Special Issue "Advances in Geotechnical Engineering"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Earth Sciences and Geography".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Gye-Chun Cho
Website
Guest Editor
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Department Civil and Environmental Engineering, 291 Daehak Ro, Daejeon 34141, South Korea
Interests: geotechnical engineering; energy geotechnology; bio-soil; rock excavation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Ilhan Chang
Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Systems Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, 16499, South Korea
Interests: Geotechnical engineering; Ground improvement; Bio-soil; Sustainability
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recently, we have been facing drastic climate change and the various geotechnical engineering issues that follow with it. Thus, environmentally friendly and sustainable development is now an inevitable challenge for civil and geotechnical engineers, with the world and society asking geotechnical engineering to provide solutions to cope with energy depletion, environmental pollution, land degradation, geohazards, and global warming. This Special Issue welcomes all type of contributions to resolve current challenges in geotechnical engineering, from fundamental research to practical implementation scales.

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide a source of Advances in Geotechnical Engineering that deal with conventional or new fields in geotechnical engineering, including: development of new material/methods for sustainable geotechnical engineering practice, geoenvironmental topics and research, renewable energy sources, recent attempts in CO2 and waste reduction, soil erosion and land preservation, and new space (underground, offshore, and planetary) development related to geotechnical engineering.

Prof. Gye-Chun Cho
Dr. Ilhan Chang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering
  • Greenhouse gases and climate change
  • Sustainability
  • Energy depletion and renewable energy
  • Geotechnical engineering hazards
  • Laboratory testing and field application methods
  • Ground improvement and geosynthetics
  • Wastes and recycling
  • Soil erosion and land degradation
  • Bio-mediated and bio-inspired geotechnical engineering
  • New space development

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Interfacial Shearing Behavior along Xanthan Gum Biopolymer-Treated Sand and Solid Interfaces and Its Meaning in Geotechnical Engineering Aspects
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010139 - 25 Dec 2020
Abstract
Recently, environment-friendly microbial biopolymer has been widely applied as a new construction material in geotechnical engineering practices including soil stabilization, slope protection, and ground injection. Biopolymer is known to exhibit substantial improvements in geotechnical properties, such as shear strength enhancement and hydraulic conductivity [...] Read more.
Recently, environment-friendly microbial biopolymer has been widely applied as a new construction material in geotechnical engineering practices including soil stabilization, slope protection, and ground injection. Biopolymer is known to exhibit substantial improvements in geotechnical properties, such as shear strength enhancement and hydraulic conductivity reduction, through the formation of direct ionic bonds with soil particles, especially clay particles. Moreover, the rheological characteristics (e.g., pseudoplasticity, shear-rate dependent thixotropy) of biopolymers render distinctive behaviors such as shear thinning and lubrication effect under a high strain condition, while recovering their viscosities and shear stiffnesses when they are at rest. To ensure the practical applicability of biopolymer-based soil treatment, it is important to understand the interfacial interaction (i.e., friction) between biopolymer-treated soil and adjoining structural members which can be constructed in a biopolymer-treated ground. Thus, in this paper, interfacial shearing behavior of biopolymer-treated soil along solid surfaces as well as internal shearing on biopolymer-soil matrix were explored via direct and interface shear test. Experimental results show a predominant effect of the soil moisture content on the interfacial shear behavior of biopolymer-treated soil which attributes to the rheology transition of biopolymer hydrogels. At low moisture content, condensed biopolymer biofilm mobilizes strong intergranular bonding, where the interfacial shear mainly depends on the physical condition along the surface including the asperity angle. In contrast, the biopolymer induced intergranular bonding weakens as moisture content increases, where most interfacial failures occur in biopolymer-treated soil itself, regardless of the interface condition. In short, this study provides an overall trend of the interfacial friction angle and adhesion variations of xanthan gum biopolymer-treated sand which could be referred when considering a subsequent structural member construction after a biopolymer-based ground improvement practice in field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geotechnical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Remote Monitoring of Ground Deformation Using Sentinel-1 Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR): Applications and Insights into Geotechnical Engineering Practices
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7447; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217447 - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
Development of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology and the dedicated suite of processing tools have aided the evolution of remote sensing techniques for various Earth Observation (EO) applications. Interferometric SAR (InSAR) is a relatively new geodetic technique which provides high-speed and reliable geographic, [...] Read more.
