Special Issue "New Carbon Materials from Biomass and Their Applications"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Jorge Bedia

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Chemical Engineering Department, Madrid, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: preparation of new carbon materials with high added value obtained from biomasic waste for adsorption operations, as catalyst support or bulk catalysts for different reactions; water purification by photocatalysis with different materials, including MOFs Keywords: carbon materials; MOFs, adsorption; photocatalysis
Guest Editor
Prof. Carolina Belver

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Chemical Engineering Department, Madrid, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: design, processing, and evaluation of novel heterostructures for applications in environmental remediation; water purification by photocatalysis with different materials, including MOFs

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Carbon-based materials, such as chars, activated carbons, one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, and two-dimensional graphene nanosheets, have shown great potential for a wide variety of applications. These materials can be synthesized from any precursor with a high proportion of carbon in its composition. Although fossil fuels have been extensively used as precursors, their unstable cost and supply have led to the synthesis of carbon materials from biomass. Biomass covers all forms of organic material, including plants both living and in waste form, and animal waste products. It appears to be a renewable resource because it yields value-added products prepared using environmentally-friendly processes. The application of these biomass-derived carbon materials include electronic, electromagnetic, electrochemical, environmental and biomedical applications. Thus, novel carbon materials from biomass are a subject of intense research, with strong relevance to both science and technology. The main aim of this Special Issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417) is to present the most relevant and recent insights in the field of the synthesis of biomass-derived carbons for sustainable applications, including adsorption, catalysis and/or energy storage applications. Some of the key topics relevant to this Special Issue are:

  • Synthesis and applications of hydrochars from the hydrothermal carbonization of biomass.
  • Preparation and characterization of biomass-derived activated carbons for adsorption processes with special attention to the removal of emerging contaminants and heavy metals.
  • Synthesis of carbon-based materials from biomass as bulk catalysts or supports for catalysis or photocatalysis.
  • Energy storage in carbon materials obtained from biomass.
  • Biomass-derived carbons for batteries.
  • Porous carbons materials obtained from biomass for carbon dioxide capture. 

We look forward to your submission. 

Prof. Jorge Bedia
Prof. Carolina Belver
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Carbon
  • Biomass
  • Adsorption
  • Catalysis
  • Photocatalysis
  • CO2 capture
  • Energy storage
  • Batteries

