Special Issue "Recent Advances in Electronic Warfare Networks and Scenarios"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Kiseon Kim
Website
Guest Editor
MT-IT Collaborations Center, GIST, 123 Cheomdangwagi-ro, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Kwangju, Korea
Interests: interdisciplinary engineering; wireless communications; underwater communications and networks; acoustic system design
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Sugjoon Yoon

Guest Editor
Dept. of Aerospace Eng., Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gunja-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, Korea
Interests: large-scale system engineering; ICT–aerospace interdisciplinary engineering; engineering M&S and applications; military systems and simulations
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Nitaigour Premchand Mahalik

Guest Editor
Department of Industrial Technology, Jordan College of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, California State University, Fresno, CA 93740, USA
Interests: ICT-based interdisciplinary engineering; AI; IoT; aquaculture engineering and applications; industrial systems and networks
Prof. Dr. Aresh Dadlani

Guest Editor
School of Engineering, Nazarbayev University, Qabanbay Batyr Ave 53, Astana 010000, Kazakhstan
Interests: complex system engineering; network engineering and applications; digital systems and networks

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electronic warfare (EW) refers to any action involving the use of the electromagnetic spectrum or directed energy to sense, process, command, and control the spectrum. The proliferation of emerging EW technology (e.g., network jamming, superb anti-jamming communications, and cooperative engagement technologies) enables global-scale scenarios and demands new and effective actions over the electromagnetic spectrum and networks. Subsequently, there are many results on cross-layer investigations, interdisciplinary collaborations, and various levels of modeling with simulations.

The aim of this Special Issue is to invite the recent advances and inherent challenges in EW systems, networks and scenarios, as well as to exploit the new results and expand its state of the art.

We expect that the Special Issue will trigger further related research and technology improvements, not only in this important field, but also in other areas, including modeling and simulations (M&S) in military communications and covert communications. Potential topics of the Special Issue include, but are not limited to, the following:

 - emerging surveillance techniques using active and passive sensing

 - energy harvesting sensors for reconnaissance and surveillance

 - M&S in EW for tactical/long-range communications and networks

 - secure and robust communications in the presence of passive and active attacks

 - M&S of counter measures against advanced networked and agile systems

 - M&S of distributed EW systems providing asymmetric capabilities

 - emerging systems concepts and advanced technologies of EW

 - innovative concepts of physical and network solutions for EW

 - M&S of global, multi-dimensional distributed EW systems

 - defense engineering of time, frequency, and position information.

Prof. Dr. Kiseon Kim
Prof. Dr. Sugjoon Yoon
Prof. Dr. Nitaigour Premchand Mahalik
Prof. Dr. Aresh Dadlani
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Electronic warfare
  • Covert communications and networks
  • Defense systems
  • Sensors for reconnaissance and surveillance
  • Multi-dimensional distributed systems