Development of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology and the dedicated suite of processing tools have aided the evolution of remote sensing techniques for various Earth Observation (EO) applications. Interferometric SAR (InSAR) is a relatively new geodetic technique which provides high-speed and reliable geographic, geologic, and hazards information allowing the prognosis of future environmental and urban planning. In this study, we explored the applicability of two differential interferometry techniques, conventional and advanced differential InSAR (A-DInSAR), for topographic mapping and long-term geotechnical monitoring by exploiting satellite data, particularly Sentinel-1 SAR data, which is publicly shared. We specifically used the open-source tools of SeNtinel Application Platform (SNAP) and Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) for interferometric data processing to implement A-DInSAR. This study presents various applications, which include generation of a digital elevation model (DEM), mapping of seismically induced displacement and associated damages, and detection and long-term monitoring of tunneling-induced ground deformation and rainfall-induced landslide. Geometric and temporal decorrelations posed challenges and limitations in the successful implementation of Sentinel-1 SAR interferometry specifically in vegetated areas. The presented results proved the validity and reliability of the exploited SAR data and InSAR techniques for addressing geotechnical engineering related problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geotechnical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
The Behavior of a Thread-Bar Grouted Anchor in Soils from Local Strain Monitoring
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7194; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207194 - 15 Oct 2020
Abstract
International standards discourage the use of grouted anchors with a fixed length exceeding 10 m. However, grouted anchors with a fixed length between 10 and 20 m are frequently used in Italy to transfer high loads to ground with poor geotechnical properties. This [...] Read more.
International standards discourage the use of grouted anchors with a fixed length exceeding 10 m. However, grouted anchors with a fixed length between 10 and 20 m are frequently used in Italy to transfer high loads to ground with poor geotechnical properties. This paper presents the results of investigation tests on an anchor with a length of 36 m, of which 18 m is fixed, sloping 40° from the horizontal; the anchor is comprised of a reinforced thread-bar which was instrumented with strain gauges and founded in nonhomogeneous ground, a sand deposit followed by marly clay. The test aimed at investigating the progressive mobilization of the shear strength along the foundation. The results indicate a very low shear strength offered by the sand, probably disturbed by the drilling, and an unusually fast mobilization of the shear strength in the marly clay at the deep end of the anchor. The results are particularly useful to identify the reasons for the observed poor performance of the grouted anchor. In particular, the study once again made it clear how important the influence of the execution details on reaching the expected load capacity may be, and likewise the practice of investigation tests on suitably instrumented test anchors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geotechnical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Mechanical Properties and Cracking Mode of Coal Samples under Compression–Shear Coupled Load Considering the Effect of Loading Rate
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7082; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207082 - 12 Oct 2020
Abstract
Under coupled compression–shear loading, the failure and instability behavior of inclined pillars is different from that of horizontal pillars. To enhance the reliability and accuracy of pillar strength design, the influence of different inclination angles and loading rates on mechanical property and the [...] Read more.
Under coupled compression–shear loading, the failure and instability behavior of inclined pillars is different from that of horizontal pillars. To enhance the reliability and accuracy of pillar strength design, the influence of different inclination angles and loading rates on mechanical property and the failure behavior of inclined pillar should be studied. In this paper, the combined compression and shear test (C-CAST) system was developed, and mechanical properties and macro failure behavior of coal samples under different inclination angles and loading rates were studied, and acoustic emission (AE) technology was used to determine the internal cracking mode of the sample. The results show that with the increase of inclination angle, the peak shear stress of coal sample increases gradually, while the peak axial stress and elastic modulus slightly increase first and then decrease, and reach the maximum value at an inclination angle of 5°. Within the inclination angle range of 0°–15°, with the increase of loading rate, the peak axial stress and elastic modulus of coal samples first increase and then decrease, while the loading rate corresponding to peak axial stress and elastic modulus decreases. Within the inclination angle range of 20°–25°, the peak axial stress and elastic modulus of the sample gradually decrease with the increase of loading rate. The failure mode of coal samples changes from tension-splitting failure (0°–5°), tension–shear composite failure (10°) to single shear failure (15°–25°). Meanwhile, the loading rate has little effect on the failure mode of coal samples, but has a significant effect on the failure degree. When the loading rate is 1.0 and 10 mm/min and the inclination angle ranges from 0°–5°, the proportion of tensile crack is significantly greater than that of the shear crack, and tensile failure is the main failure mode; when the inclination angle ranges from 10°–25°, the proportion of shear crack is more than 50% and increases gradually with the increase of inclination angle, and shear failure is the main failure mode. This law is consistent with the macroscopic failure mode of the sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geotechnical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Laboratory Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of a Rubber–Calcareous Sand Mixture: The Effect of Rubber Content
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6583; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186583 - 21 Sep 2020
Abstract
This paper introduces a rubber–calcareous sand mixture as a lightweight building material in offshore engineering. The mechanical properties of mixtures of varying rubber contents were investigated by performing a one-dimensional (1-D) compression test in a modified oedometer cell, as well as a resonant [...] Read more.
