Special Issue "Application of the Biocomposite Materials on Bone Reconstruction"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Yung-Kang Shen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Oral Medicine, School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
Interests: biomedical optics; optical rapid prototyping
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biomedical materials (also known as biomaterials) are new high-tech materials used to diagnose, treat, repair or replace human tissues, organs or enhance their functions. They involve the health of hundreds of millions of people and are essential for human health. Their application not only saves the lives of tens of millions of critically ill patients but also significantly reduces the mortality of major diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and trauma and plays an important role in improving the quality of life and health of patients and reducing medical costs. The development of biomedical materials also guides the innovation of contemporary medical technology and the development of medical and health services. For example, research and development of vascular stents, interventional catheters, and instruments have promoted the formation and development of minimally invasive and interventional treatment technologies. The development of carrier materials for targeted/smart controlled release systems of active substances (such as drugs, proteins, genes, etc.) will not only lead to revolutionary changes in traditional modes of administration, but also congenital genetic defects, geriatric diseases, and tumors, and refractory treatment will open up new avenues.

Reconstruction or repair of bone function using tissue engineering techniques often requires a biomaterial. Traditionally, the materials use metals, ceramics, and polymers, but the bone itself is a composite material. Therefore, knowing how to use the correct biomedical composite material is important. The different types of materials and their percentage composition in biocomposite materials are the first level, and then the characteristics of biocomposite materials (such as surface properties, strength, hardness, surface roughness, pH value, degradation performance) will affect their applications. The cell culture and animal experiments of biocomposite materials are used to determine the suitability of the future human body. The cell interactions with biocomposite materials are very important in cell culture. Microscale patterning of cells and their environment must be emphasized in cell culture. This Special Issue welcomes innovative research on application of biocomposite materials on bone reconstruction.

Prof. Dr. Yung-Kang Shen
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • biocomposite materials
  • material composition and percentage
  • material characteristics
  • cell patterning
  • bone reconstruction

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
A Tailored Biomimetic Hydrogel as Potential Bioink to Print a Cell Scaffold for Tissue Engineering Applications: Printability and Cell Viability Evaluation
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11020829 - 17 Jan 2021
Viewed by 363
Abstract
The present study established a maximum standard for printing quality and developed a preliminary ideal index to print three-dimensional (3D) construct using the Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp (GRGD) peptide modified Pluronic-F127 hydrogel (hereafter defined as 3DG bioformer (3BE)) as bioink. In addition, the biocompatibility of 3BE [...] Read more.
The present study established a maximum standard for printing quality and developed a preliminary ideal index to print three-dimensional (3D) construct using the Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp (GRGD) peptide modified Pluronic-F127 hydrogel (hereafter defined as 3DG bioformer (3BE)) as bioink. In addition, the biocompatibility of 3BE for 3D printing applications was carefully investigated. For biocompatibility study and ideal printing parameter, we used the formulation of 3BE in three different concentrations (3BE-1: 25%, 3BE-2: 30%, and 3BE-3: 35%). The 3BE hydrogels were printed layer by layer as a cube-like construct with all diameters of the needle head under the same feed (100 mm/s). The printing parameters were determined using combinations of 3BE-1, 3BE-2, and 3BE-3 with three different standard needle sizes (Φ 0.13 mm, Φ 0.33 mm, and Φ 0.9 mm). The printed constructs were photographed and observed using optical microscopy. The cell viability and proliferation were evaluated using Live/Dead assay and immunofluorescence staining. Results showed that a stable of printed line and construct could be generated from the 3BE-3 combinations. Cytotoxicity assay indicated that the 3BE hydrogels possessed well biocompatibility. Bioprinting results also demonstrated that significant cell proliferation in the 3BE-3 combinations was found within three days of printing. Therefore, the study discovered the potential printing parameters of 3BE as bioink to print a stable construct that may also have high biocompatibility for cell encapsulation. This finding could serve as valuable information in creating a functional scaffold for tissue engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of the Biocomposite Materials on Bone Reconstruction)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG)-Loaded Mesoporous Bioglass Scaffolds for Bone Recruitment Applications
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010243 - 29 Dec 2020
Viewed by 369
Abstract
Bioglass-based material has been widely used in the field of biomedical science. In this study, the proper concentration of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) for a mesoporous bioglass (MBG) scaffold was determined based on the sponge replication method. The fabrication procedure performed using a foam exchange [...] Read more.
