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Visualization and Simulation of Microstructural Dynamics of Complex Fluid–Particle Systems: Process Industry Applications

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanical Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020) | Viewed by 11189

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Coimbra University, Center of Mechanical Engineering Materials and Processes – CEMMPRE, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 3030 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: solid-state chemical sensors; sensor integration techniques; electrochemical sensor and biosensors; impedance spectroscopy technique and applications; electric and ionic materials characterization; tomographic techniques for multiphase flow visualization: electrical impedance tomography; instrumentation
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Guest Editor
Chemical Process Engineering and Forest Products Research Centre (CIEPQPF), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Rua Sílvio Lima, 3030-790 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: particle technology, including particle characterization; multiphase processes, including modelling and experimental; rheology of suspensions; tomographic techniques for multiphase flow visualization; aggregation/flocculation of particles; valorization of ligno-cellulosic materials—development of natural polyelectrolytes and lignin-based surfactants; remediation of soils; microplastics identification and removal
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
1. Chemical and Process Engineering Consultant, Weybridge KT13 9SF, UK
2. Professor Alumnus, Churchill College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 ODS, UK
Interests: multiphase and particulate fluid mechanics; microfluidics and nanoparticle systems; industrial process tomography; digital networks in environmental chemistry and chemical process simulations

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Process industries worldwide are undergoing a deep and wide-ranging transformation from automated mechanical manufacturing facilities to multicomponent, digital-platform-enabled and multiplex-server-supported fast production enterprises. An innovative scientific and engineering drive comprising dynamic computer simulations coupled with the advances achieved in process applications of nondestructive imaging and process tomography provides the basis for further advancement of the digital transformation of the process industries. Simultaneous application of these cutting-edge techniques provides for in-depth investigations of the microstructural changes that take place during the processing of advanced functional products tailored from often recycled and regenerated raw materials.

Green process considerations including minimization of waste and improved process efficiency coupled with reductions in energy consumption can be addressed within a digitally transformed process sector at multiple scales of scrutiny, namely, microscopic (particles and molecules), mesoscopic (suspensions, aerosols), and macroscopic (multiphase, complex products) using numerical simulations and tomographic techniques in tandem.

We particularly invite papers in remote imaging and tomography of complex flows such as fiber flows, immiscible flows, aerated solid–liquid flows, bubble flows, and emulsion flows that require complex rheological characterization as well as the modeling of fluid–particle interactions in both dilute and dense-phase applications involving particles of varying sizes, aspect ratios, and internal and external surface features that can be tailor-made for targeted functionality using for instance 3D printing and other fabrication techniques.

Prof. Dr. Pedro Manuel Gens Azevedo de Matos Faia
Prof. Dr. Maria da Graça Bontempo Vaz Rasteiro
Prof. Dr. Ugur Tuzun
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Theoretical, simulation, and experimental strategies
  • Drag reduction effects (modelling and experimental evaluation) in complex flows
  • Hybrid DEM and CFD simulations of complex multiphase flows
  • Computational methods involving non-convex and high aspect ratio particles
  • Use of Lagrangian and Eulerian models for simulation of dynamic microstructures
  • High-resolution tomographic techniques
  • Digital “machine-learning” aided with process tomography and dynamic simulations

