstract
The paper at hand focuses on the tensile behavior of ductile cementitious composites reinforced with short, randomly distributed, polymer fibers and a continuous carbon textile under quasi-static and impact loading. Strain-hardening cement-based composites (SHCCs) made of high strength fine-grained matrix with the addition [...] Read more.
The paper at hand focuses on the tensile behavior of ductile cementitious composites reinforced with short, randomly distributed, polymer fibers and a continuous carbon textile under quasi-static and impact loading. Strain-hardening cement-based composites (SHCCs) made of high strength fine-grained matrix with the addition of a 2% volume fraction of 6 mm-long ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers and as-spun poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole) (PBO-AS) fibers, respectively, were reinforced with one layer of carbon textile, which corresponds to a 0.68% volume fraction. The same fine-grained matrix reinforced with carbon textile only served as the reference material. The synergetic action of the two reinforcement types was investigated in uniaxial tension tests on composite specimens, as well as by means of single-yarn pullout tests at displacement rates of 0.05 mm/s in a hydraulic testing machine, and 8 m/s in a tensile split Hopkinson bar. The specimen’s deformations, the formation of cracks, and the fracture processes were monitored optically and subsequently evaluated using digital image correlation (DIC). Full article
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Article
Verification of the Structural Performance of Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete Sandwich Facade Elements
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 2456; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9122456 - 15 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1251
Abstract
As a part of the SESBE (Smart Elements for Sustainable Building Envelopes) project, non-load bearing sandwich elements were developed with Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete (TRRPC) for outer and inner facings, Foam Concrete (FC) for the insulating core and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer [...] Read more.
As a part of the SESBE (Smart Elements for Sustainable Building Envelopes) project, non-load bearing sandwich elements were developed with Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete (TRRPC) for outer and inner facings, Foam Concrete (FC) for the insulating core and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) continuous connectors. The structural performance of the developed elements was verified at various levels by means of a thorough experimental program coupled with numerical analysis. Experiments were conducted on individual materials (i.e., tensile and compressive tests), composites (i.e., uniaxial tensile, flexural and pull-out tests), as well as components (i.e., local anchorage failure, shear, flexural and wind loading tests). The experimentally yielded material properties were used as input for the developed models to verify the findings of various component tests and to allow for further material development. In this paper, the component tests related to local anchorage failure and wind loading are presented and coupled to a structural model of the sandwich element. The validated structural model provided a greater understanding of the physical mechanisms governing the element’s structural behavior and its structural performance under various dead and wind load cases. Lastly, the performance of the sandwich elements, in terms of composite action, was shown to be greatly correlated to the properties of the GFRP connectors, such as stiffness and strength. Full article
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Article
Numerical Modeling of Non-Uniformly Reinforced Carbon Concrete Lightweight Ceiling Elements
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(11), 2348; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9112348 - 07 Jun 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1185
Abstract
The paper focuses on the specifics of macro-scale modeling of thin-walled textile-reinforced concrete shells. Application of layered shell finite elements requires systematic procedures for identification of material characteristics associated with the individual layers within the cross section. The identification of the material parameters [...] Read more.
The paper focuses on the specifics of macro-scale modeling of thin-walled textile-reinforced concrete shells. Application of layered shell finite elements requires systematic procedures for identification of material characteristics associated with the individual layers within the cross section. The identification of the material parameters describing the tensile behavior of a composite cross section is done using data obtained from the tensile test. Such test is usually performed only for a reference configurations with a simple layup of fabrics and a chosen thickness. The question is how to derive the strain-hardening response from the tensile test that is relevant for a changed cross-sectional configuration. We describe and discuss scaling and mixture rules that can be used to modify the material parameters for modified cross-sectional layups. The rules are examined in the context of the test results obtained on a shell that was reinforced non-uniformly, with varying types of textile fabrics and varying thickness within the shell surface. Full article
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Article
Reinforcing Efficiency of Micro and Macro Continuous Polypropylene Fibers in Cementitious Composites
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(11), 2189; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9112189 - 29 May 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1172
Abstract
The effect of the microstructure of hydrophilic polypropylene (PP) fibers in the distribution of cracking associated with the strengthening and toughening mechanism of cement-based composites under tensile loading was studied. Using a filament winding system, continuous cement-based PP fiber composites were manufactured. The [...] Read more.