This paper introduces a rubber–calcareous sand mixture as a lightweight building material in offshore engineering. The mechanical properties of mixtures of varying rubber contents were investigated by performing a one-dimensional (1-D) compression test in a modified oedometer cell, as well as a resonant column test. A discussion on the test results, along with detailed interpretations regarding the role of rubber chips in the mixtures, are provided. It was found that the virgin compression curves of the rubber–calcareous sand mixtures tended to converge at a certain stress level, whilst the stress level depended on the rubber content. Moreover, the relative breakage was examined by comparing the particle size distribution curves of the calcareous sand before and after the compression test. It was shown that the grain crushing of calcareous sand was less remarkable with the inclusion of rubber chips. Furthermore, the small strain shear modulus (G0) of the mixtures decreased with the rubber content, yet the modulus reduction and damping curves exhibited little difference for the specimens of varying rubber contents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geotechnical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Factors That Affect Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Spreading in Large Subduction Earthquakes
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6503; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186503 - 18 Sep 2020
Abstract
Liquefaction-induced lateral spreading can induce significant deformations and damage in existing structures, such as ports, bridges, and pipes. Past earthquakes have caused this phenomenon in coastal areas and rivers in many parts of the world. Current lateral spreading prediction models tend to either [...] Read more.
Liquefaction-induced lateral spreading can induce significant deformations and damage in existing structures, such as ports, bridges, and pipes. Past earthquakes have caused this phenomenon in coastal areas and rivers in many parts of the world. Current lateral spreading prediction models tend to either overestimate or underestimate the actual displacements by a factor of two or more when applied to large subduction earthquake events. The purpose of this study was to identify ground motion intensity measures and soil parameters that better correlate with observed lateral spreading under large-magnitude (Mw ≥ 7.5) subduction earthquakes that have occurred in countries like Chile, Japan, and Peru. A numerical approach was first validated against centrifuge and historical cases and then used to generate parametric models on which statistical analysis was applied. Our results show that cumulative absolute velocity (CAV), Housner intensity (HI), and sustained maximum velocity (SMV) have a reasonably good correlation with lateral spreading for the analyzed cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geotechnical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Stability of Extended Earth Berm for High Landfill
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6281; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186281 - 10 Sep 2020
Abstract
This study presents a stability analysis of an extended berm reinforced by geotextiles, with a steep slope of 1V:1.1H (vertical: horizontal). Finite element (FE) analyses were carried out to explore the failure mechanism and factor of safety (FOS) of the berm, on which [...] Read more.
This study presents a stability analysis of an extended berm reinforced by geotextiles, with a steep slope of 1V:1.1H (vertical: horizontal). Finite element (FE) analyses were carried out to explore the failure mechanism and factor of safety (FOS) of the berm, on which the effect of the strength of geotextiles, leachate level, and anti-slide pile arrangement located at the toe of the berm were considered. It was found that: (1) failure surfaces developed along the interface between the new and the existing berms; (2) the FOS decreased as the leachate increased, and an FOS value of 1.42 could be obtained if the leachate level was controlled at a height of 20 m; (3) the tensile force of geotextiles was far lower than the available strength, which suggested that the geotextile had enough of a safety reserve; and (4) one row of longer piles at the toe of the berm performed better than two rows of shorter piles if the total length of piles was the same. The design and analysis of this project can be used as a reference for landfill expansion. Especially for a site condition with limited space, a geosynthetic-reinforced soil (GRS) berm is a safe, reliable and promising alternative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geotechnical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Model Test and Numerical Simulation of Single Pile Response under Combined Loading in Slope
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(17), 6140; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10176140 - 03 Sep 2020
Abstract
Vertical loads are commonly transferred by piles primarily in the upper structures. However, lateral loads are also significant compared with vertical loads in pile foundation design. Compared with a pile on level ground, there are many particular characteristics in a pile that is [...] Read more.