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 7225 KiB  
Article
A Modelling and Validation Approach for Predicting Particle Concentrations of Airborne Dust during the Filling Process of Cylindrical Silos
by Luke Stone, Stefan Zigan, Lahiru L. Lulbadda Waduge and David B. Hastie
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1794; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041794 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2024
Abstract
Traditionally, when undertaking feasibility studies for designing new storage facilities such as storage silos, engineers will extract design information from experiments and evaluate potential risks associated with health and safety, suitability design for reliable material flow, and quality of products. The simulation approach [...] Read more.
Traditionally, when undertaking feasibility studies for designing new storage facilities such as storage silos, engineers will extract design information from experiments and evaluate potential risks associated with health and safety, suitability design for reliable material flow, and quality of products. The simulation approach applied incorporates Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), and Discrete Element Modelling (DEM) approaches and experimental tests will be used for validating these simulation results. One important aspect related to handling fine and dusty materials (particles smaller than 100 microns) is the associated risk of dust explosions, which needs to be evaluated before the commissioning of storage silos; to evaluate the accumulation of fines during the silo filling process, simulations and experiments were conducted. Alumina and salt were used here as reference materials for calibration and the validation purposes. The validation efforts are significant due to the fact that the data that is accessible in simulations is vastly different to the accessible data in experiments, which is restricted by measurement techniques and equipment. Such restrictions are observed in the evaluation of particle concentrations in a large confined volume. A new methodology has been developed to evaluate concentrations in both simulations and experiments by employing a non-dimensional factor [k], here called “Concentration Rank Factor” (CRF). A significant finding of this research is that experiments and simulations can be compared using CRF. It has been found to be within 2% of the experiment averaged value of 0.64. Full article
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23 pages, 7940 KiB  
Article
Validation of a Discrete Element Method (DEM) Model of the Grinding Media Dynamics within an Attritor Mill Using Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) Measurements
by Domenico Daraio, Jose Villoria, Andrew Ingram, Alessio Alexiadis, E. Hugh Stitt and Michele Marigo
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(22), 4816; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9224816 - 11 Nov 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4341
Abstract
Positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) was used to investigate the grinding media dynamics in a laboratory-scale attritor mill in the absence of powder. The grinding media motion was analysed as a function of the equipment’s typical operating parameters: impeller speed, impeller clearance and [...] Read more.
Positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) was used to investigate the grinding media dynamics in a laboratory-scale attritor mill in the absence of powder. The grinding media motion was analysed as a function of the equipment’s typical operating parameters: impeller speed, impeller clearance and bead fill level. It was observed that the impeller speed had the strongest influence on the media motion. An increase of the impeller speed from 300 rpm to 600 rpm led to a change in the bead recirculation patterns with the increasing formation of well segregated upper and lower recirculation loops that fully developed at the maximum speed of 600 rpm. For a constant impeller speed, an increase of the bead loading did not majorly affect the bead velocity as remarked by minor changes on the flow field. For all the impeller clearance values, the occupancy plots revealed an inefficient dead region at the bottom of the attritor where the beads were moving at very low velocity. In this region the beads were tightly packed under their own weight and, furthermore, there was an absence of direct contact with the impeller arms. The depth of this region increased proportionally to the distance between the bottom of the impeller and the vessel base indicating that a minimum value of clearance should be set to optimise the lower recirculation pattern. For two experimental conditions, the data generated by PEPT measurements were utilised to set-up a friction-adjusted discrete element method (DEM) model. Here, the simulation results were qualitatively and quantitatively compared against the PEPT data by assessing the averaged velocity flow fields and the average velocity profiles at different radial locations inside the vessel. Given the intrinsic uncertainty of the PEPT measurements, the DEM model results were in considerably good agreement with the experimental results. The major discrepancy was observed close to the vessel wall where the simulations overpredicted the velocity by about 10%. Full article
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Review

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29 pages, 4339 KiB  
Review
Electrical Tomography: A Review of Configurations, and Application to Fibre Flow Suspensions Characterisation
by Pedro Faia, Rui Silva, Maria G. Rasteiro and Fernando Garcia
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2355; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072355 - 30 Mar 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4316
Abstract
Understanding the behaviour of suspension flows continues to be a subject of great interest considering its industrial relevance, regardless of the long time and effort dedicated to it by the scientific and industrial communities. Information about several flow characteristics, such as flow regimen, [...] Read more.
Understanding the behaviour of suspension flows continues to be a subject of great interest considering its industrial relevance, regardless of the long time and effort dedicated to it by the scientific and industrial communities. Information about several flow characteristics, such as flow regimen, relative velocity between phases, and spatial distribution of the phases, are essential for the development of exact models for description of processes involving pulp suspension. Among the diverse non-invasive techniques for flow characterisation that have been reported in the literature for obtaining experimental data about suspension flow in different processes, Electrical Tomography is one of the most interesting, since it presents perhaps the best compromise among cost, portability, and, above all, safety of handling (indeed there is no need to use radiation, which requires special care when using it). In this paper, a brief review and comparison between existing technologies for pulp suspension flow monitoring will be presented, together with their strengths and weaknesses. Emphasis is given to Electrical Tomography, because it offers the above-mentioned compromise and thus was the strategy adopted by the authors to characterise different flow processes (solid–liquid, liquid–liquid, fibres, etc.). The produced portable EIT system is described, and examples of results of its use for pulp suspension flow characterisation are reported and discussed. Full article
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