Special Issue "Dimensional Micro and Nanometrology"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanotechnology and Applied Nanosciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Richard Leach

Manufacturing Metrology Team, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Advanced Manufacturing Building, Jubilee Campus, Nottingham, NG8 1BB, UK
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +44 (0) 7467 085 482
Interests: Basics of metrology, dimensional metrology, surface metrology, uncertainty analysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Working at the micro- and nano-scales demands an understanding of the high-precision measurement techniques that make nanotechnology and advanced manufacturing possible. This Special Issue on dimensional micro- and and nanometrology presents the latest advances in these techniques and is aimed at a broad range of scientists and engineers involved in nanotechnology and advanced manufacturing research. The Special Issue addresses new and emerging measurement and anlysis technologies, and recent advances in standards and regulatory frameworks. Subject areas include, but are not limited to: Traceability, uncertainty, calibration, verification and standards; precision instrumentation design and theory; optical instruments; scanning probe microscopies; particle beam microscopy; angle, displacement and coordinate metrology; surface topography measurement; and aspects of in-line measurement and control in nanotechnology and advanced manufacturing.

Prof. Richard Leach
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • traceability
  • uncertainty
  • calibration
  • optical instruments
  • scanning probe microscopies
  • particle beam microscopy
  • coordinate metrology
  • surface topography measurement
  • in-line measurement