The effect of the microstructure of hydrophilic polypropylene (PP) fibers in the distribution of cracking associated with the strengthening and toughening mechanism of cement-based composites under tensile loading was studied. Using a filament winding system, continuous cement-based PP fiber composites were manufactured. The automated manufacturing system allows alignment of the fiber yarns in the longitudinal direction at various fiber contents. Composites with surface-modified hydrophilic macro-synthetic continuous polypropylene fibers and monofilament yarns with different diameters and surface structures were used. Samples were characterized using the tensile first cracking strength, post-crack stiffness, ultimate strength, and strain capacity. A range of volume fractions of 1–4% by volume of fibers was used, resulting in tensile first cracking strength in the range of 1–7 MPa, an ultimate strength of up to 22 MPa, and a strain capacity of 6%. The reinforcing efficiency based on crack spacing and width was documented as a function of the applied strain using digital image correlation (DIC). Quantitative analysis of crack width and spacing showed the sequential formation and gradual intermittent opening of several active and passive cracks as the key parameters in the toughening mechanism. Results are correlated with the tensile response and stiffness degradation. The mechanical properties, as well as crack spacing and composite stiffness, were significantly affected by the microstructure and dosage of continuous fibers. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Elevated Temperatures on the TRM-to-Masonry Bond: Comparison of Normal Weight and Lightweight Matrices
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 2156; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9102156 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1068
Abstract
Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM) is a composite material that has already been successfully used as an externally bonded strengthening means of existing structures. The bond of TRM with various substrates is of crucial importance for determining the degree of exploitation of the textile. [...] Read more.
Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM) is a composite material that has already been successfully used as an externally bonded strengthening means of existing structures. The bond of TRM with various substrates is of crucial importance for determining the degree of exploitation of the textile. However, little is known on the effect of elevated/high temperatures on the TRM-to-substrate bond characteristics while relevant testing protocols are also lacking. This study focuses on the experimental assessment of the TRM-to-masonry bond after exposure of masonry wallettes unilaterally furnished with TRM strips at 120 °C and 200 °C for 1 h. The shear bond tests on cooled-down specimens were carried out using the single-lap/single-prism set-up. Two TRM systems were investigated sharing the same type of textile, which is a dry AR glass fiber one (either in a single-layer or in a double-layer configuration) and different matrices: one normal weight (TRNM) and another lightweight (TRLM) of equal compressive strengths. At control conditions (non-heated specimens) and after exposure at a nominal air temperature of 120 °C, both single-layer TRM systems exhibited similar bond capacities. After exposure at a nominal air temperature of 200 °C single-layer and double-layer TRNM overlays outperformed their TRLM counterparts. A critical discussion is based on phenomenological evidence and measured response values. Full article
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Article
Bond Fatigue of TRC with Epoxy Impregnated Carbon Textiles
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 1980; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9101980 - 15 May 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1408
Abstract
For the economical construction of fatigue loaded structures with textile reinforced concrete (TRC), it is necessary to investigate the fatigue behavior of the materials. Since next to the tensile load-bearing behavior, the bond behavior of a material is crucial as well, the present [...] Read more.
For the economical construction of fatigue loaded structures with textile reinforced concrete (TRC), it is necessary to investigate the fatigue behavior of the materials. Since next to the tensile load-bearing behavior, the bond behavior of a material is crucial as well, the present paper deals with the bond fatigue of TRC with epoxy-impregnated carbon textiles. First, static tests are carried out to determine the sufficient anchorage length of the investigated material combination. Afterwards, the influence of cyclic loading on the necessary anchorage length, deformation, stiffness, and residual strength is investigated. The results of the cyclic tests are summarized in stress-number of cycles to failure (S-N) diagrams. In the end, it can be said that the cyclic loading has no negative impact on the necessary anchorage length. If specimens withstand the cyclic loading, there is no difference between their residual strength and the reference strength. The failure of specimens occurs only at high load levels, provided that the anchorage length is sufficient. Full article
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Article
Long-Term Durability of Carbon-Reinforced Concrete: An Overview and Experimental Investigations
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 1651; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9081651 - 21 Apr 2019
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 1547
Abstract
Despite intensive research on material properties of non-metallic technical textiles for internal reinforcement in concrete, the long-term durability is not yet fully understood. In this work, results of preloaded long-term durability tensile tests on carbon-reinforced concrete specimens under environmental factors of stress, temperature, [...] Read more.