Vertical loads are commonly transferred by piles primarily in the upper structures. However, lateral loads are also significant compared with vertical loads in pile foundation design. Compared with a pile on level ground, there are many particular characteristics in a pile that is on sloping ground. These characteristics depend on the combined loading and the magnitude of the soil lateral displacement. In order to investigate the pile’s bearing characteristics, a model test was conducted and ABAQUS software was adopted to conduct 3D numerical simulation of a single pile with different slope angles under combined loads. The experimental results indicated that (1) the soil pressure along the slope direction was smaller than the other side, resulting in an asymmetry of the slope soil around the pile, and in turn introducing a horizontal thrust to the pile; (2) with the increase of slope angle, the horizontal thrust increased while the single pile’s bearing capacity decreased; (3) the vertical load caused more pile horizontal displacement with the growth of slope angle; and (4) the pile’s moment and the displacement also increased with the growth of the slope angle. The findings in this study can provide a useful reference in the design of piles or anti-slide piles in sloping ground. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geotechnical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Bi-Directional Static Load Tests of Pile Models
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(16), 5492; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165492 - 08 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This work examined a new method of bi-directional static load testing for piles, referencing the Osterberg test. Measurements were taken, on a laboratory scale, using six models of piles driven into a box filled with sand. This method allowed for separate measurements of [...] Read more.
This work examined a new method of bi-directional static load testing for piles, referencing the Osterberg test. Measurements were taken, on a laboratory scale, using six models of piles driven into a box filled with sand. This method allowed for separate measurements of pile base and pile shaft bearing capacities. Based on the results, the total pile bearing capacity and equivalent Q–s diagrams were estimated. The results obtained show that the structure of the equivalent curve according to Osterberg is a good approximation of the standard Q–s curve obtained from load tests, except for loads close to the limit of bearing capacity (those estimates are also complicated by the inapplicability and ambiguity of a definition of the notion of limit bearing capacity); the equivalent pile capacity in the Osterberg method represents, on average, about 80% of the capacity from standard tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geotechnical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Reinforcement Effect of a Concrete Mat to Prevent Ground Collapses Due to Buried Pipe Damage
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(16), 5439; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165439 - 06 Aug 2020
Abstract
This study described a ground reinforcement effect of a concrete mat, in order to apply a concrete mat for ground subsidence restoration of an open cut. A concrete mat can prevent the expansion of a cavity and relaxation area underground due to buried [...] Read more.
This study described a ground reinforcement effect of a concrete mat, in order to apply a concrete mat for ground subsidence restoration of an open cut. A concrete mat can prevent the expansion of a cavity and relaxation area underground due to buried pipe damage when the buried pipe is in use. An experimental study was conducted to analyze the stress distribution characteristics of an underground area by ground reinforcement of a concrete mat. In addition, a numerical analysis was performed to estimate the range of underground reinforcement of a concrete mat. As an experiment results, the maximum stress reduction ratio of the concrete mat in the underground was 28.5% to 30.9%, which means the reinforcement effect of the concrete mat, according to the installation depth of the concrete mat. The finite element analysis (FEA) results showed that the installation depth of the concrete mat differed in various scenarios, in order to secure the reinforcement effect of the concrete mat according to the load conditions (point and uniform load). Therefore, the reinforced depth of a concrete mat should be determined by the load type on the surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geotechnical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Internal Force Analysis of Buried-boring Piles in the Yuanzishan Landslide
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(16), 5416; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165416 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The Yuanzishan landslide is an unstable slope in Langzhong County, located in northeast Sichuan province, China. The Guangyuan-Nanchong expressway passes through the front edge of the unstable slope, and subgrade excavation has resulted in slope deformation, which threatens the safety of the highway [...] Read more.
