Special Issue "Outstanding Topics in Ocean Optics"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Optics and Lasers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Professor Dariusz Stramski

Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0238, USA
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Interests: ocean optics; radiative transfer in the ocean; particle optics; ocean optical properties; light fields within and leaving the ocean; optics of air–sea interface; optical remote sensing of marine environments; optical-biological interactions in the ocean; ocean carbon stocks and dynamics; coastal oceanography; monitoring and observational work in the marine environment; optical methods in oceanography; development of optical instrumentation
Guest Editor
Professor Hubert Loisel

Laboratoire d’Océanologie et de Géosciences (LOG), UMR 8187, CNRS, Université du Littoral Côte d’Opale, Université de Lille 1, F 62930 Wimereux, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: ocean color remote sensing; bio-optical algorithms; marine optics; radiative transfer in the ocean; polarisation; ocean carbon cycle and biogeochemistry; dynamics of marine particles

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the era of satellite observations of the Earth's environment, the applications of optical remote sensing of the oceans have been reshaping the research landscape towards a better understanding of the roles of ocean biogeochemistry and ecosystems in the Earth's system science. In recent decades, the oceanographic literature has seen a surge of papers utilizing the concepts of ocean optics, which has been catalyzed and related to satellite observations of ocean color. In parallel, over the years, the scientific community's interest and resources available to pursue some outstanding and potentially impactful basic and applied-oriented topics in ocean optics which are "out-of-ordinary" and not necessarily related to the ocean color science, appear to have been diminishing considerably. The goal of this Special Issue is to draw together a series of papers across a wide range of topics in the field of ocean optics, which share a common denominator of frontier research topics that are unique, uncommon, or outstanding in the literature. This special issue is intended to inspire and motivate researchers around the globe to address different types of studies using state-of-the-art science and methodologies, which may lead to new discoveries in ocean optics and further enhancement of optical applications in oceanography.

Prof. Dr. Dariusz Stramski
Prof. Dr. Hubert Loisel
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

Topics for this Special Issue include, but are not limited to:

  • advances in radiative transfer and inverse optical modeling
  • air-sea interface optics
  • extreme marine light environments
  • sea ice optics
  • pure water optics
  • optics of marine life
  • interactions of light and matter in the ocean
  • polarization of light in the ocean
  • novel or enabling optical technologies in oceanography

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Estimating Underwater Light Regime under Spatially Heterogeneous Sea Ice in the Arctic
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2693; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122693
Received: 8 September 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 23 November 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
The vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient for downward plane irradiance (Kd) is an apparent optical property commonly used in primary production models to propagate incident solar radiation in the water column. In open water, estimating Kd is relatively straightforward when [...] Read more.
The vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient for downward plane irradiance ( K d ) is an apparent optical property commonly used in primary production models to propagate incident solar radiation in the water column. In open water, estimating K d is relatively straightforward when a vertical profile of measurements of downward irradiance, E d , is available. In the Arctic, the ice pack is characterized by a complex mosaic composed of sea ice with snow, ridges, melt ponds, and leads. Due to the resulting spatially heterogeneous light field in the top meters of the water column, it is difficult to measure at single-point locations meaningful K d values that allow predicting average irradiance at any depth. The main objective of this work is to propose a new method to estimate average irradiance over large spatially heterogeneous area as it would be seen by drifting phytoplankton. Using both in situ data and 3D Monte Carlo numerical simulations of radiative transfer, we show that (1) the large-area average vertical profile of downward irradiance, E d ¯ ( z ) , under heterogeneous sea ice cover can be represented by a single-term exponential function and (2) the vertical attenuation coefficient for upward radiance ( K L u ), which is up to two times less influenced by a heterogeneous incident light field than K d in the vicinity of a melt pond, can be used as a proxy to estimate E d ¯ ( z ) in the water column. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Topics in Ocean Optics)
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Open AccessArticle Advantages and Limitations to the Use of Optical Measurements to Study Sediment Properties
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2692; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122692
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Measurements of optical properties have been used for decades to study particle distributions in the ocean. They are useful for estimating suspended mass concentration as well as particle-related properties such as size, composition, packing (particle porosity or density), and settling velocity. Measurements of [...] Read more.