Despite intensive research on material properties of non-metallic technical textiles for internal reinforcement in concrete, the long-term durability is not yet fully understood. In this work, results of preloaded long-term durability tensile tests on carbon-reinforced concrete specimens under environmental factors of stress, temperature, moisture and alkalinity are presented. Based on investigations of non-metallic glass fiber reinforcements with polymer matrices, where strength losses occur over time, it was planned to derive a time to failure curve and to determine a reduction factor for the tensile strength of the carbon textile reinforcement. However, no loss of strength was discovered in residual capacity tests due to the high material resistance and therefore no reduction factor due to the environmental factors could be derived. After more than 5000 h of testing, the residual capacity tests showed an increase in the ultimate failure stress in comparison with the short-term tests. In addition to the long term-durability tests, the influence of the preloading was investigated. The preload was applied to the long-term tests and led to a straighter alignment and loading of the filaments and thus to an increase in the ultimate capacity. Full article
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Article
Mechanical Behaviour of TRC Composites: Experimental and Analytical Approaches
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 1492; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9071492 - 10 Apr 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2067
Abstract
Textile reinforced concrete (TRC) is a promising high-performance material that has been employed with success in new constructions, as well as a strengthening layer of existing structural components. In this work, we document the optimisation procedure of textile-based composites for new construction and [...] Read more.
Textile reinforced concrete (TRC) is a promising high-performance material that has been employed with success in new constructions, as well as a strengthening layer of existing structural components. In this work, we document the optimisation procedure of textile-based composites for new construction and for the seismic retrofitting of under-reinforced concrete elements and masonry buildings. The study, aimed at maximising the material performances avoiding waste of economic resources, was addressed by means of a series of uniaxial tensile tests conducted on a wide set of alkali-resistant (AR) glass fabrics and TRCs. The samples differed in terms of cement-based matrices, embedded textiles and addition of dispersed microfibers. The results highlight the effects of fabric characteristics and introduction of short fibres on the mechanical behaviour, proposing novel comparison parameters based upon the load bearing capacity and the deformation response of the composites. The application of simplified analytical models borrowed from the literature finally revealed the limitations of the available predictive approaches, suggesting future lines of investigation. Full article
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Article
Shear Capacity of Textile-Reinforced Concrete Slabs without Shear Reinforcement
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 1382; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9071382 - 01 Apr 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2173
Abstract
A reliable and economic utilization of textile-reinforced concrete in construction requires appropriate design concepts. Unlike designs for bending, the development of models for shear is still the subject of current research. Especially for thin slabs, systematic experimental investigations are lacking. In this paper, [...] Read more.
A reliable and economic utilization of textile-reinforced concrete in construction requires appropriate design concepts. Unlike designs for bending, the development of models for shear is still the subject of current research. Especially for thin slabs, systematic experimental investigations are lacking. In this paper, the results of an experimental campaign on 27 carbon-textile reinforced slab segments tested in three-point bending are presented. The shear-span to depth ratio and member size were key variation parameters in this study. Increasing the structural depth of members led to a reduction in relative shear strength, while variation of shear slenderness controlled the efficiency of direct stress fields between load introduction and support. Interestingly, direct load transfer was activated up to a shear slenderness ratio of 4, which is significantly higher than in reinforced concrete (a/d < 2.5–3) and may result from the bond characteristics of the textile reinforcement. The experimental shear strengths were compared to predictions from existing models for shear of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP)-reinforced concrete. The study shows that these FRP calculation models also predict the ultimate shear force for textile-reinforced concrete (TRC) tests presented in this paper with sufficient accuracy. Existing approaches for the size effect seem transferable as well. In order to validate the models for general use in TRC shear design, a compilation and comparison with larger experimental databases is required in future works. Full article
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Article
Flexural Strengthening of RC Structures with TRC—Experimental Observations, Design Approach and Application
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 1322; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9071322 - 29 Mar 2019
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 1740
Abstract
Today, the need for structural strengthening is more important than ever. Flexural strengthening with textile reinforced concrete (TRC) is a recommendable addition to already proven methods. In order to use this strengthening method in construction practice, a design model is required. This article [...] Read more.
Today, the need for structural strengthening is more important than ever. Flexural strengthening with textile reinforced concrete (TRC) is a recommendable addition to already proven methods. In order to use this strengthening method in construction practice, a design model is required. This article gives a brief overview of the basic behavior of reinforced concrete slabs strengthened with TRC in bending tests as already observed by various researchers. Based on this, a design model was developed, which is presented in the main part of the paper. In addition to the model, its assumptions and limits are discussed. The paper is supplemented by selected application examples to show the possibilities of the described strengthening method. Finally, the article will give an outlook on open questions and current research. Full article
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Article
Fatigue Behaviour of Textile Reinforced Cementitious Composites and Their Application in Sandwich Elements
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 1293; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9071293 - 28 Mar 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1129
Abstract
Using large lightweight insulating sandwich panels with cement composite faces offers great possibilities for the renovation of existing dwellings. During their lifetime, these panels are subjected to wind loading, which is equivalent to a repeated loading. To guarantee the structural performance of these [...] Read more.