The Yuanzishan landslide is an unstable slope in Langzhong County, located in northeast Sichuan province, China. The Guangyuan-Nanchong expressway passes through the front edge of the unstable slope, and subgrade excavation has resulted in slope deformation, which threatens the safety of the highway construction. Emergency landslide control requires reduction of the slope disturbance. This study aims to investigate the use of buried-boring piles as a potential method for emergency landslide control. A simplified calculation method was used for the design of the buried-boring piles, according to the limit equilibrium of the soil and the elastic foundation coefficient method. The measured internal force changes of the pile were compared, in order to determine the distribution coefficients of the driving force. A relationship between the driving force of the shared pile ratio and the buried depth ratios was then established. Furthermore, a variety of factors affecting the internal forces of the buried-boring pile and the lateral reaction of the soil were also studied. The results revealed that (1) there was a quadratic relationship between the driving force of the pile-shared ratio and the sliding depth ratios; (2) the maximum bending moment of the pile increased with an increase in the sliding depth ratio of the pile, following a power law relationship; (3) increasing the buried depth of the pile head reduced the influence of the pile diameter on the maximum internal forces; (4) increasing the pile diameter decreased the maximum lateral reaction of the soil. The buried-boring piles can be used in similarly unstable regions for emergency control of deforming slopes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geotechnical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Rock Cutting Simulation of Point Attack Picks Using the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics Technique and the Cumulative Damage Model
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(15), 5314; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155314 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Various numerical methods have been used to simulate the rock cutting process. Numerical simulation is a useful tool for estimating the performance of a cutting tool and for understanding the mechanism of rock cutting and interaction between a cutting tool and the rock. [...] Read more.
Various numerical methods have been used to simulate the rock cutting process. Numerical simulation is a useful tool for estimating the performance of a cutting tool and for understanding the mechanism of rock cutting and interaction between a cutting tool and the rock. These methods supplement the rock cutting test, which is commonly referred to as the linear cutting machine (LCM) test. Mechanical excavators, such as roadheaders, longwall shearers, and trenchers, generally use pick cutters as the cutting tool. In this study, a rock cutting simulation with a pick cutter was developed using the smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique, which is a mesh-free Lagrangian method. The Drucker–Prager (DP) strength model was used to simulate the brittle behavior of rock. The cumulative damage (CD) model was used to simulate the degraded fragmentation process of rock and the distinctive behavior of rock in the compression and tensile stress regions. In this study, an attempt was made to simulate sequential cutting by multiple pick cutters. The results showed that the numerical simulation matched the experimental results closely in terms of cutter forces, specific energy, and the fragmentation phenomenon. These results confirmed the applicability of the SPH technique in simulating the rock cutting process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geotechnical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Deformation Characteristics and Control Method of Kilometer-Depth Roadways in a Nickel Mine: A Case Study
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 3937; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10113937 - 05 Jun 2020
Abstract
Deformation failure and support methods of roadways have always been critical issues in mining production and safety, especially for roadways buried in complex engineering geological conditions. To resolve these support issues of kilometer-depth roadways under high ground stress and broken rock mass, a [...] Read more.
Deformation failure and support methods of roadways have always been critical issues in mining production and safety, especially for roadways buried in complex engineering geological conditions. To resolve these support issues of kilometer-depth roadways under high ground stress and broken rock mass, a case study on the roadways in the No. 2 mining area of Jinchuan Mine, China, is presented in this paper. Based on a detailed field survey, the deformation characteristics of the roadways and failure modes of supporting structures were investigated. It was found that the horizontal deformations were serious, and the primary support was not able to control the surrounding rock well. Additionally, a broken rock zone test was carried out, which indicated that a zonal disintegration phenomenon occurred around the roadways and the maximum depth of the fractured zone was more than 4.8 m. In order to effectively limit the deformation in the roadways, a new support scheme called the “multistage anchorage + concrete-filled steel tube” was put forward. To further assess the support behavior of the new method, we selected a test roadway in the research area, and numerical simulations and in-situ monitoring were conducted. The findings suggest that the roadway’s serious deformation under high ground stress and broken rock mass could be successfully controlled by the new control method, which can provide a reference for other engineering solutions under similar geological conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geotechnical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) Advance on Adjacent Tunnel during Ultra-Rapid Underground Pass (URUP) Tunneling: A Case Study and Numerical Investigation
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 3746; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10113746 - 28 May 2020
Abstract
This study investigates the influence of subsequent tunnel boring machine (TBM)-driven processes on the responses of the first tunnel in twin-tunnel construction using the ultra-rapid underground pass (URUP) method. A comprehensive finite element analysis (FEA) is performed to simulate the URUP TBM tunneling, [...] Read more.
