Special Issue "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technologies"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2017).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Faisal I. Hai
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Stategic Water Infrastructure Lab, School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
Interests: membrane, biological, enzymatic and adsorption technologies for wastewater treatment/reuse, energy/resource recovery from wastewater/biosolids
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Kazuo Yamamoto
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Environmental Science Centre, Department of Urban Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
Interests: membrane bioreactor; resources productive wastewater treatment; technology for environmental quality promotion and risk management
Prof. Dr. Jega Veeriah Jegatheesan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000, Australia
Interests: water (treatment, distribution, modeling); wastewater (MBR, membranes in agriculture, aquaculture); saltwater intrusion; resource recovery (mine tailing ponds, dye and salt from textile effluent); novel technologies (forward osmosis, membrane distillation)
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The principal objective of wastewater treatment is to allow human and industrial effluents to be safely disposed of to protect public health and the ecosystem. Reclaimed or recycled water is wastewater that has been treated to remove certain impurities, and then reused for a variety of applications including landscaping, irrigation, and recharging groundwater aquifers. In many parts of the world, the problem of water scarcity is being exacerbated by urban growth and increasingly erratic rainfall patterns due to climate change. This crisis has generated an ever-increasing drive for the use of alternative water sources, especially wastewater reclamation. Water reuse practices, however, raise concern due to the potential adverse health effects associated with wastewater-derived resistant pollutants.  Conventional sewage treatment plants can effectively remove total organic carbon and total nitrogen as well as achieving some degree of disinfection. However, these plants have not been specifically designed to remove priority pollutants. This calls for advanced wastewater treatment processes.

We invite original research, as well as review articles, that will stimulate the continuing efforts to understand the occurrence and fate of priority pollutants in the aquatic environment, the development of strategies to mitigate pollution and the monitoring, analytical and impact evaluation techniques. We are particularly interested in articles covering impact assessment and management of the risk associated with wastewater reuse, and current and emerging advanced wastewater treatment options.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • New concepts and techniques for wastewater treatment/ reuse
  • Technical, economical, and life-cycle assessment of wastewater reuse
  • Fate and toxicity of priority pollutants in wastewater reuse schemes
  • Modelling of fate of priority pollutants in wastewater reuse schemes

Assoc. Prof. Faisal Ibney Hai
Prof. Kazuo Yamamoto
Prof.  Veeriah Jegatheesa
Guest Editors

 

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • wastewater reuse
  • advanced treatment
  • priority pollutants
  • life cycle assessment
  • risk management

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue on Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technologies
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(5), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8050695 - 01 May 2018
Abstract
Wastewater treatment allows for the safe disposal of municipal and industrial wastewater to protect public health and the ecosystem[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technologies) Printed Edition available

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Dissolved Oxygen Control in Activated Sludge Process Using a Neural Network-Based Adaptive PID Algorithm
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020261 - 09 Feb 2018
Cited by 13
Abstract
The concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the aeration tank(s) of an activated sludge system is one of the most important process control parameters. The DO concentration in the aeration tank(s) is maintained at a desired level by using a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller. [...] Read more.
The concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the aeration tank(s) of an activated sludge system is one of the most important process control parameters. The DO concentration in the aeration tank(s) is maintained at a desired level by using a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller. Since the traditional PID parameter adjustment is not adaptive, the unknown disturbances make it difficult to adjust the DO concentration rapidly and precisely to maintain at a desired level. A Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network (NN)-based adaptive PID (RBFNNPID) algorithm is proposed and simulated in this paper for better control of DO in an activated sludge process-based wastewater treatment. The powerful learning and adaptive ability of the RBF neural network makes the adaptive adjustment of the PID parameters to be realized. Hence, when the wastewater quality and quantity fluctuate, adjustments to some parameters online can be made by RBFNNPID algorithm to improve the performance of the controller. The RBFNNPID algorithm is based on the gradient descent method. Simulation results comparing the performance of traditional PID and RBFNNPID in maintaining the DO concentration show that the RBFNNPID control algorithm can achieve better control performances. The RBFNNPID control algorithm has good tracking, anti-disturbance and strong robustness performances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technologies) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Degradation of Trace Organic Contaminants by a Membrane Distillation—Enzymatic Bioreactor
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(9), 879; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7090879 - 28 Aug 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
A high retention enzymatic bioreactor was developed by coupling membrane distillation with an enzymatic bioreactor (MD-EMBR) to investigate the degradation of 13 phenolic and 17 non-phenolic trace organic contaminants (TrOCs). TrOCs were effectively retained (90–99%) by the MD membrane. Furthermore, significant laccase-catalyzed degradation [...] Read more.