Bioglass-based material has been widely used in the field of biomedical science. In this study, the proper concentration of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) for a mesoporous bioglass (MBG) scaffold was determined based on the sponge replication method. The fabrication procedure performed using a foam exchange technique resulted in an interconnected network of pores scaffolds with no cracks. In the minimum bactericidal concentrations of the bacteria assessed, the antibacterial concentration of EGCG against E. coli (200 μg/mL) was higher than that against S. aureus (25 μg/mL). The MBG and EGCG-MBG scaffolds exhibited excellent apatite mineralization and drug release abilities (the highest cumulative drug release from the EGCG-MBG scaffold was 75.37%). Thus, a 200 μg/mL EGCG can prevent cell apoptosis and directly enhance cell proliferation. Hence, a low-dose EGCG-MBG scaffold is another option for bone recruitment material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of the Biocomposite Materials on Bone Reconstruction)
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Open AccessArticle
The Potential of a Tailored Biomimetic Hydrogel for In Vitro Cell Culture Applications: Characterization and Biocompatibility
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 9035; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10249035 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 571
Abstract
In this study, the Pluronic F127 with modified tripeptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp copolymer (hereafter defined as 3BE) hydrogel was evaluated in terms of its biocompatibility potentials. The fibroblasts (Swiss 3T3 cell line) and human hair follicles-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HFMSCs) were cultured in different concentrations [...] Read more.
In this study, the Pluronic F127 with modified tripeptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp copolymer (hereafter defined as 3BE) hydrogel was evaluated in terms of its biocompatibility potentials. The fibroblasts (Swiss 3T3 cell line) and human hair follicles-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HFMSCs) were cultured in different concentrations of the 3BE hydrogel (0%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5%, respectively). The cell morphology and differentiation potential of HFMSCs were observed through optical microscopy, and the cell viability was investigated via Live/Dead Kit and Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Analytical results showed that HFMSC can differentiate into adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic lineages. The HFMSC and Swiss 3T3 cells would properly assemble into a spherical shape as cultured with the 3BE hydrogel. Most importantly, cell viability could be maintained above 70%. The formation of spheroid structures of cells within this hydrogel is predicted to promote cell differentiation potentials of HFMSC that benefit in generating functional adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts. Therefore, these findings demonstrate that the 3BE hydrogel has great potential as a three-dimensional cell culture scaffold for tissue engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of the Biocomposite Materials on Bone Reconstruction)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Surface-Functionalized Titanium Implant for Promoting Osseointegration: Surface Characteristics, Hemocompatibility, and In Vivo Evaluation
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8582; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238582 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 424
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of surface-modified biomedical titanium (Ti) dental implant on osseointegration. The surfaces were modified using an innovative dip-coating technique (IDCT; sandblasted, large-grit, and acid-etched, then followed by coating with the modified pluronic F127 biodegradable polymer). The surface [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of surface-modified biomedical titanium (Ti) dental implant on osseointegration. The surfaces were modified using an innovative dip-coating technique (IDCT; sandblasted, large-grit, and acid-etched, then followed by coating with the modified pluronic F127 biodegradable polymer). The surface morphology and hemocompatibility evaluations were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, while the contact analysis was observed by goniometer. The IDCT-modified Ti implant was also implanted in patients with missing teeth by single-stage surgical procedure then observed immediately and again four months after placement by cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) imaging. It was found that the IDCT-modified Ti implant was rougher than the dental implant without surface modification. Contact angle analysis showed the IDCT-modified Ti implant was lower than the dental implant without surface modification. The hemocompatibility evaluations showed greater red blood cell aggregation and fibrin filament formation on the IDCT-modified Ti implant. The radiographic and CBCT image displayed new bone formation at four months after the IDCT-modified Ti implant placement. Therefore, this study suggests that the IDCT-modified Ti dental implant has great potential to accelerate osseointegration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of the Biocomposite Materials on Bone Reconstruction)