Published Papers (6 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-6
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle A Three-Dimensional Resonant Triggering Probe for Micro-CMM
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7040403
Received: 14 February 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 15 April 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2367 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To achieve true 3D nano-measurement with sub-nanometer resolution and very low touch force through a micro/nano coordinate measuring machine, a new 3D resonant trigger probe based on a quartz tuning fork is proposed. In this trigger probe, a quartz tuning fork with a [...] Read more.
To achieve true 3D nano-measurement with sub-nanometer resolution and very low touch force through a micro/nano coordinate measuring machine, a new 3D resonant trigger probe based on a quartz tuning fork is proposed. In this trigger probe, a quartz tuning fork with a microsphere tip vibrates at its resonant frequency, and is used as the sensing element. The resonance parameters of this quartz tuning fork (e.g., vibrating amplitude and resonant frequency) are extremely sensitive to external 3D microforces. The distinguished feature of this probe is its ability to interact with the sample surface in the actual three directions. The microsphere tip of the probe interacts with the sample surface in tapping mode in the Z direction, whereas it interacts in friction mode in the X and Y directions. The dynamic contact mechanism of the probe is based on interfacial force theory, and mechanical models of the interactions between the microsphere tip and sample surface in the X, Y, and Z directions are constructed and simulated. The experiment shows that the probe has sub-nanometer resolution in 3D directions and triggers repeatability of approximately 40 nm in each direction. Theoretical analysis and experimental results verify that this 3D resonant trigger probe can be used for true 3D profile measurement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dimensional Micro and Nanometrology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Optical Beam Deflection Based AFM with Integrated Hardware and Software Platform for an Undergraduate Engineering Laboratory
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7030226
Received: 19 December 2016 / Revised: 3 February 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3045 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used extensively in nanoscience research since its invention. Recently, many teaching laboratories in colleges, undergraduate institutions, and even high schools incorporate AFM as an effective teaching tool for nanoscience education. This paper presents an optical beam deflection [...] Read more.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used extensively in nanoscience research since its invention. Recently, many teaching laboratories in colleges, undergraduate institutions, and even high schools incorporate AFM as an effective teaching tool for nanoscience education. This paper presents an optical beam deflection (OBD) based atomic force microscope, designed specifically for the undergraduate engineering laboratory as a teaching instrument. An electronic module for signal conditioning was built with components that are commonly available in an undergraduate electronic laboratory. In addition to off-the-shelf mechanical parts and optics, the design of custom-built mechanical parts waskept as simple as possible. Hence, the overall cost for the setup is greatly reduced. The AFM controller was developed using National Instruments Educational Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Suite (NI ELVIS), an integrated hardware and software platform which can be programmed in LabVIEW. A simple yet effective control algorithm for scanning and feedback control was developed. Despite the use of an educational platform and low-cost components from the undergraduate laboratory, the developed AFM is capable of performing imaging in constant-force mode with submicron resolution and at reasonable scanning speed (approximately 18 min per image). Therefore, the AFM is suitable to be used as an educational tool for nanoscience. Moreover, the construction of the system can be a valuable educational experience for electronic and mechanical engineering students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dimensional Micro and Nanometrology)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle The Model Analysis of a Complex Tuning Fork Probe and Its Application in Bimodal Atomic Force Microscopy
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7020121
Received: 20 November 2016 / Revised: 18 January 2017 / Accepted: 19 January 2017 / Published: 25 January 2017
PDF Full-text (4805 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new electromechanical coupling model was built to quantitatively analyze the tuning fork probes, especially the complex ones. A special feature of a novel, soft tuning fork probe, that the second eigenfrequency of the probe was insensitive to the effective force gradient, was [...] Read more.
A new electromechanical coupling model was built to quantitatively analyze the tuning fork probes, especially the complex ones. A special feature of a novel, soft tuning fork probe, that the second eigenfrequency of the probe was insensitive to the effective force gradient, was found and used in a homemade bimodal atomic force microscopy to measure power dissipation quantitatively. By transforming the mechanical parameters to the electrical parameters, a monotonous and concise method without using phase to calculate the power dissipation was proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dimensional Micro and Nanometrology)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle The Meaning and Measure of Vertical Resolution in Optical Surface Topography Measurement
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7010054
Received: 2 December 2016 / Revised: 28 December 2016 / Accepted: 30 December 2016 / Published: 5 January 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (781 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vertical resolution is the most widely quoted and most frequently misunderstood performance specification for equipment that measures surface topography. Here I propose to use internationally standardized terms and definitions for measurement noise and surface topography repeatability as more meaningful quantifiers for measurement performance. [...] Read more.
Vertical resolution is the most widely quoted and most frequently misunderstood performance specification for equipment that measures surface topography. Here I propose to use internationally standardized terms and definitions for measurement noise and surface topography repeatability as more meaningful quantifiers for measurement performance. A specific example is an interference microscope operating with a 100 Hz, 1 k × 1 k pixel camera, and a sinusoidal phase modulation to convert intensity data to a height map. The measurement noise is found experimentally to be 0.072 nm for a 1 s data acquisition using a surface topography repeatability test, which determines the random height-equivalent noise level for an individual pixel in the areal surface topography map. Under ideal conditions, the measured noise is equivalent to the instrument noise that may be published in a performance specification in place of the more common, but poorly defined, vertical resolution specification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dimensional Micro and Nanometrology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Autofluorescence Imaging and Spectroscopy of Human Lung Cancer
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7010032
Received: 16 November 2016 / Revised: 23 December 2016 / Accepted: 23 December 2016 / Published: 28 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers, with high mortality rate worldwide. Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy is a non-invasive, label-free, real-time technique for cancer detection. In this study, lung tissue sections excised from patients were detected by laser scan confocal microscopy [...] Read more.
Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers, with high mortality rate worldwide. Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy is a non-invasive, label-free, real-time technique for cancer detection. In this study, lung tissue sections excised from patients were detected by laser scan confocal microscopy and spectroscopy. The autofluorescence images demonstrated the cellular morphology and tissue structure, as well as the pathology of stained images. Based on the spectra study, it was found that the majority of the patients showed discriminating fluorescence in tumor tissues from normal tissues. Therefore, autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy may be a potential method for aiding the diagnosis of lung cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dimensional Micro and Nanometrology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Error Averaging Effect in Parallel Mechanism Coordinate Measuring Machine
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(12), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6120383
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 18 November 2016 / Accepted: 18 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3341 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Error averaging effect is one of the advantages of a parallel mechanism when individual errors are relatively large. However, further investigation is necessary to clarify the evidence with mathematical analysis and experiment. In the developed parallel coordinate measuring machine (PCMM), which is based [...] Read more.
Error averaging effect is one of the advantages of a parallel mechanism when individual errors are relatively large. However, further investigation is necessary to clarify the evidence with mathematical analysis and experiment. In the developed parallel coordinate measuring machine (PCMM), which is based on three pairs of prismatic-universal-universal joints (3-PUU), error averaging mechanism was investigated and is analyzed in this report. Firstly, the error transfer coefficients of various errors in the PCMM were studied based on the established error transfer model. It can be shown how the various original errors in the parallel mechanism are averaged and reduced. Secondly, experimental measurements were carried out, including angular errors and straightness errors of three moving sliders. Lastly, solving the inverse kinematics by numerical method of iteration, it can be seen that the final measuring errors of the moving platform of PCMM can be reduced by the error averaging effect in comparison with the attributed geometric errors of three moving slides. This study reveals the significance of the error averaging effect for a PCMM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dimensional Micro and Nanometrology)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Appl. Sci. EISSN 2076-3417 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top