Special Issue "Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Civil Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 January 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Amir Tabakovic
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), The Hague, The Netherlands
2. Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Delft, The Netherlands
3. University College Dublin (UCD), Dublin, Ireland
Interests: self-healing technology for asphalt pavements; innovative solutions for asphalt pavement design; sustainable asphalt technologies and asphalt recycling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Jan Valentin
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Road Structures, Faculty of Civil Engineering, CTU Prague, 166 29 Prague, Czech Republic
Interests: pavement recycling; bitumen behaviour; asphalt mix design; asphalt mix testing; warm mix asphalts; cold recycling; waste materials usable for road engineering
Dr. Liang He
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Civil Engineering, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074, China
Interests: self-healing of asphalt concrete; bio-bitumen; porous asphalt; asphalt-rubber mixture; steel slag asphalt mixtures; recycling stability technology of asphalt pavement; rheological characterization of bitumen and asphalt; Life Cycle Assessment(LCA) on highway engineering; Molecular Dynamics Method and Discrete Element Method and Finite Element Method modeling on bitumen or asphalt or pavement; rubberized concrete and the surface modification of crumb rubber; physico-chemical analysis of bituminous materials in collaboration with chemists

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Unlike other construction materials, road materials have developed minimally over the past 100 years. However, since the 1970s, the focus has been on more sustainable road construction materials such as recycled asphalt pavements. Recycling asphalt involves removing old asphalt and mixing it with new (fresh) aggregates, binder, and/or rejuvenator. For the past two decades researchers have been developing novel material and technologies, such as self-healing materials, in order to improve road design, construction, and maintenance efficiency and reduce the financial and environmental burden of road construction.

This Special Issue on “Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices” aims to curate advanced/novel work in asphalt pavement design, construction, and maintenance. Topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Sustainable asphalt pavement construction practices (e.g., recycling procedures).
  • Biological materials in asphalt mix design.
  • Life cycle analysis (modelling) environmental and economic risks of transport infrastructure.

Dr. Amir Tabakovic
Dr. Jan Valentin
Dr. Liang He
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • asphalt recycling—hot, warm, cold
  • rejuvenation
  • bio-based binders and rejuvenators
  • asphalt self-healing, roads construction and maintenance sustainability
  • roads durability
  • life-cycle analysis
  • economy of roads

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Bio-Binder—Innovative Asphalt Technology
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8655; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238655 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 472
Abstract
The global road network spans 16 [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)