Measurements of optical properties have been used for decades to study particle distributions in the ocean. They are useful for estimating suspended mass concentration as well as particle-related properties such as size, composition, packing (particle porosity or density), and settling velocity. Measurements of optical properties are, however, biased, as certain particles, because of their size, composition, shape, or packing, contribute to a specific property more than others. Here, we study this issue both theoretically and practically, and we examine different optical properties collected simultaneously in a bottom boundary layer to highlight the utility of such measurements. We show that the biases we are likely to encounter using different optical properties can aid our studies of suspended sediment. In particular, we investigate inferences of settling velocity from vertical profiles of optical measurements, finding that the effects of aggregation dynamics can seldom be ignored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Topics in Ocean Optics)
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Open AccessArticle Remote Sensing of Coral Reefs: Uncertainty in the Detection of Benthic Cover, Depth, and Water Constituents Imposed by Sensor Noise
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2691; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122691
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Coral reefs are biologically diverse and economically important ecosystems that are on the decline worldwide in response to direct human impacts and climate change. Ocean color remote sensing has proven to be an important tool in coral reef research and monitoring. Remote sensing [...] Read more.
Coral reefs are biologically diverse and economically important ecosystems that are on the decline worldwide in response to direct human impacts and climate change. Ocean color remote sensing has proven to be an important tool in coral reef research and monitoring. Remote sensing data quality is driven by factors related to sensor design and environmental variability. This work explored the impact of sensor noise, defined as the signal to noise ratio (SNR), on the detection uncertainty of key coral reef ecological properties (bottom depth, benthic cover, and water quality) in the absence of environmental uncertainties. A radiative transfer model for a shallow reef environment was developed and Monte Carlo methods were employed to identify the range in environmental conditions that are spectrally indistinguishable from true conditions as a function of SNR. The spectrally averaged difference between remotely sensed radiance relative to sensor noise, ε, was used to quantify uncertainty in bottom depth, the fraction of benthic cover by coral, algae, and uncolonized sand, and the concentration of water constituents defined as chlorophyll, dissolved organic matter, and suspended calcite particles. Parameter uncertainty was found to increase with sensor noise (decreasing SNR) but the impact was non-linear. The rate of change in uncertainty per incremental change in SNR was greatest for SNR < 500 and increasing SNR further to 1000 resulted in only modest improvements. Parameter uncertainty was complicated by the bottom depth and benthic cover. Benthic cover uncertainty increased with bottom depth, but water constituent uncertainty changed inversely with bottom depth. Furthermore, water constituent uncertainty was impacted by the type of constituent material in relation to the type of benthic cover. Uncertainty associated with chlorophyll concentration and dissolved organic matter increased when the benthic cover was coral and/or benthic algae while uncertainty in the concentration of suspended calcite increased when the benthic cover was uncolonized sand. While the definition of an optimal SNR is subject to user needs, we propose that SNR of approximately 500 (relative to 5% Earth surface reflectance and a clear maritime atmosphere) is a reasonable engineering goal for a future satellite sensor to support research and management activities directed at coral reef ecology and, more generally, shallow aquatic ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Topics in Ocean Optics)
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Open AccessArticle Measurements of the Volume Scattering Function and the Degree of Linear Polarization of Light Scattered by Contrasting Natural Assemblages of Marine Particles
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2690; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122690
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
The light scattering properties of seawater play important roles in radiative transfer in the ocean and optically-based methods for characterizing marine suspended particles from in situ and remote sensing measurements. The recently commercialized LISST-VSF instrument is capable of providing in situ or laboratory [...] Read more.