This study investigates the influence of subsequent tunnel boring machine (TBM)-driven processes on the responses of the first tunnel in twin-tunnel construction using the ultra-rapid underground pass (URUP) method. A comprehensive finite element analysis (FEA) is performed to simulate the URUP TBM tunneling, considering the non-uniform convergence caused by the TBM geometry, the tunnel face supporting pressure, and the tail-grouting pressure. The FEA model is validated by the monitoring results of the bending element of the first tunnel lining. The FEA results reveal that the grouting pressure of the second tunnel has significant influence on lining deformation of the first tunnel, while the face supporting pressure shows little effect. The relationship between the grouting pressure and the maximum bending moment of adjacent first tunnel can be fitted by linear function. A grouting pressure equals to the lateral earth pressure is able the reduce the variation of the bending element of the first tunnel during the TBM-driven process of the second tunnel. The bending element of the first tunnel shows a typical lognormal relationship with the face supporting pressure during the TBM advance of the second tunnel. A critical cover-to-depth ratio, under which the horizontal and vertical soil arching effect vanishes, can be deduced to be within the range of 0.55–0.60. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geotechnical Engineering)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effects of Soil Conditioning on Characteristics of a Clay-Sand-Gravel Mixed Soil Based on Laboratory Test
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3300; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093300 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Soil conditioning is of great significance for tunneling in soft ground with earth pressure balance shield (EPBS) machines, which leads to safe, highly efficient, and high-quality tunneling. To study the effects of soil conditioning on properties of a clay-sand-gravel mixed soil encountered in [...] Read more.
Soil conditioning is of great significance for tunneling in soft ground with earth pressure balance shield (EPBS) machines, which leads to safe, highly efficient, and high-quality tunneling. To study the effects of soil conditioning on properties of a clay-sand-gravel mixed soil encountered in an EPBS tunneling project in Beijing, a series of geotechnical test methods was carried out based on laboratory test in this paper. The decay behaviors of foam particles generated by the Waring-Blender method were studied first using the image particle analysis system, and then the feasibility of soil conditioning on the mixed soil was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed through the mixing test, slump test, and friction coefficient test. The preliminary test results indicate that drainage of water in liquid film plays an important role in the decay of foam microstructure. The viscosity and flowability of the conditioned soil were modified dramatically by using various amount of water and foam, and a suitable state meeting the requirement of EPBS machines was obtained. The net power and mixing time, which reflects the interaction between the blending rods and tested soils, as well as the slump value, providing the overall indication for liquidity of the conditioned soils, and friction coefficient, reflecting the friction between steel and tested soils, were used to provide insight into the variation in viscosity and flowability of the tested soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geotechnical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Rock Abrasiveness on Wear of Shield Tunnelling in Bukit Timah Granite
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3231; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093231 - 06 May 2020
Abstract
The abrasiveness of rocks significantly influences the wear endured by excavation tools in tunnel boring machines (TBMs). In slurry shield TBMs, wear occurs not only in excavation tools but also in discharge pipes and pumps of slurry transport systems. To explore this phenomenon, [...] Read more.
The abrasiveness of rocks significantly influences the wear endured by excavation tools in tunnel boring machines (TBMs). In slurry shield TBMs, wear occurs not only in excavation tools but also in discharge pipes and pumps of slurry transport systems. To explore this phenomenon, this study investigated the effect of rock abrasiveness on the wear of both disc cutters and slurry discharge pipes in slurry shield TBMs. The radial wear of disc cutters and the thickness of slurry discharge pipes were measured and monitored at a TBM site in Singapore. The relationship between the weathering grade of Bukit Timah granite and the wear coefficient of disc cutters was analysed, and a correlation between the Cerchar Abrasivity Index values and the wear coefficient of 19 inch disc cutters was suggested. Additionally, the average wear rates of slurry discharge pipes used for Bukit Timah granite were determined based on the pipe thickness measurements. The wear rates of weathering grades G(I) to G(IV) of Bukit Timah granite were observed to be highly similar to each other, whereas the wear rates of G(V) grade and mixed ground were 1.55 times higher than those of the G(I) to G(IV) grades. The correlation between the slurry discharge velocity and the wear rate in slurry discharge pipes was thus derived. The accurate assessment of the effect of rock abrasiveness on both the wear of disc cutters and the wear rate in slurry discharge pipes, investigated in this paper, will highlight the need for efficient maintenance of the excavation tools in TBMs and encourage the development of various equipment wear prevention measures in order to minimize overall construction costs and time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geotechnical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Undrained Seismic Behavior of Shallow Tunnels in Soft Clay Using Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening Model
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2834; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082834 - 19 Apr 2020
Abstract
In this study, a soil–tunnel model for clay under earthquake loading is analyzed, using finite element methods and a kinematic hardening model with the Von Mises failure criterion. The results are compared with those from the linear elastic–perfectly plastic Mohr–Coulomb model. The latter [...] Read more.