Research

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Article
Evaluating the Rheological, Chemical and Morphological Properties of SBS Modified Asphalt-Binder under Multiple Aging and Rejuvenation Cycles
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(19), 9242; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11199242 - 04 Oct 2021
Viewed by 280
Abstract
To investigate the influence of multiple cycles of aging and rejuvenation on the rheological, chemical, and morphological properties of styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS)-modified asphalt-binders, the asphalt-binders were aged using two laboratory simulation methods, namely a rolling thin film oven (RTFO) test for short-term aging and [...] Read more.
To investigate the influence of multiple cycles of aging and rejuvenation on the rheological, chemical, and morphological properties of styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS)-modified asphalt-binders, the asphalt-binders were aged using two laboratory simulation methods, namely a rolling thin film oven (RTFO) test for short-term aging and pressure aging vessel (PAV) for long-term aging. The asphalt-binders were then rejuvenated with three types of rejuvenators (Type I, II, and III) with different dosages (i.e., 6%, 10%, and 14% for the first, second, and third rejuvenation, respectively). A dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) was then used to analyze the effect of rejuvenators on the rheological properties of all the asphalt-binders. The changes in the functional groups and microscopic morphology in the process of multiple aging and rejuvenation cycles were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results indicated that the three rejuvenators could soften the stiffness and restore the microstructures of the aged asphalt-binders in the process of repeated aging and rejuvenation from DSR and AFM testing. Considering the rutting and fatigue properties, the Type I rejuvenator exhibited the potential to achieve the desired rejuvenation effects under multiple rejuvenation cycles. During the multiple aging and rejuvenation cycles, the aging resistance of SBSMA decreased gradually from the FTIR results. This inherently limited the number of repeated rejuvenation cycles. This research is conducive to promoting the application of repeated penetrating rejuvenation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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Article
Numerical Simulation on Reflective Cracking Behavior of Asphalt Pavement
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 7990; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11177990 - 29 Aug 2021
Viewed by 351
Abstract
Cracks are one of the main problems that plague road workers. A correct understanding of the internal crack propagation mechanism of asphalt pavement will help road workers evaluate the road’s working status more comprehensively and make more reasonable decisions in design, construction, and [...] Read more.
Cracks are one of the main problems that plague road workers. A correct understanding of the internal crack propagation mechanism of asphalt pavement will help road workers evaluate the road’s working status more comprehensively and make more reasonable decisions in design, construction, and maintenance work. This paper established a three-dimensional asphalt pavement layered model using the software ABAQUS and fracture mechanics theory and the extended finite element method were used to explore the mechanical response of the pavement base layer’s preset reflective cracks. This paper investigated the influence of the modulus of each layer, vehicle load on the principal stress, shear stress, J-integral, and two stress intensity factors (K1, K2) during the predetermined crack propagation process of the pavement base layer, and the entropy method was used to analyze the above-mentioned mechanical response. The results show that the main factor affecting the propagation of reflective cracks on asphalt pavements is the modulus of the bottom surface layer. However, from a modeling perspective, the effect of increasing load on crack growth is obvious. Therefore, in terms of technical feasibility, the prevention of reflective cracks should still be achieved by controlling the driving load and prohibiting overloading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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Article
Artificial Neural Network-Based Method for Real-Time Estimation of Compaction Quality of Hot Asphalt Mixes
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 7136; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11157136 - 02 Aug 2021
Viewed by 345
Abstract
With the advancement of intelligent compaction technology, real-time quality control has been widely investigated on the subgrade, while it is insufficient on asphalt pavement. This paper aims to estimate the real-time compaction quality of hot mix asphalt (HMA) using an artificial neural network [...] Read more.
With the advancement of intelligent compaction technology, real-time quality control has been widely investigated on the subgrade, while it is insufficient on asphalt pavement. This paper aims to estimate the real-time compaction quality of hot mix asphalt (HMA) using an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier. A field experiment of HMA compaction was designed. The vibration patterns of the drum were identified by using the ANN classifier and classified based on the compaction levels. The vibration signals were collected and the degree of compaction was measured in the field experiment. The collected signals were processed and the features of vibration patterns were extracted. The processed signals were tagged with their corresponding compaction level to form the sample dataset to train the ANN models. Four ANN models with different hidden layer setups were considered to investigate the effect of hidden layer structure on performance. To test the performance of the ANN classifier, the predictions made by ANN were compared with the measuring results from a non-nuclear density gauge (NNDG). The testing results show that the ANN classifier has good performance and huge potential for estimating the compaction quality of HMA in real-time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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Article
Recycling Aged Asphalt Using Hard Asphalt Binder for Hot-Mixing Recycled Asphalt Mixture
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5698; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125698 - 19 Jun 2021
Viewed by 419
Abstract
Increasing the content of reclaimed asphalt pavement material (RAP) in hot-mix recycled asphalt mixture (RHMA) with a satisfactory performance has been a hot topic in recent years. In this study, the performances of Trinidad lake asphalt (TLA), virgin asphalt binder, and aged asphalt [...] Read more.
Increasing the content of reclaimed asphalt pavement material (RAP) in hot-mix recycled asphalt mixture (RHMA) with a satisfactory performance has been a hot topic in recent years. In this study, the performances of Trinidad lake asphalt (TLA), virgin asphalt binder, and aged asphalt binder were first compared, and then the modification mechanism of TLA on virgin asphalt and aged asphalt was explored. Furthermore, the RHMA was designed in accordance with the French norm NF P 98-140 containing 50% and 100% RAP, and their high-temperature stability, low-temperature cracking resistance, and fatigue performances were tested to be compared with the conventional dense gradation AC-20 asphalt mixture. The results show that the addition of TLA changes the component proportion of virgin asphalt binder, but no new functional groups are produced. The hard asphalt binder modified by TLA has a better rutting resistance, while the fatigue and cracking resistance is lower, compared to both aged and virgin asphalt. The high-modulus design concept of RHMA is a promising way to increase the RAP content in RHMA with acceptable performance. Generally, the RHMA with 50% RAP has similar properties to AC-20. And, when the RAP content reaches 100%, the high- and low-temperature performance and anti-fatigue performance of RHMA are better than AC-20 mixture. Thus, recycling aged asphalt using hard asphalt binder for hot-mixing recycled asphalt mixture to increase the RAP content is feasible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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Article