The light scattering properties of seawater play important roles in radiative transfer in the ocean and optically-based methods for characterizing marine suspended particles from in situ and remote sensing measurements. The recently commercialized LISST-VSF instrument is capable of providing in situ or laboratory measurements of the volume scattering function, β p ( ψ ) , and the degree of linear polarization, DoLP p ( ψ ) , associated with particle scattering. These optical quantities of natural particle assemblages have not been measured routinely in past studies. To fully realize the potential of LISST-VSF measurements, we evaluated instrument performance, and developed calibration correction functions from laboratory measurements and Mie scattering calculations for standard polystyrene beads suspended in water. The correction functions were validated with independent measurements. The improved LISST-VSF protocol was applied to measurements of β p ( ψ ) and DoLP p ( ψ ) taken on 17 natural seawater samples from coastal and offshore marine environments characterized by contrasting assemblages of suspended particles. Both β p ( ψ ) and DoLP p ( ψ ) exhibited significant variations related to a broad range of composition and size distribution of particulate assemblages. For example, negative relational trends were observed between the particulate backscattering ratio derived from β p ( ψ ) and increasing proportions of organic particles or phytoplankton in the particulate assemblage. Our results also suggest a potential trend between the maximum values of DoLP p ( ψ ) and particle size metrics, such that a decrease in the maximum DoLP p ( ψ ) tends to be associated with particulate assemblages exhibiting a higher proportion of large-sized particles. Such results have the potential to advance optically-based applications that rely on an understanding of relationships between light scattering and particle properties of natural particulate assemblages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Topics in Ocean Optics)
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Open AccessArticle Assessing the Impact of a Two-Layered Spherical Geometry of Phytoplankton Cells on the Bulk Backscattering Ratio of Marine Particulate Matter
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2689; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122689
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
The bulk backscattering ratio (bbp˜) is commonly used as a descriptor of the bulk real refractive index of the particulate assemblage in natural waters. Based on numerical simulations, we analyze the impact of modeled structural heterogeneity of phytoplankton [...] Read more.
The bulk backscattering ratio ( b b p ˜ ) is commonly used as a descriptor of the bulk real refractive index of the particulate assemblage in natural waters. Based on numerical simulations, we analyze the impact of modeled structural heterogeneity of phytoplankton cells on b b p ˜ . b b p ˜ is modeled considering viruses, heterotrophic bacteria, phytoplankton, organic detritus, and minerals. Three case studies are defined according to the relative abundance of the components. Two case studies represent typical situations in open ocean, oligotrophic waters, and phytoplankton bloom. The third case study is typical of coastal waters with the presence of minerals. Phytoplankton cells are modeled by a two-layered spherical geometry representing a chloroplast surrounding the cytoplasm. The b b p ˜ values are higher when structural heterogeneity is considered because the contribution of coated spheres to light backscattering is higher than homogeneous spheres. The impact of heterogeneity is; however, strongly conditioned by the hyperbolic slope ξ of the particle size distribution. Even if the relative abundance of phytoplankton is small (<1%), b b p ˜ increases by about 58% (for ξ = 4 and for oligotrophic waters), when the heterogeneity is taken into account, in comparison with a particulate population composed only of homogeneous spheres. As expected, heterogeneity has a much smaller impact (about 12% for ξ = 4 ) on b b p ˜ in the presence of suspended minerals, whose increased light scattering overwhelms that of phytoplankton. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Topics in Ocean Optics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Influence of Three-Dimensional Coral Structures on Hyperspectral Benthic Reflectance and Water-Leaving Reflectance
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2688; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122688
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 24 September 2018 / Accepted: 30 September 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Shading and inter-reflections created by the three-dimensional coral canopy structure play an important role on benthic reflectance and its propagation above the water. Here, a plane parallel model was coupled with a three-dimensional radiative transfer canopy model, incorporating measured coral shapes and hyperspectral [...] Read more.
Shading and inter-reflections created by the three-dimensional coral canopy structure play an important role on benthic reflectance and its propagation above the water. Here, a plane parallel model was coupled with a three-dimensional radiative transfer canopy model, incorporating measured coral shapes and hyperspectral benthic reflectances, to investigate this question under different illumination and water column conditions. Results indicated that a Lambertian treatment of the bottom reflectance can be a reasonable assumption if a variable shading factor is included. Without flexibility in the shading treatment, nadir view bottom reflectances can vary by as much as ±20% (or ±9% in above-water remote sensing reflectance) under solar zenith angles (SZAs) up to 50°. Spectrally-independent shading factors are developed for benthic coral reflectance measurements based on the rugosity of the coral. In remote sensing applications, where the rugosity is unknown, a shading factor could be incorporated as an endmember for retrieval in the inversion scheme. In dense coral canopies in clear shallow waters, the benthos cannot always be treated as Lambertian, and for large solar-view angles the bi-directional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) hotspot propagated to above water reflectances can create up to a 50% or more difference in water-leaving reflectances, and discrepancies of 20% even for nadir-view geometries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Topics in Ocean Optics)
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Open AccessArticle Remote Sensing of CDOM, CDOM Spectral Slope, and Dissolved Organic Carbon in the Global Ocean
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2687; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122687
Received: 28 July 2018 / Revised: 27 October 2018 / Accepted: 27 October 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
A Global Ocean Carbon Algorithm Database (GOCAD) has been developed from over 500 oceanographic field campaigns conducted worldwide over the past 30 years including in situ reflectances and coincident satellite imagery, multi- and hyperspectral Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) absorption coefficients from 245–715 [...] Read more.