A high retention enzymatic bioreactor was developed by coupling membrane distillation with an enzymatic bioreactor (MD-EMBR) to investigate the degradation of 13 phenolic and 17 non-phenolic trace organic contaminants (TrOCs). TrOCs were effectively retained (90–99%) by the MD membrane. Furthermore, significant laccase-catalyzed degradation (80–99%) was achieved for 10 phenolic and 3 non-phenolic TrOCs that contain strong electron donating functional groups. For the remaining TrOCs, enzymatic degradation ranged from 40 to 65%. This is still higher than those reported for enzymatic bioreactors equipped with ultrafiltration membranes, which retained laccase but not the TrOCs. Addition of three redox-mediators, namely syringaldehyde (SA), violuric acid (VA) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), in the MD-EMBR significantly broadened the spectrum of efficiently degraded TrOCs. Among the tested redox-mediators, VA (0.5 mM) was the most efficient and versatile mediator for enhanced TrOC degradation. The final effluent (i.e., membrane permeate) toxicity was below the detection limit, although there was a mediator-specific increase in toxicity of the bioreactor media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technologies) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Suppressing Salt Transport through Composite Pervaporation Membranes for Brine Desalination
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(8), 856; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7080856 - 19 Aug 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
Pervaporation membranes have gained renewed interest in challenging feedwaters desalination, such as reverse osmosis (RO) concentrated brine wastewater. In this study, composite polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) pervaporation membranes were prepared for brine treatment. The composite membrane was firstly studied by adjusting the [...] Read more.
Pervaporation membranes have gained renewed interest in challenging feedwaters desalination, such as reverse osmosis (RO) concentrated brine wastewater. In this study, composite polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) pervaporation membranes were prepared for brine treatment. The composite membrane was firstly studied by adjusting the cross-linking density of PVA by glutaraldehyde: the membrane with higher cross-linking density exhibited much higher salt rejection efficiency for long-term operation. A trace of salt on the permeate side was found to diffuse through the membrane in the form of hydrated ions, following solution-diffusion mechanism. To further suppress the salt transport and achieve long-term stable operation, graphene oxide (GO) was incorporated into the PVA layer: the addition of GO had minor effects on water permeation but significantly suppressed the salt passage, compared to the pure PVA/PVDF membranes. In terms of brine wastewater containing organic/inorganic foulant, improved anti-fouling performance was also observed with GO-containing membranes. Furthermore, the highest flux of 28 L/m2h was obtained for the membrane with 0.1 wt. % of GO using 100 g/L NaCl as the feed at 65 °C by optimising the pervaporation rig, with permeate conductivity below 1.2 µS/cm over 24 h (equivalent to a salt rejection of >99.99%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technologies) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Formulation of Laccase Nanobiocatalysts Based on Ionic and Covalent Interactions for the Enhanced Oxidation of Phenolic Compounds
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(8), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7080851 - 18 Aug 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Oxidative biocatalysis by laccase arises as a promising alternative in the development of advanced oxidation processes for the removal of xenobiotics. The aim of this work is to develop various types of nanobiocatalysts based on laccase immobilized on different superparamagnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles [...] Read more.
