Special Issue "Advanced Methods for Seismic Performance Evaluation of Building Structures"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Civil Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2020).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Sang Whan Han
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University, 222, Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul, Korea, 04763
Interests: seismic design and performance evaluation; structural dynamics; seismic hazard and risk analysis
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Earthquakes are one of the most dangerous natural events inflicting damage and collapse of buildings and infrastructures. In particular, 10,000 people lose their lives on average from earthquakes each year. Not only do earthquakes come in different sizes, they could also occur anywhere in the globe. The demand to reduce the risk associated with earthquakes has been growing every year and leading to a greater research focus on seismic design and seismic performance evaluation. Recently, the performance-based seismic engineering approach has been adopted in the earthquake engineering community. In this approach, multiple seismic performance objectives are specified explicitly, which are defined with combinations of seismic hazard levels and structural and non-structural performance levels, unlike conventional prescriptive design approaches. Critical components of performance-based seismic design and evaluation procedures include state-of-art technologies relating seismic hazard analyses, robust numerical simulation frameworks, and sophisticated performance-based seismic design and assessment methodologies. Although major technologies have been developed, many challenging obstacles have to be solved to make them implemented in code provisions. The Special Issue of the journal Applied Sciences on “Advanced Methods for Seismic Performance Evaluation of Building Structures” aims to cover recent advances in the development of major components of seismic performance evaluation and design.

Prof. Sang Whan Han
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Numerical models
  • Model parameters
  • Analysis algorithm
  • Seismic performance evaluation
  • Seismic risk
  • Seismic hazards
  • Seismic force resisting systems
  • Energy dissipaters
  • Seismic design and mitigation
  • Assessment method
  • Ground motions
  • Nonlinear response

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue on Advanced Methods for Seismic Performance Evaluation of Building Structures
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7353; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207353 - 21 Oct 2020
Abstract
When an earthquake occurs, it causes great damage to a large area. Although seismic engineering continues to develop, it is reported that recently occurred earthquakes inflicted major damage to various structures and loss of human lives. Such earthquake damage occurs in high seismic [...] Read more.
When an earthquake occurs, it causes great damage to a large area. Although seismic engineering continues to develop, it is reported that recently occurred earthquakes inflicted major damage to various structures and loss of human lives. Such earthquake damage occurs in high seismic regions as well as low to moderate seismic regions. This special issue contains topics on newly developed technologies and methods for seismic performance evaluation and seismic design of building structures. Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Prediction of Structural Type for City-Scale Seismic Damage Simulation Based on Machine Learning
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 1795; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051795 - 05 Mar 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Being the necessary data of the city-scale seismic damage simulations, structural types of buildings of a city need to be collected. To this end, a prediction method of structural types of buildings based on machine learning (ML) is proposed herein. Specifically, using the [...] Read more.
Being the necessary data of the city-scale seismic damage simulations, structural types of buildings of a city need to be collected. To this end, a prediction method of structural types of buildings based on machine learning (ML) is proposed herein. Specifically, using the training data of 230,683 buildings in Tangshan city, China, a supervised ML solution based on a decision forest model was designed for the prediction. The scale sensitivity and regional applicability of the designed solution are discussed, respectively, and the results show that the supervised ML solution can maintain high accuracy for different scales; however, it is only suitable for cities similar to the sample city. For wide applicability for various cities, a semi-supervised ML solution was designed based on sampling investigation and self-training procedures. The downtowns of Daxing and Tongzhou districts in Beijing were selected as a case study for the designed semi-supervised ML solution. The overall prediction accuracies of structural types for Daxing and Tongzhou downtowns can reach 94.8% and 99.5%, respectively, which are acceptable for seismic damage simulations. Based on the predicted results, the distributions of seismic damage in Daxing and Tongzhou downtown were output. This study provides a smart and efficient method for obtaining structural types for a city-scale seismic damage simulation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Numerical Model for Simulating Ground Motions for the Korean Peninsula
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1254; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041254 - 13 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Ground motions are used as input for the response history analyses of a structure. However, the number of ground motions recorded at a site located in low-to-moderate seismic regions such as the Korean Peninsula is few. In this case, artificial ground motions need [...] Read more.