A Global Ocean Carbon Algorithm Database (GOCAD) has been developed from over 500 oceanographic field campaigns conducted worldwide over the past 30 years including in situ reflectances and coincident satellite imagery, multi- and hyperspectral Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) absorption coefficients from 245–715 nm, CDOM spectral slopes in eight visible and ultraviolet wavebands, dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC, respectively), and inherent optical, physical, and biogeochemical properties. From field optical and radiometric data and satellite measurements, several semi-analytical, empirical, and machine learning algorithms for retrieving global DOC, CDOM, and CDOM slope were developed, optimized for global retrieval, and validated. Global climatologies of satellite-retrieved CDOM absorption coefficient and spectral slope based on the most robust of these algorithms lag seasonal patterns of phytoplankton biomass belying Case 1 assumptions, and track terrestrial runoff on ocean basin scales. Variability in satellite retrievals of CDOM absorption and spectral slope anomalies are tightly coupled to changes in atmospheric and oceanographic conditions associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), strongly covary with the multivariate ENSO index in a large region of the tropical Pacific, and provide insights into the potential evolution and feedbacks related to sea surface dissolved carbon in a warming climate. Further validation of the DOC algorithm developed here is warranted to better characterize its limitations, particularly in mid-ocean gyres and the southern oceans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Topics in Ocean Optics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Brief Review of Mueller Matrix Calculations Associated with Oceanic Particles
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2686; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122686
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 19 August 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
The complete Stokes vector contains much more information than the radiance of light for the remote sensing of the ocean. Unlike the conventional radiance-only radiative transfer simulations, a full Mueller matrix-Stokes vector treatment provides a rigorous and correct approach for solving the transfer [...] Read more.
The complete Stokes vector contains much more information than the radiance of light for the remote sensing of the ocean. Unlike the conventional radiance-only radiative transfer simulations, a full Mueller matrix-Stokes vector treatment provides a rigorous and correct approach for solving the transfer of radiation in a scattering medium, such as the atmosphere-ocean system. In fact, radiative transfer simulation without considering the polarization state always gives incorrect results and the extent of the errors induced depends on a particular application being considered. However, the rigorous approach that fully takes the polarization state into account requires the knowledge of the complete single-scattering properties of oceanic particles with various sizes, morphologies, and refractive indices. For most oceanic particles, the comparisons between simulations and observations have demonstrated that the “equivalent-spherical” approximation is inadequate. We will therefore briefly summarize the advantages and disadvantages of a number of light scattering methods for non-spherical particles. Furthermore, examples for canonical cases with specifically oriented particles and randomly oriented particles will be illustrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Topics in Ocean Optics)
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Open AccessArticle Assessing Fluorescent Organic Matter in Natural Waters: Towards In Situ Excitation–Emission Matrix Spectroscopy
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2685; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122685
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 23 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Natural organic matter (NOM) is a key parameter in aquatic biogeochemical processes. Part of the NOM pool exhibits optical properties, namely absorption and fluorescence. The latter is frequently utilized in laboratory measurements of its dissolved fraction (fluorescent dissolved organic matter, FDOM) through excitation–emission [...] Read more.