Oxidative biocatalysis by laccase arises as a promising alternative in the development of advanced oxidation processes for the removal of xenobiotics. The aim of this work is to develop various types of nanobiocatalysts based on laccase immobilized on different superparamagnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles to improve the stability of the biocatalysts. Several techniques of enzyme immobilization were evaluated based on ionic exchange and covalent bonding. The highest yields of laccase immobilization were achieved for the covalent laccase nanoconjugates of silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (2.66 U mg−1 NPs), formed by the covalent attachment of the enzyme between the aldehyde groups of the glutaraldehyde-functionalized nanoparticle and the amino groups of the enzyme. Moreover, its application in the biotransformation of phenol as a model recalcitrant compound was tested at different pH and successfully achieved at pH 6 for 24 h. A sequential batch operation was carried out, with complete recovery of the nanobiocatalyst and minimal deactivation of the enzyme after four cycles of phenol oxidation. The major drawback associated with the use of the nanoparticles relies on the energy consumption required for their production and the use of chemicals, that account for a major contribution in the normalized index of 5.28 × 10−3. The reduction of cyclohexane (used in the synthesis of silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles) led to a significant lower index (3.62 × 10−3); however, the immobilization was negatively affected, which discouraged this alternative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technologies) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Removal of Escherichia coli by Intermittent Operation of Saturated Sand Columns Supplemented with Hydrochar Derived from Sewage Sludge
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(8), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7080839 - 15 Aug 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) technology can convert various types of waste biomass into a carbon-rich product referred to as hydrochar. In order to verify the potential of hydrochar produced from stabilized sewage sludge to be an adsorbent for bacterial pathogen removal in water treatment, [...] Read more.
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) technology can convert various types of waste biomass into a carbon-rich product referred to as hydrochar. In order to verify the potential of hydrochar produced from stabilized sewage sludge to be an adsorbent for bacterial pathogen removal in water treatment, the Escherichia coli’s removal efficiency was determined by using 10 cm sand columns loaded with 1.5% (w/w) hydrochar. Furthermore, the removal of E. coli based on intermittent operation in larger columns of 50 cm was measured for 30 days. Since the removal of E. coli was not sufficient when the sand columns were supplemented with raw hydrochar, an additional cold-alkali activation of the hydrochar using potassium hydroxide was applied. This enabled more than 90% of E. coli removal in both the 10 cm and 50 cm column experiments. The enhancement of the E. coli removal efficiency could be attributed to the more hydrophobic surface of the KOH pre-treated hydrochar. The idle time during the intermittent flushing experiments in the sand-only columns without the hydrochar supplement had a significant effect on the E. coli removal (p < 0.05), resulting in a removal efficiency of 55.2%. This research suggested the possible utilization of hydrochar produced from sewage sludge as an adsorbent in water treatment for the removal of bacterial contaminants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technologies) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Longitudinal Removal of Bisphenol-A and Nonylphenols from Pretreated Domestic Wastewater by Tropical Horizontal Sub-SurfaceConstructed Wetlands
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(8), 834; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7080834 - 15 Aug 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenols (NPs), with a high potential to cause endocrine disruption, have been identified at levels of nanograms per liter and even micrograms per liter in effluents from wastewater treatment plants. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are a cost-effective wastewater treatment alternative [...] Read more.
Bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenols (NPs), with a high potential to cause endocrine disruption, have been identified at levels of nanograms per liter and even micrograms per liter in effluents from wastewater treatment plants. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are a cost-effective wastewater treatment alternative due to the low operational cost, reduced energy consumption, and lower sludge production, and have shown promising performance for treating these compounds. A CW pilot study was undertaken todetermine its potential to remove BPA and NP from municipal wastewater. Three CWs were used: the first CW was planted with Heliconia sp., a second CW was planted with Phragmites sp., and the third CW was an unplanted control. The removal efficiency of the Heliconia-CW was 73 ± 19% for BPA and 63 ± 20% for NP, which was more efficient than the Phragmites-CW (BPA 70 ± 28% and NP 52 ± 23%) and the unplanted-CW (BPA 62 ± 33% and NP 25 ± 37%). The higher capacity of the Heliconia-CW for BPA and NP removal suggests that a native plant from the tropics can contribute to a better performance of CW for removing these compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technologies) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
An Innovative Dual-Column System for Heavy Metallic Ion Sorption by Natural Zeolite
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(8), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7080795 - 05 Aug 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
This study investigates the design and performance of a novel sorption system containing natural zeolite. The apparatus consists of packed, fixed-bed, dual-columns with custom automated controls and sampling chambers, connected in series and stock fed by a metering pump at a controlled adjustable [...] Read more.
This study investigates the design and performance of a novel sorption system containing natural zeolite. The apparatus consists of packed, fixed-bed, dual-columns with custom automated controls and sampling chambers, connected in series and stock fed by a metering pump at a controlled adjustable distribution. The purpose of the system is to remove heavy metallic ions predominately found in acid mine drainage, including lead (Pb2+), copper (Cu2+), iron (Fe3+), nickel (Ni2+) and zinc (Zn2+), combined in equal equivalence to form an acidified total 10 meq/L aqueous solution. Reported trends on the zeolite’s preference to these heavy metallic ions is established in the system breakthrough curve, as Pb2+ >> Fe3+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+ >> Ni2+. Within a 3-h contact period, Pb2+ is completely removed from both columns. Insufficient Ni2+ removal is achieved by either column with the promptest breakthrough attained, as zeolite demonstrates the least affinity towards it; however, a 48.97% removal is observed in the cumulative collection at the completion of the analysis period. The empty bed contact times for the first and second columns are 20 and 30 min, respectively; indicating a higher bed capacity at breakthrough and a lower usage rate of the zeolite mineral in the second column. This sorption system experimentally demonstrates the potential for industrial wastewater treatment technology development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technologies) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Removal of Crotamiton from Reverse Osmosis Concentrate by a TiO2/Zeolite Composite Sheet
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(8), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7080778 - 31 Jul 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
Reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate from wastewater reuse facilities contains concentrated emerging pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals. In this research, a paper-like composite sheet consisting of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zeolite was synthesized, and removal of the antipruritic agent crotamiton from RO concentrate [...] Read more.
Reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate from wastewater reuse facilities contains concentrated emerging pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals. In this research, a paper-like composite sheet consisting of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zeolite was synthesized, and removal of the antipruritic agent crotamiton from RO concentrate was studied using the TiO2/zeolite composite sheet. The RO concentrate was obtained from a pilot-scale municipal secondary effluent reclamation plant. Effective immobilization of the two powders in the sheet made it easy to handle and to separate the photocatalyst and adsorbent from purified water. The TiO2/zeolite composite sheet showed excellent performance for crotamiton adsorption without obvious inhibition by other components in the RO concentrate. With ultraviolet irradiation, crotamiton was simultaneously removed through adsorption and photocatalysis. The photocatalytic decomposition of crotamiton in the RO concentrate was significantly inhibited by the water matrix at high initial crotamiton concentrations, whereas rapid decomposition was achieved at low initial crotamiton concentrations. The major degradation intermediates were also adsorbed by the composite sheet. This result provides a promising method of mitigating secondary pollution caused by the harmful intermediates produced during advanced oxidation processes. The cyclic use of the HSZ-385/P25 composite sheet indicated the feasibility of continuously removing crotamiton from RO concentrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technologies) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Functionalization of a Hydrophilic Commercial Membrane Using Inorganic-Organic Polymers Coatings for Membrane Distillation
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(6), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7060637 - 20 Jun 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Membrane distillation is a thermal separation technique using a microporous hydrophobic membrane. One of the concerns with respect to the industrialization of the technique is the development of novel membranes. In this paper, a commercially available hydrophilic polyethersulfone membrane with a suitable structure [...] Read more.