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Understanding Digital Radio Frequency Memory Performance in Countermeasure Design
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4123; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124123 - 15 Jun 2020
Viewed by 581
Abstract
This paper describes the design, implementation, and testing of a novel multi-function software defined Radio Frequency (RF) system designed for small airborne drone applications. The system was created using an inexpensive Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) to combine a coherent linear frequency modulated [...] Read more.
This paper describes the design, implementation, and testing of a novel multi-function software defined Radio Frequency (RF) system designed for small airborne drone applications. The system was created using an inexpensive Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) to combine a coherent linear frequency modulated radar transmitter and receiver, with a Digital Radio Frequency Memory (DRFM) jammer for use with a common RF aperture in simultaneous operation. The system was implemented on a Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGA with a wideband analogue-to-digital/ digital-to-analogue (ADC/DAC) converter mezzanine board and tested using hardware-in-the-loop mode to validate its performance. This is the first known account of an integrated multifunction electronic attack and radar system on a single chip, capable of performing a simultaneous, not time shared, operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Electronic Warfare Networks and Scenarios)
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Open AccessArticle
A Study on the Amplitude Comparison Monopulse Algorithm
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 3966; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10113966 - 07 Jun 2020
Viewed by 627
Abstract
This paper presents two amplitude comparison monopulse algorithms and their covariance prediction equation. The proposed algorithms are based on the iterated least-squares estimation method and include the conventional monopulse algorithm as a special case. The proposed covariance equation is simple but predicts RMS [...] Read more.
This paper presents two amplitude comparison monopulse algorithms and their covariance prediction equation. The proposed algorithms are based on the iterated least-squares estimation method and include the conventional monopulse algorithm as a special case. The proposed covariance equation is simple but predicts RMS errors very accurately. This equation quantitatively states estimation accuracy in terms of major parameters of amplitude comparison monopulse radar, and is also applicable to the conventional monopulse algorithm. The proposed algorithms and covariance prediction equations are validated by the numerical simulations with 100,000 Monte Carlo runs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Electronic Warfare Networks and Scenarios)
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Open AccessArticle
An Efficient Ultra-Tight GPS/RISS Integrated System for Challenging Navigation Environments
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 3613; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10103613 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 540
Abstract
The Global Positioning System (GPS) provides an accurate navigation solution in the open sky. However, in some environments such as urban areas or in the presence of signal jamming, GPS signals cannot be easily tracked since they could be harshly attenuated or entirely [...] Read more.
The Global Positioning System (GPS) provides an accurate navigation solution in the open sky. However, in some environments such as urban areas or in the presence of signal jamming, GPS signals cannot be easily tracked since they could be harshly attenuated or entirely blocked. This often requires the GPS receiver to go into a signal re-acquisition phase for the corresponding satellite. To avoid the intensive computations necessary for the signal re-lock in a GPS receiver, a robust signal-tracking mechanism that can hold and/or rapidly re-lock on the signals and keep track of their dynamics becomes a necessity. This paper augments a vector-based GPS signal tracking system with a Reduced Inertial Sensor System (RISS) to produce a new ultra-tight GPS/INS integrated system that enhances receivers’ tracking robustness and sensitivity in challenging navigation environments. The introduced system is simple, efficient, reliable, yet inexpensive. To challenge the proposed method with real jamming conditions, real experiment work was conducted inside the Anechoic Chamber room at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC). The Spirent GSS6700 signal simulator was used to generate GPS signals, and an INS Simulator is used for simulating the inertial measurement unit (IMU) to generate the corresponding trajectory raw data. The NEAT jammer, by NovAtel, was used to generate real jamming signals. Results show a good performance of the proposed method under real signal jamming conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Electronic Warfare Networks and Scenarios)
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Open AccessArticle
Asymptotic Performance Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Algorithm for Direction-of-Arrival Estimation: Explicit Expression of Estimation Error and Mean Square Error
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2415; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072415 - 01 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 459
Abstract
This paper proposes a new method to get explicit expressions of some quantities associated with performance analysis of the maximum likelihood DOA algorithm in the presence of an additive Gaussian noise on the antenna elements. The motivation of the paper is to make [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a new method to get explicit expressions of some quantities associated with performance analysis of the maximum likelihood DOA algorithm in the presence of an additive Gaussian noise on the antenna elements. The motivation of the paper is to make a quantitative analysis of the ML DOA algorithm in the case of multiple incident signals. We present a simple method to derive a closed-form expression of the MSE of the DOA estimate based on the Taylor series expansion. Based on the Taylor series expansion and approximation, we get explicit expressions of the MSEs of estimates of azimuth angles of all incident signals. The validity of the derived expressions is shown by comparing the analytic results with the simulation results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Electronic Warfare Networks and Scenarios)
