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Article

The Potential of Nano-Porous Surface Structure for Pain Therapeutic Applications: Surface Properties and Evaluation of Pain Perception

1
School of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
2
Department of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan
3
Department of Dentistry, Lotung Poh-Ai Hospital, Yilan 265, Taiwan
4
Dental Department of Wan-Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 116, Taiwan
5
Section of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Department of Dentistry and Oral Health, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
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Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
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The Faculty of Medicine, Department of Health Science and Technology, Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction, Aalborg University Hospital, 9100 Aalborg, Denmark
8
Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, 14157 Huddinge, Sweden
9
Department of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital, New Taipei City 235, Taiwan
10
Department of Oral Hygiene Care, Ching Kuo Institute of Management and Health, Keelung 203, Taiwan
11
Biomedical Technology R & D Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan
12
3D Global Biotech Inc. (Spin-off Company from Taipei Medical University), New Taipei City 221, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors contribute equally.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4578; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134578
Received: 18 May 2020 / Revised: 17 June 2020 / Accepted: 26 June 2020 / Published: 1 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of the Biocomposite Materials on Bone Reconstruction)
The objective of this study was to evaluate the biomaterial properties of nano-modified surface acupuncture needles and the effect of such needles on human pain perception by using pressure pain threshold (PPT) measurements. It is known that changing a material’s surface nano-topography or nanostructure has strong effects on its physical, chemical, and biological surface properties. However, there is no information in the literature about the stimulation characteristics of acupuncture needles with nano-topography or nanostructured surfaces. Based on the knowledge on nanostructured surfaces, it may be possible to potentiate the effects of acupuncture needle stimulation. The pressure pain sensitivity of the masseter muscle in the orofacial region was studied in 21 healthy volunteers in two randomized, double-blinded sessions: an active session of manual acupuncture manipulation with nano-modified surface needles, and an inactive session of sham acupuncture stimulation to control for possible placebo effects. Three acupuncture points were selected from classical Chinese medicine literature: LI4 (Hegu) on the hand, ST6 (Jiache) on the lower masseter region, and ST7 (Xiaguan) on the upper masseter region. PPT measurements, perceived sensations, and pain from the acupuncture were recorded. The results showed discrete yet significant differences in PPT values between the active and inactive acupuncture treatments and significantly higher pain scores from active acupuncture stimulation than from sham acupuncture. These results indicate subtle but significant effects of acupuncture stimulation with nano-modified surface needles, compared to sham acupuncture in healthy participants. View Full-Text
Keywords: acupuncture; nano-modified surface; pressure pain threshold; orofacial pain acupuncture; nano-modified surface; pressure pain threshold; orofacial pain
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, C.-Z.; Hsu, L.-C.; Chou, H.-H.; Barnkob, S.; Eggert, T.; Nielsen, P.L.; Young, R.; Vase, L.; Wang, K.; Svensson, P.; Ou, K.-L.; Baad-Hansen, L. The Potential of Nano-Porous Surface Structure for Pain Therapeutic Applications: Surface Properties and Evaluation of Pain Perception. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 4578. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134578

AMA Style

Wu C-Z, Hsu L-C, Chou H-H, Barnkob S, Eggert T, Nielsen PL, Young R, Vase L, Wang K, Svensson P, Ou K-L, Baad-Hansen L. The Potential of Nano-Porous Surface Structure for Pain Therapeutic Applications: Surface Properties and Evaluation of Pain Perception. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(13):4578. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134578

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wu, Ching-Zong, Ling-Chuan Hsu, Hsin-Hua Chou, Sanne Barnkob, Tobias Eggert, Pernille L. Nielsen, Roger Young, Lene Vase, Kelun Wang, Peter Svensson, Keng-Liang Ou, and Lene Baad-Hansen. 2020. "The Potential of Nano-Porous Surface Structure for Pain Therapeutic Applications: Surface Properties and Evaluation of Pain Perception" Applied Sciences 10, no. 13: 4578. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134578

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