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Open AccessArticle
An Innovative Bioceramic Bone Graft Substitute for Bone Defect Treatment: In Vivo Evaluation of Bone Healing
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(22), 8303; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10228303 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 403
Abstract
This study aimed to analyze characteristics of an innovative α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (α-CSH) bioceramic and bone healing and regeneration characteristics following its implantation on artificially created defects of rat models and human jaw defects. The α-CSH bioceramic was characterized using field emission scanning [...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyze characteristics of an innovative α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (α-CSH) bioceramic and bone healing and regeneration characteristics following its implantation on artificially created defects of rat models and human jaw defects. The α-CSH bioceramic was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and thermal-imaging instruments. The material was implanted on artificially created defects in a rat’s right hind leg bone and observed histologically after three days and seven weeks. The material was also implanted in patients with bone defects in the posterior maxillary, then observed immediately and six months post-treatment by panoramic and computed tomography image. The FE-SEM confirm this material is a uniform-shaped short column crystal, while the EDS measurement reveals calcium as the most component in this material. Thermal observation shows temperature change during the setting time is less than 2 °C, and the maximum temperature reached is 31 °C. In the histological analysis, α-CSH bioceramic shows new trabecular bone formation and absorbed material at seven weeks post-treatment. Moreover, panoramic and computed tomography image shows intact bone six months post-treatment. Therefore, this study suggests that the innovative α-CSH bioceramic can be useful in bone defect treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of the Biocomposite Materials on Bone Reconstruction)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Bioactivity of Surface Topography and Coating Forming by Infrared Light-Induced on Titanium for Bone Repair
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(22), 8158; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10228158 - 18 Nov 2020
Viewed by 371
Abstract
Calcium ions and phosphate ions are usually present in biological organisms and human bodies. Different ratios of calcium to phosphorus result in different types of calcium-to-phosphorus crystals. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the main component of human hard bony tissues. It has good biocompatibility and [...] Read more.
Calcium ions and phosphate ions are usually present in biological organisms and human bodies. Different ratios of calcium to phosphorus result in different types of calcium-to-phosphorus crystals. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the main component of human hard bony tissues. It has good biocompatibility and is often used in bone repair. With the addition of cobalt ions, it can act as a hypoxia-inducing factor to accelerate the regeneration of hard bony tissues. At present, the laser-assisted biomimetic (LAB) method can very quickly deposit calcium phosphate coatings, which can be used on polymer and titanium surfaces. In this study, we first used anodization treatment (with TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs)), alkali treatment (with NaOH), and acid treatment (with HCl) to form nanopore structures on titanium surfaces in the laboratory. Subsequently, LAB treatment was used to deposit calcium phosphate and cobalt-substituted hydroxyapatite onto titanium pieces with different surface treatments. The results showed that smaller holes resulted in better deposition (TNTs), and controlling the pH value in the solution changed the crystal morphology. LAB treatment imbued the titanium surface with super-hydrophilic properties and improved biocompatibility. A human osteoblast cell line (MG-63) used for the cell viability test showed that LAB treatment can improve cell growth. In particular, TNT-CoHA (cobalt-substituted hydroxyapatite) cells grew the best. Immersion in simulated bodily fluid confirmed that LAB treatment with a CoHA solution improved the hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, and bioactivity of titanium surfaces. It is hoped that this study provides useful information for surface coating of biomedical materials in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of the Biocomposite Materials on Bone Reconstruction)
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Open AccessArticle
Surface Characteristics and Cell Adhesion Behaviors of the Anodized Biomedical Stainless Steel
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6275; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186275 - 09 Sep 2020
Viewed by 473
Abstract
In this study, an electrochemical anodizing method was applied as surface modification of the 316L biomedical stainless steel (BSS). The surface properties, microstructural characteristics, and biocompatibility responses of the anodized 316L BSS specimens were elucidated through scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray [...] Read more.