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Open AccessArticle
Improved Active Interference Canceling Algorithms for Real-Time Protection of 2nd/3rd Level Facilities in Electronic Warfare Environment
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2405; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072405 - 01 Apr 2020
Viewed by 460
Abstract
In an electronic warfare environment, important equipment or facilities of the friendlies are placed in protective facilities to protect against external Electronic Attacks (EA). No matter how well shielded the facility is, some external electromagnetic waves may penetrate through various paths such as [...] Read more.
In an electronic warfare environment, important equipment or facilities of the friendlies are placed in protective facilities to protect against external Electronic Attacks (EA). No matter how well shielded the facility is, some external electromagnetic waves may penetrate through various paths such as power lines or fans, and the electromagnetic waves may be fatal to certain devices due to the structural resonance of the protective facilities. This paper introduced a real-time electromagnetic canceling technique that removes the resonance field inside the protection facility caused by the intended electronic attack from the enemy. The method makes it possible to cancel the process much faster than the conventional ones that have applied the Matrix Pencil Method (MPM). This is because the internal resonant field can be predicted in a closed-form under the assumption that the external electromagnetic wave is a complex exponential function. Longer exposure to Intended Electromagnetic Interference (IEMI) could be fatal for some devices. Therefore, it is imperative to attenuate the noise within a short time, and a method of reducing internal noise in real-time is beneficial for Electronic Protection (EP). The proposed method could be applied as a new technique to protect important protection facilities, rather than the more traditional method called wrapping using the Faraday cage effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Electronic Warfare Networks and Scenarios)
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Analysis of Interferometer Direction of Arrival Estimation under Frequency Mismatch of Array Manifold: DOA of Frequency Hopping Signal
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2331; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072331 - 29 Mar 2020
Viewed by 512
Abstract
We consider the direction of arrival (DOA) estimation of the frequency hopping (FH) signal. The frequency hopping (FH) signal has been widely used for communication to control UAVs. Since the frequency of the FH signal is continuously changing, a mismatch may occur between [...] Read more.
We consider the direction of arrival (DOA) estimation of the frequency hopping (FH) signal. The frequency hopping (FH) signal has been widely used for communication to control UAVs. Since the frequency of the FH signal is continuously changing, a mismatch may occur between the actual frequency of the received signal and the nominal frequency of the array manifold. In this paper, the azimuth and elevation estimation error in DOA estimation due to frequency mismatch are analytically derived. It is shown that the azimuth error is equal to zero and that elevation error depends on true elevation angle of the incident signal, rather than the true azimuth angle of the incident signal. The elevation error is also dependent on the actual frequency and the nominal frequency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Electronic Warfare Networks and Scenarios)
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Open AccessArticle
Asymptotic Performance Analysis of the MUSIC Algorithm for Direction-of-Arrival Estimation
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(6), 2063; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10062063 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 591
Abstract
We consider the performance analysis of the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm for multiple incident signals when the uniform linear array (ULA) is adopted for estimation of the azimuth of each incident signal. We derive closed-form expression of the estimation error for each [...] Read more.
We consider the performance analysis of the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm for multiple incident signals when the uniform linear array (ULA) is adopted for estimation of the azimuth of each incident signal. We derive closed-form expression of the estimation error for each incident signal. After some approximations, we derive closed-form expression of the mean square error (MSE) for each incident signal. In the MUSIC algorithm, the eigenvectors of covariance matrix are used for calculation of the MUSIC spectrum. Our derivation is based on how the eigenvectors of the sample covariance matrix are related to those of the true covariance matrix. The main contribution of this paper is the reduction in computational complexity for the performance analysis of the MUSIC algorithm in comparison with the traditional Monte–Carlo simulation-based performance analysis. The validity of the derived expressions is shown using the numerical results. Future work includes an extension to performance analysis of the MUSIC algorithm for simultaneous estimation of the azimuth and the elevation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Electronic Warfare Networks and Scenarios)
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Open AccessArticle
Theory and Design of Blink Jamming
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(6), 1914; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10061914 - 11 Mar 2020
Viewed by 555
Abstract
Establishing an error in the angle estimates of a monopulse radar is critical to creating miss distance during the terminal stage of missile engagements. However, the tools for creating angle deception are limited, with blink jamming offering significant potential. This paper fills in [...] Read more.