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Optimum Method Uploaded Nutrient Solution for Blended Biochar Pellet with Application of Nutrient Releasing Model as Slow Release Fertilizer
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 1899; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9091899
Received: 5 March 2019 / Revised: 28 April 2019 / Accepted: 29 April 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
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Abstract
The nutrient releasing characteristics of a blended biochar pellet comprising a mixture of biochar and pig manure compost ratio (4:6) uploaded with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) nutrient solutions were investigated with the application of a modified Hyperbola model during a [...] Read more.
The nutrient releasing characteristics of a blended biochar pellet comprising a mixture of biochar and pig manure compost ratio (4:6) uploaded with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) nutrient solutions were investigated with the application of a modified Hyperbola model during a 77-day precipitation period. The experiment consisted of five treatments, i.e., the control, as 100% pig manure compost pellet (PMCP), a urea solution made at room temperature (TN), a urea solution heated to 60 °C (HTN), N, P and K solutions made at room temperature (TNPK), and N, P and K solutions heated to 60 °C (HTNPK). The cumulative ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) in the blended biochar pellets was slow released over the 77 days of precipitation period, but nitrite nitrogen (NO3-N) was rapidly released, i.e., within 15 days of precipitation (Phase I), close behind on a slower release rate within the final precipitation (Phase II). Accumulated phosphate phosphorus (PO4-P) concentrations were not much different, and slowly released until the final precipitation period, while the highest accumulated K amount was 2493.8 mg L−1 in the TNPK at 8 days, which then remained at a stage state of K. Accumulated silicon dioxide (SiO2) concentrations abruptly increased until 20 days of precipitation, regardless of treatments. For the application of the releasing model for nutrient releasing characteristics, the estimations of accumulated NH4-N, NO3-N, PO4-P, K and SiO2 in all the treatments were significantly (p < 0.01) fitted with a modified Hyperbola model. These findings indicate that blended biochar pellets can be used as a slow release fertilizer for agricultural practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Carbon Materials from Biomass and Their Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Biochar from Microwave Pyrolysis of Artemisia Slengensis: Characterization and Methylene Blue Adsorption Capacity
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 1813; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9091813
Received: 23 March 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 26 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
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Abstract
In this research, artemisia selengensis was used to produce biochar via microwave pyrolysis. The influence of pyrolysis temperature, heating rates, temperature holding time and additive on the biochar yield and adsorbability were all investigated. The results suggest that the biochar yield decreased with [...] Read more.
In this research, artemisia selengensis was used to produce biochar via microwave pyrolysis. The influence of pyrolysis temperature, heating rates, temperature holding time and additive on the biochar yield and adsorbability were all investigated. The results suggest that the biochar yield decreased with the increase of pyrolysis temperature while the adsorbability of the biochar increased with an increase of the pyrolysis temperature; the biochar yield and its adsorbability could achieve the desired value when the heating rate and temperature holding time were in a specific scope; the biochar yield decreased when an additive was added; the adsorbability of the biochar could be increased by adding ZnCl2 (metal chloride) and Na2CO3 (metal carbonate). According to the orthogonal experiments, the optimal conditions for biochar production were: pyrolysis temperature 550 °C, heating rate 2 °C/s, temperature holding time 15 min, without additive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Carbon Materials from Biomass and Their Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Salix Carbonation Solid Acid Catalysts for One-Step Synthesis by Response Surface Method
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 1518; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9081518
Received: 16 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
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Abstract
Salix carboniferous solid acid catalysts were successfully obtained via one-step carbonization and sulfonation of Salix psammophila in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid, which was then used in the esterification reaction between oleic acid and methanol to prepare the biodiesel. The esterification rate [...] Read more.
Salix carboniferous solid acid catalysts were successfully obtained via one-step carbonization and sulfonation of Salix psammophila in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid, which was then used in the esterification reaction between oleic acid and methanol to prepare the biodiesel. The esterification rate of the catalyst obtained from the reaction indicated the catalytic performance of the catalyst. Afterwards, the recycling performance of the catalyst was optimized and characterized based on Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The catalyst performance was examined and optimized through the response surface method, and the catalyst was determined and characterized based on scanning electron microscope (SEM), elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and infrared analysis. The results suggested that the optimal preparation conditions were as follows: reaction temperature of 125 °C, reaction time of 102 min, solid–liquid ratio of 17 g/100 mL, standing time of 30 min, and the highest conversion level of 94.15%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Carbon Materials from Biomass and Their Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Process Simulation and Economic Evaluation of Bio-Oil Two-Stage Hydrogenation Production
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040693
Received: 19 January 2019 / Revised: 6 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
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Abstract
Bio-oil hydrogenation upgrading process is a method that can convert crude bio-oil into high-quality bio-fuel oil, which includes two stages of mild and deep hydrogenation. However, coking in the hydrogenation process is the key issue which negatively affects the catalyst activity and consequently [...] Read more.
Bio-oil hydrogenation upgrading process is a method that can convert crude bio-oil into high-quality bio-fuel oil, which includes two stages of mild and deep hydrogenation. However, coking in the hydrogenation process is the key issue which negatively affects the catalyst activity and consequently the degree of hydrogenation in both stages. In this paper, an Aspen Plus process simulation model was developed for the two-stage bio-oil hydrogenation demonstration plant which was used to evaluate the effect of catalyst coking on the bio-oil upgrading process and the economic performance of the process. The model was also used to investigate the effect of catalyst deactivation caused by coke deposition in the mild stage. Three reaction temperatures in the mild stage (250 °C, 280 °C, and 300 °C) were considered. The simulation results show that 45% yield of final product is obtained at the optimal reaction condition which is 280 °C for the mild stage and 400 °C for the deep stage. Economic analysis shows that the capital cost of industrial production is $15.2 million for a bio-oil upgrading plant at a scale of 107 thousand tons per year. The operating costs are predicted to be $1024.27 per ton of final product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Carbon Materials from Biomass and Their Applications)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Preparation and Modification of Biochar Materials and their Application in Soil Remediation
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 1365; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9071365
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 25 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
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Abstract
As a new functional material, biochar was usually prepared from biomass and solid wastes such as agricultural and forestry waste, sludge, livestock, and poultry manure. The wide application of biochar is due to its abilities to remove pollutants, remediate contaminated soil, and reduce [...] Read more.
As a new functional material, biochar was usually prepared from biomass and solid wastes such as agricultural and forestry waste, sludge, livestock, and poultry manure. The wide application of biochar is due to its abilities to remove pollutants, remediate contaminated soil, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, the influence of preparation methods, process parameters, and modification methods on the physicochemical properties of biochar were discussed, as well as the mechanisms of biochar in the remediation of soil pollution. The biochar applications in soil remediation in the past years were summarized, such as the removal of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and the improvement of soil quality. Finally, the potential risks of biochar application and the future research directions were analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Carbon Materials from Biomass and Their Applications)
Open AccessReview
Biochar as a Multifunctional Component of the Environment—A Review
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9061139
Received: 4 February 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
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Abstract
The growing demand for electricity, caused by dynamic economic growth, leads to a decrease in the available non-renewable energy resources constituting the foundation of global power generation. A search for alternative sources of energy that can support conventional energy technologies utilizing fossil fuels [...] Read more.
The growing demand for electricity, caused by dynamic economic growth, leads to a decrease in the available non-renewable energy resources constituting the foundation of global power generation. A search for alternative sources of energy that can support conventional energy technologies utilizing fossil fuels is not only of key significance for the power industry but is also important from the point of view of environmental conservation and sustainable development. Plant biomass, with its specific chemical structure and high calorific value, is a promising renewable source of energy which can be utilized in numerous conversion processes, enabling the production of solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. Methods of thermal biomass conversion include pyrolysis, i.e., a process allowing one to obtain a multifunctional product known as biochar. The article presents a review of information related to the broad uses of carbonization products. It also discusses the legal aspects and quality standards applicable to these materials. The paper draws attention to the lack of uniform legal and quality conditions, which would allow for a much better use of biochar. The review also aims to highlight the high potential for a use of biochar in different environments. The presented text attempts to emphasize the importance of biochar as an alternative to classic products used for energy, environmental and agricultural purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Carbon Materials from Biomass and Their Applications)
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