Using large lightweight insulating sandwich panels with cement composite faces offers great possibilities for the renovation of existing dwellings. During their lifetime, these panels are subjected to wind loading, which is equivalent to a repeated loading. To guarantee the structural performance of these panels during their entire lifetime, it is necessary to quantify the impact of these loading conditions on the long term. The fatigue behaviour was, therefore, examined in this paper both at the material level of the faces and at the element level as well. plain textile reinforced cementitious composite (TRC) specimens were subjected to 100,000 loading cycles by means of a uniaxial tensile test, while sandwich beams were loaded 100.000 times with a four-point bending test. Results show that the residual behaviour is strongly dependent on the occurrence of cracks. The formation of cracks leads to a reduction of the initial stiffness. The ultimate strength is only affected in a minor way by the preloading history. Full article
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Article
Validation of a Numerical Bending Model for Sandwich Beams with Textile-Reinforced Cement Faces by Means of Digital Image Correlation
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 1253; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9061253 - 25 Mar 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1219
Abstract
Sandwich panels with textile-reinforced cement (TRC) faces merge both structural and insulating performance into one lightweight construction element. To design with sandwich panels, predictive numerical models need to be thoroughly validated, in order to use them with high confidence and reliability. Numerical bending [...] Read more.
Sandwich panels with textile-reinforced cement (TRC) faces merge both structural and insulating performance into one lightweight construction element. To design with sandwich panels, predictive numerical models need to be thoroughly validated, in order to use them with high confidence and reliability. Numerical bending models established in literature have been validated by means of local displacement measurements, but are missing a full surface strain validation. Therefore, four-point bending tests monitored by a digital image correlation system were compared with a numerical bending model, leading to a thorough validation of that numerical model. Monitoring with a digital image correlation (DIC) system gave a highly detailed image of behaviour during bending and the strains in the different materials of the sandwich panel. The measured strains validated the numerical model predictions of, amongst others, the multiple cracking of the TRC tensile face and the shear deformation of the core. Full article
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Article
Thermomechanical Behavior of Textile Reinforced Cementitious Composites Subjected to Fire
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040747 - 21 Feb 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1368
Abstract
The mechanical behavior of textile reinforced cementitious composites (TRC) has been a topic of wide investigation during the past 30 years. However, most of the investigation is focused on the behavior under ambient temperatures, while only a few studies about the behavior under [...] Read more.
The mechanical behavior of textile reinforced cementitious composites (TRC) has been a topic of wide investigation during the past 30 years. However, most of the investigation is focused on the behavior under ambient temperatures, while only a few studies about the behavior under high temperatures have been conducted thus far. This paper focused on the thermomechanical behavior of TRC after exposure to fire and the residual capacity was examined. The parameters that were considered were the fiber material, the thickness of the concrete cover, the moisture content and the temperature of exposure. The specimens were exposed to fire only from one side and the residual strength was measured by means of flexural capacity. The results showed that the critical factor that affects the residual strength was the coating of the textiles and the law of the coating mass loss with respect to temperature. The effect of the other parameters was not quantified. The degradation of the compressive strength of TRC was quantified with respect to temperature. It was also concluded that a highly asymmetrical design scheme might lead to premature failure. Full article
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Article
Damage Mechanisms of Polymer Impregnated Carbon Textiles Used as Anode Material for Cathodic Protection
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9010110 - 29 Dec 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1281
Abstract
Carbon textiles as anode material for cathodic corrosion protection (CP) have been used in several reinforced steel structures. However, experience with durability is limited. To date, various influencing factors have been discovered and systematic tests on different carbon textiles with different impregnation materials [...] Read more.
Carbon textiles as anode material for cathodic corrosion protection (CP) have been used in several reinforced steel structures. However, experience with durability is limited. To date, various influencing factors have been discovered and systematic tests on different carbon textiles with different impregnation materials in various environmental media have been carried out and considered the degradation of the impregnation materials. In this work the boundary potentials are determined at which the impregnation and sizing is destroyed under anodic polarization and the damage mechanisms are described. Full article
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