Natural organic matter (NOM) is a key parameter in aquatic biogeochemical processes. Part of the NOM pool exhibits optical properties, namely absorption and fluorescence. The latter is frequently utilized in laboratory measurements of its dissolved fraction (fluorescent dissolved organic matter, FDOM) through excitation–emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS). We present the design and field application of a novel EEMS sensor system applicable in situ, the ‘Kallemeter’. Observations are based on a field campaign, starting in Norwegian coastal waters entering the Trondheimsfjord. Comparison against the bulk fluorescence of two commercial FDOM sensors exhibited a good correspondence of the different methods and the ability to resolve gradients and dynamics along the transect. Complementary laboratory EEM spectra measurements of surface water samples and their subsequent PARAFAC analysis revealed three dominant components while the ‘Kallemeter’ EEMS sensor system was able to produce reasonable EEM spectra in high DOM concentrated water bodies, yet high noise levels must be addressed in order to provide comparable PARAFAC components. Achievements and limitations of this proof-of-concept are discussed providing guidance towards full in situ EEMS measurements to resolve rapid changes and processes in natural waters based on the assessment of spectral properties. Their combination with multiwavelength FDOM sensors onboard autonomous platforms will enhance our capacities in observing biogeochemical processes in the marine environment in spatiotemporal and spectral dimensions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Topics in Ocean Optics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Ocean Color Analytical Model Explicitly Dependent on the Volume Scattering Function
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2684; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122684
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 1 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
An analytical radiative transfer (RT) model for remote sensing reflectance that includes the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) is described. The model, called ZTT (Zaneveld-Twardowski-Tonizzo), is based on the restatement of the RT equation by Zaneveld (1995) in terms of light field shape [...] Read more.
An analytical radiative transfer (RT) model for remote sensing reflectance that includes the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) is described. The model, called ZTT (Zaneveld-Twardowski-Tonizzo), is based on the restatement of the RT equation by Zaneveld (1995) in terms of light field shape factors. Besides remote sensing geometry considerations (solar zenith angle, viewing angle, and relative azimuth), the inputs are Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) absorption a and backscattering bb coefficients, the shape of the particulate volume scattering function (VSF) in the backward direction, and the particulate backscattering ratio. Model performance (absolute error) is equivalent to full RT simulations for available high quality validation data sets, indicating almost all residual errors are inherent to the data sets themselves, i.e., from the measurements of IOPs and radiometry used as model input and in match up assessments, respectively. Best performance was observed when a constant backward phase function shape based on the findings of Sullivan and Twardowski (2009) was assumed in the model. Critically, using a constant phase function in the backward direction eliminates a key unknown, providing a path toward inversion to solve for a and bb. Performance degraded when using other phase function shapes. With available data sets, the model shows stronger performance than current state-of-the-art look-up table (LUT) based BRDF models used to normalize reflectance data, formulated on simpler first order RT approximations between rrs and bb/a or bb/(a + bb) (Morel et al., 2002; Lee et al., 2011). Stronger performance of ZTT relative to LUT-based models is attributed to using a more representative phase function shape, as well as the additional degrees of freedom achieved with several physically meaningful terms in the model. Since the model is fully described with analytical expressions, errors for terms can be individually assessed, and refinements can be readily made without carrying out the gamut of full RT computations required for LUT-based models. The ZTT model is invertible to solve for a and bb from remote sensing reflectance, and inversion approaches are being pursued in ongoing work. The focus here is with development and testing of the in-water forward model, but current ocean color remote sensing approaches to cope with an air-sea interface and atmospheric effects would appear to be transferable. In summary, this new analytical model shows good potential for future ocean color inversion with low bias, well-constrained uncertainties (including the VSF), and explicit terms that can be readily tuned. Emphasis is put on application to the future NASA Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, and ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Topics in Ocean Optics)
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Open AccessArticle Measuring and Modeling the Polarized Upwelling Radiance Distribution in Clear and Coastal Waters
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2683; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122683
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
The upwelling spectral radiance distribution is polarized, and this polarization varies with the optical properties of the water body. Knowledge of the polarized, upwelling, bidirectional radiance distribution function (BRDF) is important for generating consistent, long-term data records for ocean color because the satellite [...] Read more.