Ground motions are used as input for the response history analyses of a structure. However, the number of ground motions recorded at a site located in low-to-moderate seismic regions such as the Korean Peninsula is few. In this case, artificial ground motions need to be used, which can reflect the characteristics of source mechanism, travel path, and site geology. On 15 November, 2017, the Pohang earthquake, with a magnitude of 5.4 and a focal depth of 9 km, occurred near the city of Pohang. This earthquake caused the most significant economic loss among the earthquakes that occurred in the Korean Peninsula. During the Pohang earthquake, valuable ground motions were recorded at stations distributed in the Korean Peninsula. In this study, a ground motion model is proposed based on ground motions recorded during the 2017 Pohang earthquake. The accuracy of the proposed model is verified by comparing measured and simulated ground motions at 111 recording stations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Seismic Performance of a Mold Transformer through Shaking Table Tests
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010361 - 03 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study presents an experimental seismic investigation of a 1000 kVA cast resin-type hybrid mold transformer through tri-axial shaking table tests. The input acceleration time histories were generated in accordance with the specifications recommended by the International Code Council Evaluation Services Acceptance Criteria [...] Read more.
This study presents an experimental seismic investigation of a 1000 kVA cast resin-type hybrid mold transformer through tri-axial shaking table tests. The input acceleration time histories were generated in accordance with the specifications recommended by the International Code Council Evaluation Services Acceptance Criteria ICC-ES AC156 code, with scaling factors in the range of 25–300%. The damage and the dynamic characteristics of the mold transformer were evaluated in terms of the fundamental frequency, damping ratio, acceleration time history responses, dynamic amplification factors, and relative displacement. The shaking table test results showed that the damage of the mold transformer was mainly governed by the severe slippage of the spacers and the loosening of the linked bolts between the bottom beam and the bed beam. In addition, the maximum relative displacement at the top beam in Y and Z-directions exceeded the boundary limit recommended by the Korean National Radio Research Agency. Moreover, the operational test of the specimen was performed based on the IEC 60076-11 Standard before and after the shaking table test series to ensure the operational capacity of the transformer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Seismic Response Analysis of Multi-Story Steel Frames Using BRB and SCB Hybrid Bracing System
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010284 - 30 Dec 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Multi-story steel frames are popular building structures. For those with insufficient seismic resistance, their seismic capacity can be improved by installing buckling-restrained braces (BRBs), which is known for high energy dissipation capacity, and the corresponding frame is denoted as BRB frame (BRBF). However, [...] Read more.
Multi-story steel frames are popular building structures. For those with insufficient seismic resistance, their seismic capacity can be improved by installing buckling-restrained braces (BRBs), which is known for high energy dissipation capacity, and the corresponding frame is denoted as BRB frame (BRBF). However, BRBFs are frequently criticized because of excessive residual deformations after earthquakes, which impede the post-event repairing work and immediate occupancy. Meanwhile, self-centering braces (SCBs), which were invented with a particular purpose of eliminating residual deformation for the protected structures, underwent fast development in recent years. However, the damping capability of SCBs is relatively small because their hysteresis is characterized by a flag shape. Therefore, this paper aims to combine these two different braces to form a hybrid bracing system. A total of four combinations are proposed to seek an optimal solution. The multi-story steel frames installed with BRBs, SCBs, and combined braces are numerically investigated through nonlinear static and dynamic analyses. Interested seismic response parameters refer to the maximum story drift ratios, maximum floor accelerations, and residual story drift ratios. The seismic analysis results indicate that the frames using the combined bracing system are able to take the advantages of BRBs and SCBs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Equivalent Frame Model with a Decaying Nonlinear Moment-Curvature of Steel-Reinforced Concrete Joints
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5533; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245533 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A numerical model for the analysis of frame structures that is capable of reproducing the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) members and steel-reinforced concrete (SRC) members in all steps until collapse by simulating a reduced resistance capacity is presented in this work. Taking [...] Read more.