In this study, a soil–tunnel model for clay under earthquake loading is analyzed, using finite element methods and a kinematic hardening model with the Von Mises failure criterion. The results are compared with those from the linear elastic–perfectly plastic Mohr–Coulomb model. The latter model does not consider the stiffness degradation caused by imposing cyclic loading and unloading to the soil, whereas the kinematic hardening model can simulate this stiffness degradation. The parameters of the kinematic hardening model are calibrated based on the results of experimental cyclic tests and finite element simulation. Here, two methods—one using data from cyclic shear tests, and the other a new method using undrained cyclic triaxial tests—are used to calibrate the parameters. The parameters investigated are the peak ground acceleration (PGA), tunnel lining thickness, tunnel shape, and tunnel embedment depth, all of which have an effect on the resistance of the shallow tunnel to the stresses and deformations caused by the surrounding clay soils. The results show that unlike traditional models, the nonlinear kinematic hardening model can predict the response reasonably well, and it is able to create the hysteresis loops and consider the soil stiffness degradation under the seismic loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geotechnical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Method to Control the Deformation of Anti-Slide Piles in Zhenzilin Landslide
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2831; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082831 - 19 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Anti-slide piles were used in the region of the Zhenzilin landslide in Sichuan, China. The horizontal displacement of these piles exceeds specifications. Deterioration in bedrock properties may cause deformation, thereby causing landslide destabilization. An approach was developed for the analysis of anti-slide pile [...] Read more.
Anti-slide piles were used in the region of the Zhenzilin landslide in Sichuan, China. The horizontal displacement of these piles exceeds specifications. Deterioration in bedrock properties may cause deformation, thereby causing landslide destabilization. An approach was developed for the analysis of anti-slide pile in two bedrocks with different strengths below the slip surface. A relationship has been established between the modulus of subgrade reaction of the first weak bedrock and reasonable embedded length for landfill slopes with strata of various strengths. Furthermore, the influence of embedding length on deformation has been studied to determine the reasonable embedded length, which helps reduce deformation and ensure landslide stability. The results reveal that (1) at a constant embedded length, horizontal displacement increases with the thickness of the first soft bedrock, meanwhile the maximum shear force remains constant, and the bending moment first increases followed by subsequent decrease; (2) with an increase in the embedded length, horizontal displacement and the maximum shear force of the pile in the embedded bedrock decrease, whereas the bending moment increases; (3) the maximum internal forces and horizontal displacement increase with a decrease in the subgrade reaction modulus of the first weak rock; and (4) the reasonable embedded length of an anti-slide pile increases with a decrease in the subgrade reaction modulus of the first weak bedrock. The proposed approach can be employed to design anti-slide piles in similar landslide regions to control pile-head deformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geotechnical Engineering)
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Open AccessTechnical Note
A Clustering-Based Bubble Method for Generating High-Quality Tetrahedral Meshes of Geological Models
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(15), 5292; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155292 - 30 Jul 2020
Abstract
High-quality mesh generation is critical in the finite element analysis of displacements and stabilities of geological bodies. In this paper, we propose a clustering-based bubble method for generating high-quality tetrahedral meshes of geological models. The proposed bubble method is conducted based on the [...] Read more.
High-quality mesh generation is critical in the finite element analysis of displacements and stabilities of geological bodies. In this paper, we propose a clustering-based bubble method for generating high-quality tetrahedral meshes of geological models. The proposed bubble method is conducted based on the spatial distribution of the point set of given surface meshes using the clustering method. First, the inputted geological models consisting of triangulated surface meshes are divided into several parts based on spatial distribution of point set, which can be used for the determination of the positions and radii of initial bubbles. Second, a procedure based on distance of nearby bubbles is used to obtain the initial size of bubbles. Third, by enforcing the forces acting on bubbles, all bubbles inside the 3D domain reach an equilibrium state by the motion control equations. Finally, the center nodes of the bubbles can form a high-quality node distribution in the domain, and then the required tetrahedral mesh is generated. Comparative benchmarks are presented to demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of generating highly well-shaped tetrahedral meshes of geological models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geotechnical Engineering)
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