The upwelling spectral radiance distribution is polarized, and this polarization varies with the optical properties of the water body. Knowledge of the polarized, upwelling, bidirectional radiance distribution function (BRDF) is important for generating consistent, long-term data records for ocean color because the satellite sensors from which the data are derived are sensitive to polarization. In addition, various studies have indicated that measurement of the polarization of the radiance leaving the ocean can used to determine particle characteristics (Tonizzo et al., 2007; Ibrahim et al., 2016; Chami et al., 2001). Models for the unpolarized BRDF (Morel et al., 2002; Lee et al., 2011) have been validated (Voss et al., 2007; Gleason et al., 2012), but variations in the polarization of the upwelling radiance due to the sun angle, viewing geometry, dissolved material, and suspended particles have not been systematically documented. In this work, we simulated the upwelling radiance distribution using a Monte Carlo-based radiative transfer code and measured it using a set of fish-eye cameras with linear polarizing filters. The results of model-data comparisons from three field experiments in clear and turbid coastal conditions showed that the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) of the upwelling light field could be determined by the model with an absolute error of ±0.05 (or 5% when the DOLP was expressed in %). This agreement was achieved even with a fixed scattering Mueller matrix, but did require in situ measurements of the other inherent optical properties, e.g., scattering coefficient, absorption coefficient, etc. This underscores the difficulty that is likely to be encountered using the particle scattering Mueller matrix (as indicated through the remote measurement of the polarized radiance) to provide a signature relating to the properties of marine particles beyond the attenuation/absorption coefficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Topics in Ocean Optics)
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Open AccessArticle Progress in Forward-Inverse Modeling Based on Radiative Transfer Tools for Coupled Atmosphere-Snow/Ice-Ocean Systems: A Review and Description of the AccuRT Model
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2682; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122682
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
A tutorial review is provided of forward and inverse radiative transfer in coupled atmosphere-snow/ice-water systems. The coupled system is assumed to consist of two adjacent horizontal slabs separated by an interface across which the refractive index changes abruptly from its value in air [...] Read more.
A tutorial review is provided of forward and inverse radiative transfer in coupled atmosphere-snow/ice-water systems. The coupled system is assumed to consist of two adjacent horizontal slabs separated by an interface across which the refractive index changes abruptly from its value in air to that in ice/water. A comprehensive review is provided of the inherent optical properties of air and water (including snow and ice). The radiative transfer equation for unpolarized as well as polarized radiation is described and solutions are outlined. Several examples of how to formulate and solve inverse problems encountered in environmental optics involving coupled atmosphere-water systems are discussed in some detail to illustrate how the solutions to the radiative transfer equation can be used as a forward model to solve practical inverse problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Topics in Ocean Optics)
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Open AccessArticle The Fundamental Contribution of Phytoplankton Spectral Scattering to Ocean Colour: Implications for Satellite Detection of Phytoplankton Community Structure
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2681; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122681
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 28 October 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
There is increasing interdisciplinary interest in phytoplankton community dynamics as the growing environmental problems of water quality (particularly eutrophication) and climate change demand attention. This has led to a pressing need for improved biophysical and causal understanding of Phytoplankton Functional Type (PFT) optical [...] Read more.
There is increasing interdisciplinary interest in phytoplankton community dynamics as the growing environmental problems of water quality (particularly eutrophication) and climate change demand attention. This has led to a pressing need for improved biophysical and causal understanding of Phytoplankton Functional Type (PFT) optical signals, in order for satellite radiometry to be used to detect ecologically relevant phytoplankton assemblage changes. Biophysically and biogeochemically consistent phytoplankton Inherent Optical Property (IOP) models play an important role in achieving this understanding, as the optical effects of phytoplankton assemblage changes can be examined systematically in relation to the bulk optical water-leaving signal. The Equivalent Algal Populations (EAP) model is used here to investigate the source and magnitude of size- and pigment- driven PFT signals in the water-leaving reflectance, as well as the potential to detect these using satellite radiometry. This model places emphasis on the determination of biophysically consistent phytoplankton IOPs, with both absorption and scattering determined by mathematically cogent relationships to the particle complex refractive indices. All IOPs are integrated over an entire size distribution. A distinctive attribute is the model’s comprehensive handling of the spectral and angular character of phytoplankton scattering. Selected case studies and sensitivity analyses reveal that phytoplankton spectral scattering is most useful and the least ambiguous driver of the PFT signal. Key findings are that there is the most sensitivity in phytoplankton backscatter ( b b ϕ ) in the 1–6 μ m size range; the backscattering-driven signal in the 520 to 570 nm region is the critical PFT identifier at marginal biomass, and that, while PFT information does appear at blue wavelengths, absorption-driven signals are compromised by ambiguity due to biomass and non-algal absorption. Low signal in the red, due primarily to absorption by water, inhibits PFT detection here. The study highlights the need to quantitatively understand the constraints imposed by phytoplankton biomass and the IOP budget on the assemblage-related signal. A proportional phytoplankton contribution of approximately 40% to the total b b appears to a reasonable minimum threshold in terms of yielding a detectable optical change in R r s . We hope these findings will provide considerable insight into the next generation of PFT algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Topics in Ocean Optics)
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Open AccessArticle Modeling Sea Bottom Hyperspectral Reflectance
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2680; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122680
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Over the near-ultraviolet (UV) and visible spectrum the reflectance from mineral compounds and vegetation is predominantly due to absorption and scattering in the bulk material. Except for a factor of scale, the radiative transfer mechanism is similar to that seen in murky optically [...] Read more.