A numerical model for the analysis of frame structures that is capable of reproducing the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) members and steel-reinforced concrete (SRC) members in all steps until collapse by simulating a reduced resistance capacity is presented in this work. Taking into account the solid models obtained in previous research that have been validated by experimental results, moment-curvature graphics were obtained in all steps: elastic, plastic, and post-critical to collapse. Beam models versus 3D models considerably simplified the calculation of frame structures and correctly described both the plastic and post-critical phases. The moment-curvature graph can be used in a simplified frame analysis, from post critical behavior to collapse. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Retrofit Existing Frame Structures to Increase Their Economy and Sustainability in High Seismic Hazard Regions
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5486; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245486 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The study proposes a retrofitting method with an optimum design of viscous dampers in order to improve the structural resistant capacity to earthquakes. The retrofitting method firstly uses a 2D frame model and places the viscous dampers in the structure to satisfy the [...] Read more.
The study proposes a retrofitting method with an optimum design of viscous dampers in order to improve the structural resistant capacity to earthquakes. The retrofitting method firstly uses a 2D frame model and places the viscous dampers in the structure to satisfy the performance requirements under code-specific design earthquake intensities and then performs an optimum design to increase the structural collapse-resistant capacity. The failure pattern analysis and fragility analysis show that the optimum design leads to better performance than the original frame structure. For regular structures, it is demonstrated that the optimum pattern of viscous damper placement obtained from a 2D frame model can be directly used in the retrofitting of the 3D frame model. The economic loss and repair time analyses are conducted for the retrofitted frame structure under different earthquake intensities, including the frequent earthquake, the occasional earthquake, and the rare earthquake. Although the proposed method is based on time-history analyses, it seems that the computational cost is acceptable because the 2D frame model is adopted to determine the optimum pattern of viscous damper placement; meanwhile, the owner can clearly know the economic benefits of the retrofitting under different earthquake intensities. The retrofitting also causes the frame to have reduced environmental problems (such as carbon emission) compared to the original frame in the repair process after a rare earthquake happens. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Finite Element Steady-State Vibration Analysis Considering Frequency-Dependent Soil-Pile Interaction
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5371; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245371 - 09 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The vibration response of equipment foundation structures is not only affected by the structural stiffness and mass, but also greatly influenced by the degree of a soil-foundation structural interaction. Furthermore, the vibratory performance of equipment foundation structures supported by pile systems largely depends [...] Read more.
The vibration response of equipment foundation structures is not only affected by the structural stiffness and mass, but also greatly influenced by the degree of a soil-foundation structural interaction. Furthermore, the vibratory performance of equipment foundation structures supported by pile systems largely depends on the soil-pile dynamic stiffness and damping, which are variable in nature within the speed range that machines operate at. This paper reviews a method for evaluating effective soil-pile stiffness and damping that can be computed by Novak’s method or by commercial software (DYNA6, University of Western Ontario). A series of Finite Element (FE) time history and steady-state analyses using SAP2000 have been performed to examine the effects of dynamic soil-pile-foundation interaction on the vibration performance of equipment foundations, such as large compressor foundations and steam/gas turbine foundations. Frequency-dependent stiffness is estimated to be higher than frequency-independent stiffness, in general, and, thus, affects the vibration calculation. This paper provides a full-spectrum steady-state vibration solution, which increases the reliability of the foundation’s structural design. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Seismic Behavior of Steel Plate-Concrete Shear Walls with Holes
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 5255; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235255 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Steel plate-concrete shear walls (SPSW) are used as the containment in nuclear power stations. However, the influence of holes and axial loading on the behavior of steel plate-concrete shear walls is neglected in most studies. Thus, it is necessary to understand the seismic [...] Read more.