A Preliminary Laboratory Evaluation on the Use of Shredded Cigarette Filters as Stabilizing Fibers for Stone Mastic Asphalts
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5674; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125674 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 605
Abstract
Cigarette butts can be considered as one of the most common contemporary sources of waste, considering the large consumption of cigarettes all over the world. Despite the fact that different solutions have been developed and tested in the recent years aiming to recycle [...] Read more.
Cigarette butts can be considered as one of the most common contemporary sources of waste, considering the large consumption of cigarettes all over the world. Despite the fact that different solutions have been developed and tested in the recent years aiming to recycle them, cigarette butts are currently landfilled and incinerated. Following the circular economy principles, the experimental application proposed in this paper is an exploratory investigation on the use of shredded cigarette filters as sustainable alternative to the addition of fibers into Stone Mastic Asphalts (SMAs). This represents the preliminary step for a wider research project, aiming to find a possible recycling solution for cigarette butts as fibers in bituminous materials. The use of fibers is a common and well-established solution for the production of high bitumen content mixtures. The fibers have a double function: acting, generally, as a stabilizing agent and, where possible, improving the mechanical performance of the bituminous mixtures. In the present research, two different SMAs were produced and tested aiming to analyze the effects given by the addition of the shredded cigarette filters. The first asphalt concrete, produced with traditional cellulose fibers was taken as a reference mixture, while the experimental mixture was produced with the shredded cigarette filters. The data highlight interesting and promising results for future development, making the use of waste cigarette filters a potential eco-friendly alternative to common cellulose fibers for SMAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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Article
Experimental Study of Low Temperature Performance of Porous Asphalt Mixture
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 4029; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11094029 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 612
Abstract
Porous asphalt mixture can be used as a road surface paving material with the remarkable advantage to prevent water accumulation and ponding. However, the performance of porous asphalt mixture in low temperature environment has not been thoroughly investigated, and this forms the subject [...] Read more.
Porous asphalt mixture can be used as a road surface paving material with the remarkable advantage to prevent water accumulation and ponding. However, the performance of porous asphalt mixture in low temperature environment has not been thoroughly investigated, and this forms the subject of research in the present study. The mineral aggregate gradation of porous asphalt mixture was designed based on Bailey method, and the low temperature performance of porous asphalt mixture was studied by means of the low temperature bending test. The factors affecting the low temperature performance of porous asphalt mixture were analyzed through the orthogonal experimental design method, and the effects of porosity, modifier content, aging condition, and test temperature on the low temperature performance of porous asphalt mixture were evaluated. The results showed that the modifier content was the most important factor affecting the low temperature performance of porous asphalt mixture, followed by the test temperature, while the porosity and the aging condition were the least. Among the three performance evaluation indicators, namely the flexural tensile strength, maximum bending strain, and bending stiffness modulus, the maximum bending strain had the highest sensitivity to the porosity. It can be seen from the single factor influence test of porosity that there existed an approximately linear relationship between the maximum bending strain and the porosity of porous asphalt mixture, and the maximum bending strain decreased with increasing porosity. Furthermore, in order to ensure the good working performance of porous asphalt mixture in low temperature environment, the porosity should also satisfy the required limits of the maximum bending strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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Article
Characteristics of Warm Mix Asphalt Incorporating Coarse Steel Slag Aggregates
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3708; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083708 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 759
Abstract
The major goal of sustainable practices is to preserve raw resources through the utilization of waste materials as an alternative to natural resources. Decreasing the temperature required to produce asphalt mixes contributes to environmental sustainability by reducing energy consumption and toxic emissions. In [...] Read more.
The major goal of sustainable practices is to preserve raw resources through the utilization of waste materials as an alternative to natural resources. Decreasing the temperature required to produce asphalt mixes contributes to environmental sustainability by reducing energy consumption and toxic emissions. In this study, warm mix asphalt incorporating coarse steel slag aggregates was investigated. Warm mix asphalt was produced at different temperatures lower than the control asphalt mixes (hot mix asphalt) by 10, 20, and 30 °C. The performances of the control and warm mix asphalt were assessed through laboratory tests examining stiffness modulus, dynamic creep, and moisture sensitivity. Furthermore, a response surface methodology (RSM) was conducted by means of DESIGN EXPERT 11 to develop prediction models for the performance of warm mix asphalt. The findings of this study illustrate that producing warm mix asphalt at a temperature 10 °C lower than that of hot mix asphalt exhibited the best results, compared to the other mixes. Additionally, the warm mix asphalt produced at 30 °C lower than the hot mix asphalt exhibited comparable performance to the hot mix asphalt. However, as the production temperature increases, the performance of the warm mix asphalt improves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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Review

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Review
Influential Factors and Evaluation Methods of the Performance of Grouted Semi-Flexible Pavement (GSP)—A Review
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 6700; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11156700 - 21 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 468
Abstract
Grouted Semi-flexible Pavement (GSP) is a novel pavement composed of open-graded asphalt concrete grouted with high-fluidity cement mortar. Due to its excellent load-bearing and anti-rutting performance, it has great potential as anti-rutting overlay and surface in road construction. However, the understanding of GSP [...] Read more.
Grouted Semi-flexible Pavement (GSP) is a novel pavement composed of open-graded asphalt concrete grouted with high-fluidity cement mortar. Due to its excellent load-bearing and anti-rutting performance, it has great potential as anti-rutting overlay and surface in road construction. However, the understanding of GSP performance remains limited and pertinent findings are inconsistent. This article aims to provide a systematic literature review for the articles which were published between 2000 and 2020 on GSP, explore the problems in the recent research, identify knowledge gaps, and deliver recommendations for future research. The influential factors and the relative evaluation methods of GSP performance are summarized and discussed in this article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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