Over the near-ultraviolet (UV) and visible spectrum the reflectance from mineral compounds and vegetation is predominantly due to absorption and scattering in the bulk material. Except for a factor of scale, the radiative transfer mechanism is similar to that seen in murky optically complex waters. We therefore adapted a semi-empirical algebraic irradiance model developed by Albert and Mobley to calculate the irradiance reflectance from both mineral compounds and vegetation commonly found on the sea bottom. This approach can be used to accurately predict the immersed reflectance spectra given the reflectance measured in air. When applied to mineral-based compounds or various types of marine vegetation, we obtain a simple two-parameter fit that accurately describes the key features of the reflectance spectra. The non-linear spectral combination effect as a function of the thickness of vegetation growing on a mineral substrate is then accounted for by a third parameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Topics in Ocean Optics)
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Open AccessArticle Anomalous Light Scattering by Pure Seawater
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2679; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122679
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
The latest model for light scattering by pure seawater was used to investigate the anomalous behavior of pure water. The results showed that water exhibits a minimum scattering at 24.6 °C, as compared to the previously reported values of minimum scattering at 22 [...] Read more.
The latest model for light scattering by pure seawater was used to investigate the anomalous behavior of pure water. The results showed that water exhibits a minimum scattering at 24.6 °C, as compared to the previously reported values of minimum scattering at 22 °C or maximum scattering at 15 °C. The temperature corresponding to the minimum scattering also increases with the salinity, reaching 27.5 °C for S = 40 psu. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Topics in Ocean Optics)
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Open AccessArticle Concentrations of Multiple Phytoplankton Pigments in the Global Oceans Obtained from Satellite Ocean Color Measurements with MERIS
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2678; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122678
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
The remote sensing of chlorophyll a concentration from ocean color satellites has been an essential variable quantifying phytoplankton in the past decades, yet estimation of accessory pigments from ocean color remote sensing data has remained largely elusive. In this study, we validated the [...] Read more.
The remote sensing of chlorophyll a concentration from ocean color satellites has been an essential variable quantifying phytoplankton in the past decades, yet estimation of accessory pigments from ocean color remote sensing data has remained largely elusive. In this study, we validated the concentrations of multiple pigments (Cpigs) retrieved from in situ and MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) measured remote sensing reflectance (Rrs(λ)) in the global oceans. A multi-pigment inversion model (MuPI) was used to semi-analytically retrieve Cpigs from Rrs(λ). With a set of globally optimized parameters, the accuracy of the retrievals obtained with MuPI is quite promising. Compared with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) measurements near Bermuda, the concentrations of chlorophyll a, b, c ([Chl-a], [Chl-b], [Chl-c]), photoprotective carotenoids ([PPC]), and photosynthetic carotenoids ([PSC]) can be retrieved from MERIS data with a mean unbiased absolute percentage difference of 38%, 78%, 65%, 36%, and 47%, respectively. The advantage of the MuPI approach is the simultaneous retrievals of [Chl-a] and the accessory pigments [Chl-b], [Chl-c], [PPC], [PSC] from MERIS Rrs(λ) based on a closure between the input and output Rrs(λ) spectra. These results can greatly expand scientific studies of ocean biology and biogeochemistry of the global oceans that are not possible when the only available information is [Chl-a]. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Topics in Ocean Optics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Characterization of the Light Field and Apparent Optical Properties in the Ocean Euphotic Layer Based on Hyperspectral Measurements of Irradiance Quartet
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2677; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122677
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 22 May 2018 / Accepted: 1 June 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Although the light fields and apparent optical properties (AOPs) within the ocean euphotic layer have been studied for many decades through extensive measurements and theoretical modeling, there is virtually a lack of simultaneous high spectral resolution measurements of plane and scalar downwelling and [...] Read more.