In this study, an electrochemical anodizing method was applied as surface modification of the 316L biomedical stainless steel (BSS). The surface properties, microstructural characteristics, and biocompatibility responses of the anodized 316L BSS specimens were elucidated through scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, and in vitro cell culture assay. Analytical results revealed that the oxide layer of dichromium trioxide (Cr2O3) was formed on the modified 316L BSS specimens after the different anodization modifications. Moreover, a dual porous (micro/nanoporous) topography can also be discovered on the surface of the modified 316L BSS specimens. The microstructure of the anodized oxide layer was composed of amorphous austenite phase and nano-Cr2O3. Furthermore, in vitro cell culture assay also demonstrated that the osteoblast-like cells (MG-63) on the anodized 316L BSS specimens were completely adhered and covered as compared with the unmodified 316L BSS specimen. As a result, the anodized 316L BSS with a dual porous (micro/nanoporous) oxide layer has great potential to induce cell adhesion and promote bone formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of the Biocomposite Materials on Bone Reconstruction)
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Open AccessArticle
Bone Healing and Regeneration Potential in Rabbit Cortical Defects Using an Innovative Bioceramic Bone Graft Substitute
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6239; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186239 - 08 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 541
Abstract
This study aimed to elucidate the local effect and micro-computed tomographic (μ-CT) assessment following bone implantation of an innovative bioceramic (α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate; α-CSH) on femur lateral condyle cortical bone of rabbit models. The innovative α-CSH bioceramic was synthesized through a green processing [...] Read more.
This study aimed to elucidate the local effect and micro-computed tomographic (μ-CT) assessment following bone implantation of an innovative bioceramic (α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate; α-CSH) on femur lateral condyle cortical bone of rabbit models. The innovative α-CSH bioceramic was synthesized through a green processing technology (microwave irradiation treatment). The bilateral implantation model was performed among 24 New Zealand White rabbits which were divided into three groups based on the type of filling materials: α-CSH, control, and blank. Treatments were performed in defects with 6 mm diameter and 7 mm depth and observed after 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Material reaction and bone formation after implantation were evaluated radiographically and histopathologically. The μ-CT analysis results showed that the degradation of α-CSH and control material was similar at 4 and 8 weeks. The bone volume in the defects indicated the α-CSH increased most in 8 weeks. In histopathological evaluation, the α-CSH group was repaired with lamellar bone and well-grown bone marrow infiltration similar to the control material. Moreover, the α-CSH revealed a faster degradation rate and better healing progress than the control material under the same conditions. Therefore, the α-CSH was confirmed to be useful in promoting osteoconduction and in controlling the resorption rate in bone defects. Further, the innovative α-CSH could be considered as a promising bone substitute for utilization in bone reconstructive therapy in dental and orthopedic fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of the Biocomposite Materials on Bone Reconstruction)
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Open AccessArticle
The Potential of Nano-Porous Surface Structure for Pain Therapeutic Applications: Surface Properties and Evaluation of Pain Perception
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4578; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134578 - 01 Jul 2020
Viewed by 662
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the biomaterial properties of nano-modified surface acupuncture needles and the effect of such needles on human pain perception by using pressure pain threshold (PPT) measurements. It is known that changing a material’s surface nano-topography or [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the biomaterial properties of nano-modified surface acupuncture needles and the effect of such needles on human pain perception by using pressure pain threshold (PPT) measurements. It is known that changing a material’s surface nano-topography or nanostructure has strong effects on its physical, chemical, and biological surface properties. However, there is no information in the literature about the stimulation characteristics of acupuncture needles with nano-topography or nanostructured surfaces. Based on the knowledge on nanostructured surfaces, it may be possible to potentiate the effects of acupuncture needle stimulation. The pressure pain sensitivity of the masseter muscle in the orofacial region was studied in 21 healthy volunteers in two randomized, double-blinded sessions: an active session of manual acupuncture manipulation with nano-modified surface needles, and an inactive session of sham acupuncture stimulation to control for possible placebo effects. Three acupuncture points were selected from classical Chinese medicine literature: LI4 (Hegu) on the hand, ST6 (Jiache) on the lower masseter region, and ST7 (Xiaguan) on the upper masseter region. PPT measurements, perceived sensations, and pain from the acupuncture were recorded. The results showed discrete yet significant differences in PPT values between the active and inactive acupuncture treatments and significantly higher pain scores from active acupuncture stimulation than from sham acupuncture. These results indicate subtle but significant effects of acupuncture stimulation with nano-modified surface needles, compared to sham acupuncture in healthy participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of the Biocomposite Materials on Bone Reconstruction)