Establishing an error in the angle estimates of a monopulse radar is critical to creating miss distance during the terminal stage of missile engagements. However, the tools for creating angle deception are limited, with blink jamming offering significant potential. This paper fills in the conceptual gaps in understanding of blink jamming, through a theoretical analysis, which is validated using modelling and simulation, including hardware-in-the-loop with a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Additionally, a novel version of blink jamming is proposed, using a synchronized amplitude modulation, and its performance compared to traditional, unmodulated blink jamming. The complete results are discussed, with design guidance provided for implementing blink jamming in operational scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Electronic Warfare Networks and Scenarios)
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Open AccessArticle
Antijamming Improvement for Frequency Hopping Using Noise-Jammer Power Estimator
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 1733; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051733 - 03 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 618
Abstract
In frequency-hopping spread-spectrum (FHSS) systems, jammer detection and mitigation are important but difficult. Each slot of the FHSS experiences frequency-selective fading and unequal transceiver-frequency gains that hinder the detection of jammed slots and result in a poor bit-error rate (BER). To increase BER [...] Read more.
In frequency-hopping spread-spectrum (FHSS) systems, jammer detection and mitigation are important but difficult. Each slot of the FHSS experiences frequency-selective fading and unequal transceiver-frequency gains that hinder the detection of jammed slots and result in a poor bit-error rate (BER). To increase BER performance, we first propose a noise-jammer power estimator (NJPE) that estimates noise and jammer powers regardless of different channel gains, and derived its normalized Cramér–Rao bound (NCRB). Second, we developed a jammer detector based on gamma distribution, and designed a restoration method combining all nonjammed slots. Computer simulations verified the derived NCRB of the proposed NJPE by normalized mean squared error (NMSE), and showed that the jammer-detection probability of the proposed jammer detector was better than that of conventional detectors. The BER performance of the proposed method was also shown to be better than that of conventional methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Electronic Warfare Networks and Scenarios)
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Analysis of Amplitude Comparison Monopulse Direction-of-Arrival Estimation
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1246; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041246 - 12 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 605
Abstract
Amplitude-comparison monopulse radar in tracking radar uses the tracking scheme of a monopulse radar to estimate the angle components of a target. The performance of the amplitude comparison monopulse radar under measurement uncertainty is analysed. Measurement noises are modelled as Gaussian random variables. [...] Read more.
Amplitude-comparison monopulse radar in tracking radar uses the tracking scheme of a monopulse radar to estimate the angle components of a target. The performance of the amplitude comparison monopulse radar under measurement uncertainty is analysed. Measurement noises are modelled as Gaussian random variables. Taylor series expansion is adopted to get analytic expression of the mean square error (MSE). Estimation accuracy, in terms of the MSEs for estimate the direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation algorithm, is usually obtained from the Monte Carlo simulation, which can be computationally intensive especially for large number of repetitions in the Monte Carlo simulation. To get reliable MSE in the Monte Carlo simulation, the number of repetitions should be very large, which implies that there is a trade-off between reliability of the MSE and computational burden in the Monte Carlo simulation. This paper shows the performance of amplitude comparison monopulse radar by linear approximation of nonlinear equations to estimate the DOA. The performance of amplitude comparison monopulse radar is quantitatively analysed via the MSEs, and the derived expression is validated by comparing the analytic MSEs with the simulation based MSEs. In addition, it is shown in the numerical results that analytically derived MSE is much less computationally intensive in comparison with the Monte Carlo simulation-based MSE, which implies that the proposed scheme in this paper results in drastic reduction in computational complexity for evaluation of the MSE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Electronic Warfare Networks and Scenarios)
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Open AccessArticle
Frequency Hopping Signals Tracking and Sorting Based on Dynamic Programming Modulated Wideband Converters
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(14), 2906; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9142906 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 764 | Correction
Abstract
Most of the earlier tracking and network sorting approaches with a high sampling rate for frequency hopping (FH) signals did not adapt to the wideband system during their implementation, whereas the sub-Nyquist based algorithms cannot satisfy the real-time requirement for dealing with the [...] Read more.
Most of the earlier tracking and network sorting approaches with a high sampling rate for frequency hopping (FH) signals did not adapt to the wideband system during their implementation, whereas the sub-Nyquist based algorithms cannot satisfy the real-time requirement for dealing with the rapid change of sparsity. It is important to improve the compressed sensing (CS) methods for tracking and sorting wideband FH signals. In this paper, a dynamic programming modulated wideband converters (MWC) scheme is proposed. First, considering the wide gap of FH signals, an improved power estimation method is proposed to track the support set in the time domain. Second, to sort multiple signals more effectively, a feedback control algorithm based on dynamic programming is proposed. In the proposed method, the total sampling rate is decreased significantly, and multiple FH signals are separated rapidly without recovery based on the results of tracking and comparative power. Simulations show that the proposed method can track and sort FH signals efficiently and more practically than previous methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Electronic Warfare Networks and Scenarios)
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