Although the light fields and apparent optical properties (AOPs) within the ocean euphotic layer have been studied for many decades through extensive measurements and theoretical modeling, there is virtually a lack of simultaneous high spectral resolution measurements of plane and scalar downwelling and upwelling irradiances (the so-called irradiance quartet). We describe a unique dataset of hyperspectral irradiance quartet, which was acquired under a broad range of environmental conditions within the water column from the near-surface depths to about 80 m in the Gulf of California. This dataset enabled the characterization of a comprehensive suite of AOPs for realistic non-uniform vertical distributions of seawater inherent optical properties (IOPs) and chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl) in the common presence of inelastic radiative processes within the water column, in particular Raman scattering by water molecules and chlorophyll-a fluorescence. In the blue and green spectral regions, the vertical patterns of AOPs are driven primarily by IOPs of seawater with weak or no discernible effects of inelastic processes. In the red, the light field and AOPs are strongly affected or totally dominated by inelastic processes of Raman scattering by water molecules, and additionally by chlorophyll-a fluorescence within the fluorescence emission band. The strongest effects occur in the chlorophyll-a fluorescence band within the chlorophyll-a maximum layer, where the average cosines of the light field approach the values of uniform light field, irradiance reflectance is exceptionally high approaching 1, and the diffuse attenuation coefficients for various irradiances are exceptionally low, including the negative values for the attenuation of upwelling plane and scalar irradiances. We established the empirical relationships describing the vertical patterns of some AOPs in the red spectral region as well as the relationships between some AOPs which can be useful in common experimental situations when only the downwelling plane irradiance measurements are available. We also demonstrated the applicability of irradiance quartet data in conjunction with Gershun’s equation for estimating the absorption coefficient of seawater in the blue-green spectral region, in which the effects of inelastic processes are weak or negligible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Topics in Ocean Optics)
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Open AccessArticle Estimation of Suspended Matter, Organic Carbon, and Chlorophyll-a Concentrations from Particle Size and Refractive Index Distributions
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2676; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122676
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Models of particle density and of organic carbon and chlorophyll-a intraparticle concentration were applied to particle size distributions and particle real refractive index distributions determined from flow cytometry measurements of natural seawater samples from a range of UK coastal waters. The models allowed [...] Read more.
Models of particle density and of organic carbon and chlorophyll-a intraparticle concentration were applied to particle size distributions and particle real refractive index distributions determined from flow cytometry measurements of natural seawater samples from a range of UK coastal waters. The models allowed for the estimation of suspended particulate matter, organic suspended matter, inorganic suspended matter, particulate organic carbon, and chlorophyll-a concentrations. These were then compared with independent measurements of each of these parameters. Particle density models were initially applied to a simple spherical model of particle volume, but generally overestimated independently measured values, sometimes by over two orders of magnitude. However, when the same density models were applied to a fractal model of particle volume, successful agreement was reached for suspended particulate matter and both inorganic and organic suspended matter values (RMS%E: 57.4%, 148.5%, and 83.1% respectively). Non-linear organic carbon and chlorophyll-a volume scaling models were also applied to a spherical model of particle volume, and after an optimization procedure achieved successful agreement with independent measurements of particulate organic carbon and chlorophyll-a concentrations (RMS%E: 45.6% and 51.8% respectively). Refractive index-based models of carbon and chlorophyll-a intraparticle concentration were similarly tested, and were also found to require a fractal model of particle volume to achieve successful agreement with independent measurements, producing RMS%E values of 50.2% and 45.2% respectively after an optimization procedure. It is further shown that the non-linear exponents of the volume scaling models are mathematically equivalent to the fractal dimensionality coefficients that link cell volume to mass concentration, reflecting the impact of non-uniform distribution of intracellular carbon within cells. Fractal models of particle volume are thus found to be essential to successful closure between results provided by models of particle mass, intraparticle carbon and chlorophyll content, and bulk measurements of suspended mass and total particulate carbon and chlorophyll when natural mixed particle populations are concerned. The results also further confirm the value of determining both size and refractive index distributions of natural particle populations using flow cytometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Topics in Ocean Optics)
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