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Open AccessArticle
Porosity Structure Offering Improved Biomechanical Stress Distribution and Enhanced Pain-Relieving Potential
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3026; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093026 - 26 Apr 2020
Viewed by 616
Abstract
In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) human body model and a body sculpting clothing (BSC) which was fitted onto that body to simulate the biomechanical stress variations of the BSC with different porosity structures using the finite element method. The mechanical [...] Read more.
In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) human body model and a body sculpting clothing (BSC) which was fitted onto that body to simulate the biomechanical stress variations of the BSC with different porosity structures using the finite element method. The mechanical properties of the BSC with different porosity structures were also examined through the tensile testing. Analytical results indicated that the Von Mises stress of the BSC with a porosity structure of 10.28% varied from 0.076 MPa to 337.79 MPa. As compared with a porosity structure of 35.18%, the von Mises stress varied from 0.067 MPa to 207.30 MPa. The von Mises stress decreased as the porosity increasing. Based on the statistical analysis findings, we obtained a formula to predict the biomechanical relationships (von Mises stress and strain) between the human body and porosity of the BSC. Therefore, these findings could offer potential information in the modification of BSC for pain-relieving applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of the Biocomposite Materials on Bone Reconstruction)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Accuracy of Static Guided Implant Surgery Measured by Optical Scan: Examining the Impact of Operator Experience
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2718; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082718 - 15 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 522
Abstract
Studies examining the effect of operator experience on the accuracy of static guided implant surgery have used postoperative computed tomography (CT) images to measure the error, with inconsistent results. The purpose of this study was to try to clarify this issue by using [...] Read more.
Studies examining the effect of operator experience on the accuracy of static guided implant surgery have used postoperative computed tomography (CT) images to measure the error, with inconsistent results. The purpose of this study was to try to clarify this issue by using a measurement method based on the postoperative optical scan. Thirty dentists were divided into an experienced group and an inexperienced group. On a partially edentulous mandibular model in the manikin head, each dentist placed three implants via the stereolithographic (SLA) surgical guide. The implant positions were identified by a desktop scanner and compared with the planned positions using a metrology software program. No statistically significant differences were observed for any of the measured positional and angular deviations of the three implant sites between experienced and inexperienced operators (p > 0.01). All the mean values of deviations of the inexperienced group, except the depth deviation, were less than the experienced group. Implants inserted by dentists under 40 years old had significantly better accuracy than senior doctors in the global deviation at implant apex (p = 0.006). Within the limits of this study, we concluded that operator experience is not a critical factor in achieving the accuracy of guided implant surgery via the tooth-supported SLA surgical guide. Large deviations could occur even with the aid of the SLA surgical guide, and care must be taken to avoid errors for both experienced and inexperienced operators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of the Biocomposite Materials on Bone Reconstruction)
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Open AccessArticle
The Potential of a Hair Follicle Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Conditioned Medium for Wound Healing and Hair Follicle Regeneration
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2646; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082646 - 11 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 699
Abstract
The study elucidated the wound healing and hair regeneration properties of a conditioned medium prepared from the culture of human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (HFMSCs). The wound-healing effects of mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) were tested in vitro using scratch assays co-cultured [...] Read more.