Membrane distillation is a thermal separation technique using a microporous hydrophobic membrane. One of the concerns with respect to the industrialization of the technique is the development of novel membranes. In this paper, a commercially available hydrophilic polyethersulfone membrane with a suitable structure for membrane distillation was modified using available hydrophobic coatings using ORMOCER® technology to obtain a hydrophobic membrane that can be applied in membrane distillation. The surface modification was performed using a selection of different components, concentrations, and application methods. The resulting membranes can have two hydrophobic surfaces or a hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface depending on the application method. An extensive characterization procedure confirmed the suitability of the coating technique and the obtained membranes for membrane distillation. The surface contact angle of water could be increased from 27° up to 110°, and fluxes comparable to membranes commonly used for membrane distillation were achieved under similar process conditions. A 100 h test demonstrated the stability of the coating and the importance of using sufficiently stable base membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technologies) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Seasonal Temperature on the Performance and on the Microbial Community of a Novel AWFR for Decentralized Domestic Wastewater Pretreatment
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(6), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7060605 - 11 Jun 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Due to environmental burden and human health risks in developing countries, the treatment of decentralized domestic wastewater has been a matter of great concern in recent years. A novel pilot-scale three-stage anaerobic wool-felt filter reactor (AWFR) was designed to treat real decentralized domestic [...] Read more.
Due to environmental burden and human health risks in developing countries, the treatment of decentralized domestic wastewater has been a matter of great concern in recent years. A novel pilot-scale three-stage anaerobic wool-felt filter reactor (AWFR) was designed to treat real decentralized domestic wastewater at seasonal temperature variations of 8 to 35 °C for 364 days. The results showed that the average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of AWFR in summer and winter were 76 ± 7.2% and 52 ± 5.9% at one day and three days Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT), respectively. COD mass balance analysis demonstrated that even though COD removal was lower in winter, approximately 43.5% of influent COD was still converted to methane. High-throughput MiSeq sequencing analyses indicated that Methanosaeta, Methanobacterium, and Methanolinea were the predominant methanogens, whereas the genus Bacillus probably played important roles in fermentation processes throughout the whole operation period. The performance and microbial community composition study suggested the application potential of the AWFR system for the pretreatment of decentralized domestic wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technologies) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Adsorption of Chromium (VI) on Calcium Phosphate: Mechanisms and Stability Constants of Surface Complexes
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7030222 - 28 Feb 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
The adsorption of chromate on octacalcium phosphate (OCP) was investigated as a function of contact time, surface coverage, and solution pH [...] Full article
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
The Performance and Fouling Control of Submerged Hollow Fiber (HF) Systems: A Review
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(8), 765; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7080765 - 28 Jul 2017
Cited by 10
Abstract
The submerged membrane filtration concept is well-established for low-pressure microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) applications in the water industry, and has become a mainstream technology for surface-water treatment, pretreatment prior to reverse osmosis (RO), and membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Compared to submerged flat sheet [...] Read more.
The submerged membrane filtration concept is well-established for low-pressure microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) applications in the water industry, and has become a mainstream technology for surface-water treatment, pretreatment prior to reverse osmosis (RO), and membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Compared to submerged flat sheet (FS) membranes, submerged hollow fiber (HF) membranes are more common due to their advantages of higher packing density, the ability to induce movement by mechanisms such as bubbling, and the feasibility of backwashing. In view of the importance of submerged HF processes, this review aims to provide a comprehensive landscape of the current state-of-the-art systems, to serve as a guide for further improvements in submerged HF membranes and their applications. The topics covered include recent developments in submerged hollow fiber membrane systems, the challenges and developments in fouling-control methods, and treatment protocols for membrane permeability recovery. The highlighted research opportunities include optimizing the various means to manipulate the hydrodynamics for fouling mitigation, developing online monitoring devices, and extending the submerged HF concept beyond filtration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technologies) Printed Edition available
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