Steel plate-concrete shear walls (SPSW) are used as the containment in nuclear power stations. However, the influence of holes and axial loading on the behavior of steel plate-concrete shear walls is neglected in most studies. Thus, it is necessary to understand the seismic behavior of SPSW members with holes in order to avoid the potential risks for nuclear power stations. In this study, a series of specimens were tested by low-cycle reciprocal loading. The specimens were designed with different holes to simulate real members in nuclear power stations. A hysteretic curve of specimens was obtained from a low-cycle reciprocal test to discuss the seismic behavior of steel plate-concrete shear walls (SPSW). Moreover, effects of axial compression ratio, hole size, thickness of the steel plate, and hole position on the hysteretic performance of SPSW were analyzed. The horizontal ultimate bearing capacity of SPSW specimens was estimated using the norms of the Architecture Institute of Japan and the calculation method of Ono reduction rate. Results provide theoretical references for the design and application of SPSW with holes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Calibration Factor for ASCE 41-17 Modeling Parameters for Stocky Rectangular RC Columns
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 5193; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235193 - 29 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Existing old reinforced concrete (RC) buildings could be vulnerable to large earthquake events. Most columns in such buildings have insufficient reinforcement details, which may experience failure during an early loading stage. The failure of columns may lead to partial or complete collapse of [...] Read more.
Existing old reinforced concrete (RC) buildings could be vulnerable to large earthquake events. Most columns in such buildings have insufficient reinforcement details, which may experience failure during an early loading stage. The failure of columns may lead to partial or complete collapse of entire building systems. To prepare for an adequate retrofit plan for columns, it is necessary to simulate the cyclic behavior of columns using a numerical model with adequate values of constituent modeling parameters. The nonlinear component modeling parameters are specified in ASCE 41-17. However, the experiments on stocky RC columns suggest that ASCE 41-17 nonlinear component modeling parameters do not reflect the RC column behavior adequately. To accurately simulate the nonlinear load–deformation responses of stocky RC columns with low span-to-depth ratio, this study proposes a calibration factor for ASCE 41-17 RC column modeling parameters. For this purpose, this study collected test data of 47 stocky column specimens. Based on the test data, empirical equations including the calibration factor for modeling parameters “a” and “b” in ASCE 41-17 were proposed. The accuracy of the proposed equation was verified by comparing the measured and calculated envelope curves. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of an ANN-Based Lumped Plasticity Model of RC Columns Using Historical Pseudo-Static Cyclic Test Data
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(20), 4263; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9204263 - 11 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
This study explores the possibility of using an ANN-based model for the rapid numerical simulation and seismic performance prediction of reinforced concrete (RC) columns. The artificial neural network (ANN) method is implemented to model the relationship between the input features of RC columns [...] Read more.
This study explores the possibility of using an ANN-based model for the rapid numerical simulation and seismic performance prediction of reinforced concrete (RC) columns. The artificial neural network (ANN) method is implemented to model the relationship between the input features of RC columns and the critical parameters of the commonly used lumped plasticity (LP) model: The strength and the yielding, capping and ultimate deformation capacity. Cyclic test data of 1163 column specimens obtained from the PEER and NEEShub database and other sources are collected and divided into the training set, test set and validation set for the ANN model. The effectiveness of the proposed ANN model is validated by comparing it with existing explicit formulas and experimental results. Results indicated that the developed model can effectively predict the strength and deformation capacities of RC columns. Furthermore, the response of two RC frame structures under static force and strong ground motion were simulated by the ANN-based, bi-linear and tri-linear LP model method. The good agreement between the proposed model and test results validated that the ANN-based method can provide sufficiently accurate model parameters for modeling the seismic response of RC columns using the LP model. Full article
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