The study elucidated the wound healing and hair regeneration properties of a conditioned medium prepared from the culture of human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (HFMSCs). The wound-healing effects of mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) were tested in vitro using scratch assays co-cultured with HaCaT keratinocyte and monitored through optical microscopy. The cell proliferation of HFMSCs and the HaCaT keratinocyte were observed in the presence of different kinds of drugs including UK5099, sodium L-lactate, lactate dehydrogenase-A, MSC-CM, caffeine, and caffeic acid. The hair regeneration properties were investigated in vivo by administrating the MSC-CM solutions to adult B6 mouse models. For quantification, hematoxylin and eosin staining were performed following euthanasia. In vitro results revealed that MSC-CM promotes dermal cell migrations and enhances proliferation of HFMSCs and HaCaT keratinocytes, demonstrating wound-healing properties. Moreover, when the MSC-CM solutions were applied to the shaved mouse skin, a dark area that expanded overtime was seen. Although no hair growth was found, histological analysis proved that a fat layer thickness increment was found under the mouse’s skin, ultimately projecting the formation of new hair growth. MSC-CM promotes the migration and proliferation of dermal keratinocytes that are beneficial for wound healing and hair growth. It is believed that MSC-CM can potentially serve as the basis of alternative therapeutic applications for wound closure and skin regeneration as well as hair growth stimulation and hair loss prevention in alopecia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of the Biocomposite Materials on Bone Reconstruction)
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation of a Biofunctionalized Surface on Titanium for Biomedical Applications: Surface Properties, Wettability Variations, and Biocompatibility Characteristics
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1438; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041438 - 20 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 467
Abstract
This study developed a promising approach (low-temperature plasma polymerization with allylamine) to modify the titanium (Ti) surface, which helps the damaged tissue to heal faster. The Ti surface was first cleaned by argon (Ar) plasma, and then the functional amino-groups were coated on [...] Read more.
This study developed a promising approach (low-temperature plasma polymerization with allylamine) to modify the titanium (Ti) surface, which helps the damaged tissue to heal faster. The Ti surface was first cleaned by argon (Ar) plasma, and then the functional amino-groups were coated on the Ti surface via plasma polymerization. The topography characteristics, wettability, and optimal plasma modification parameters were investigated through atomic force spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and response surface methodology (RSM). Analytical results showed that the formation of a porous surface was found on the Ar plasma-modified Ti surfaces after Ar plasma modification with different parameters. The Ar plasma modification is an effective approach to remove surface contaminants and generate a porous topography on the Ti surface. As the Ti with Ar plasma modification was at 100 W and 190 m Torr for 12 min, the surface exhibited the maximum hydrophilic performance. In the allylamine plasma modifications, the contact angle values of the allylamine plasma-modified Ti surfaces varied between 70.15° and 88.26° in the designed parameters. The maximum concentration of amino-groups (31.58 nmole/cm2) can be obtained from the plasma-polymerized sample at 80 W and 150 mTorr for 22 min. Moreover, the cell response also demonstrated that the allylamine plasma-modified Ti sample with an optimal modification parameter (80 W, 22 min, and 150 mTorr) possessed great potential to increase cell adhesion ability. Thus, the optimal parameters of the low-temperature plasma polymerization with allylamine can be harvested using the RSM design. These data could provide new scientific information in the surface modification of Ti implant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of the Biocomposite Materials on Bone Reconstruction)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of a Promising Hierarchical Porous Surface on Titanium for Promoting Biocompatibility
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1363; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041363 - 17 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 558
Abstract
The effects of the nano-titanium hydrides (nano-γ-TiH) phase on the formation of nanoporous Ti oxide layer by the potential approach (hydrogen fluoride (HF) pretreatment and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) anodization) were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and transmission electron [...] Read more.
The effects of the nano-titanium hydrides (nano-γ-TiH) phase on the formation of nanoporous Ti oxide layer by the potential approach (hydrogen fluoride (HF) pretreatment and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) anodization) were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and transmission electron microscopy. The nano-γ-TiH phase was formed by the HF pretreatment with various current densities. After the NaOH anodization, the nano-γ-TiH phase was dissolved and transformed into nanoporous rutile-Ti dioxide (R-TiO2). As the Ti underwent HF pretreatment and NaOH anodization, the microstructure on the surface layer was transformed from α-Ti → (α-Ti + nano-γ-TiH) → (α-Ti + R-TiO2). In-vitro biocompatibility also indicated that the Ti with a hierarchical porous (micro and nanoporous) TiO2 surface possessed great potential to enhance cell adhesion ability. Thus, the potential approach can be utilized to fabricate a promising hierarchical porous surface on the Ti implant for promoting biocompatibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of the Biocomposite Materials on Bone Reconstruction)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Mechanobiology of Cell Response on Titanium with Multilayered Aluminum Nitride/Tantalum Thin Film
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020645 - 16 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 569
Abstract
In the present study, the piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN)/tantalum (Ta) (PAT) thin film was investigated as a biocompatible film and osseointegrated with biomedical devices such as implants. The stress variation on the interaction of cells with the PAT surface was investigated using osteoblast-like [...] Read more.
In the present study, the piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN)/tantalum (Ta) (PAT) thin film was investigated as a biocompatible film and osseointegrated with biomedical devices such as implants. The stress variation on the interaction of cells with the PAT surface was investigated using osteoblast-like cells (MG-63) and fibroblast cells (NIH3T3). A singular behavior was observed on the PAT film with a (002) texture, in which the MG-63 cells were more dispersed and displayed longer and more filopodia than the NIH3T3 cells. Moreover, the MG-63 cells showed ingrowth, adherence, and proliferation on the PAT film surface. The MG-63 cells had more obvious stress variation than the NIH3T3 cells in the differentiation and proliferation. The mechanobiological reaction to cell differentiation and proliferation not only caused osseointegration, but also reduced the surface activation energy, thus enhancing bone remodeling. The formation of a nanopolycrystalline PAT film is believed to enhance the mechanobiological effect, promoting osseointegration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of the Biocomposite Materials on Bone Reconstruction)
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Open AccessArticle
The Potential of a Nanostructured Titanium Oxide Layer with Self-Assembled Monolayers for Biomedical Applications: Surface Properties and Biomechanical Behaviors
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020590 - 14 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 791
Abstract
This study investigated the surface properties and biomechanical behaviors of a nanostructured titanium oxide (TiO) layer with different self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of phosphonate on the surface of microscope slides. The surface properties of SAMs were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, [...] Read more.
This study investigated the surface properties and biomechanical behaviors of a nanostructured titanium oxide (TiO) layer with different self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of phosphonate on the surface of microscope slides. The surface properties of SAMs were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and contact angle goniometry. Biomechanical behaviors were evaluated using nanoindentation with a diamond Berkovich indenter. Analytical results indicated that the homogenous nanostructured TiO surface was formed on the substrate surface after the plasma oxidation treatment. As the TiO surface was immersed with 11-phosphonoundecanoic acid solution (PUA-SAM/TiO), the formation of a uniform SAM can be observed on the sample surface. Moreover, the binding energy of O 1s demonstrated the presence of the bisphosphonate monolayer on the SAMs-coated samples. It was also found that the PUA-SAM/TiO sample not only possessed a higher wettability performance, but also exhibited low surface contact stiffness. A SAM surface with a high wettability and low contact stiffness could potentially promote biocompatibility and prevent the formation of a stress shielding effect. Therefore, the self-assembled technology is a promising approach that can be applied to the surface modification of biomedical implants for facilitating bone healing and osseointegration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of the Biocomposite Materials on Bone Reconstruction)
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