Special Issue "Toxic Effects of Fluoride"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2021) | Viewed by 11966

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dariusz Chlubek
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
Interests: metabolism of trace elements; toxic elements; ecotoxicology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Marta Goschorska
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
Interests: fluoride toxicity; neurotoxicology; neurology; oxidative stress
Dr. Maciej Sikora
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Hospital of the Ministry of Interior, Kielce, Poland
Interests: fluoride metabolism; maxillofacial traumatology; oral health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As the most reactive element, fluorine plays an important role in nature, and its presence in the environment forces living organisms to metabolize it. Since fluoride (fluorine ion) has been used in the prevention of tooth decay, it has become a subject of great interest. Initially, it was believed that the prophylactic action of fluoride would only have positive effects. This was one of the reasons fluoridation of drinking water has been introduced as a part of this prophylaxis. However, it soon became apparent that in addition to its beneficial action, fluoride exerted various toxic effects. Therefore, the use of fluoride in medicine has become the subject of numerous controversies, and research is ongoing to agree a common position in this field. This Special Issue is intended to be an important voice in this discussion. Therefore, we invite everyone interested in fluoride toxicity to submit valuable works.

Prof. Dariusz Chlubek
Dr. Marta Goschorska
Dr. Maciej Sikora
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Chronic toxicity of fluoride
  • Acute toxicity of fluoride
  • Molecular mechanisms of fluoride toxicity
  • In vitro studies on fluoride toxicity
  • Fluoride toxicity in plants
  • Fluoride toxicity in animals
  • Neurotoxicity of fluoride

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Expression of the Melatonin-Associated Genes in Fibroblasts That Have Been Co-Exposed to Fluoride and a Moderate-Strength Static Magnetic Field
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(19), 8810; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11198810 - 22 Sep 2021
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Fluoride can weaken the protective role of melatonin in reducing cellular damage. A static magnetic field is a physical factor that can counteract the negative effect of fluoride. Hence, the main objective of the study was to analyze the transcriptional activity of the [...] Read more.
Fluoride can weaken the protective role of melatonin in reducing cellular damage. A static magnetic field is a physical factor that can counteract the negative effect of fluoride. Hence, the main objective of the study was to analyze the transcriptional activity of the genes that are associated with the activity of melatonin in human skin fibroblasts that have been co-exposed to fluoride and a moderate-strength static magnetic field. The expression of the melatonin-associated genes in human fibroblasts that had simultaneously been exposed to F and a static magnetic field was determined using an oligonucleotide microarray and RT-qPCR techniques. The concentration of oxidative damage markers was also measured. In NaF and static magnetic field-treated cells, there was a tendency to compensate for the expression of the differentiating genes (IL27RA, NR1D1, RRP7A, YIPF1, HIST1H2BD) that had been modified by the presence of fluoride. It has been also shown that the oxidative damage marker concentration was statistically lower in the cells that had simultaneously been exposed to fluoride and a static magnetic field compared to the F-treated cells. In conclusion, the protective role of a moderate-strength static magnetic field on human dermal fibroblasts that had been exposed to fluoride was demonstrated, and its mechanism of action is associated with the melatonin-dependent pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxic Effects of Fluoride)
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Article
Effect of Fluoride on Germination, Early Growth and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity of Three Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(19), 6971; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196971 - 05 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 927
Abstract
This paper assesses the impact of sodium fluoride on the morphological parameters and activity of catalase and peroxidase during the germination and root growth phases of three winter wheat cultivars: Tobak, Dalewar, and Arkadia. During examination, the seeds were placed on plastic Petri [...] Read more.
This paper assesses the impact of sodium fluoride on the morphological parameters and activity of catalase and peroxidase during the germination and root growth phases of three winter wheat cultivars: Tobak, Dalewar, and Arkadia. During examination, the seeds were placed on plastic Petri dishes with an NaF solution at concentrations of 0 (control), 2.5, 5.0, 8.0, and 10.0 mmol dm−3. The obtained results have shown a decrease in germination, inhibition of root growth, and inhibition of catalase activity, both in the embryos and roots of all tested winter wheat cultivars. The observed effects have been strengthened with the increase of the fluoride concentration. However, the effect of NaF on the peroxidase activity has been dependent on the wheat cultivar. It is difficult to state unequivocally which of the tested winter wheat cultivars has been characterized by the highest sensitivity to fluoride. An η2 analysis has confirmed that the NaF concentration has a greater effect than the winter wheat cultivar on the activity of the determined antioxidant enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxic Effects of Fluoride)
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Article
Fluoride Risk Assessment from Consumption of Different Foods Commercialized in a European Region
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6582; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186582 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 869
Abstract
Fluoride is a halogen found in soil and water from natural and anthropogenic sources. Foods, such as cereals, fruits, and vegetables, among others, absorb and accumulate fluoride. High intakes of this element produce toxic effects such as dental or skeletal fluorosis. Fluoride content [...] Read more.
Fluoride is a halogen found in soil and water from natural and anthropogenic sources. Foods, such as cereals, fruits, and vegetables, among others, absorb and accumulate fluoride. High intakes of this element produce toxic effects such as dental or skeletal fluorosis. Fluoride content was determined in a total of 144 samples from different food groups (cereals and derivatives, fruits, tree nuts, dry fruits, mushrooms, vegetables, and legumes) using selective fluoride ion potentiometry. The fluoride concentration stood out in almonds (3.70 ± 0.96 mg/kg), walnuts (3.53 ± 0.62 mg/kg), bread (2.54 ± 0.85 mg/kg), and rice (2.28 ± 0.93 mg/kg). Consumption of 236 g/day of bread or 263 g/day of rice represents 100% of the recommended daily intake (DRI) set at 0.6 mg/day for children aged 1–3 years. In the case of rice consumption by children of these ages, it is recommended to use bottled water for rice preparation. The consumption of the analyzed foods by teenagers and adults does not pose a health risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxic Effects of Fluoride)
Article
The Protective Effect of Static Magnetic Fields with Different Magnetic Inductions against Fluoride Toxicity Is Related to the NRF2 Signaling Pathway
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6509; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186509 - 18 Sep 2020
Viewed by 711
Abstract
A redox imbalance disrupts the cellcycle and the proliferation process, and contributes to the initiation of programmed cell death. One of the pathways that are important for redox homeostasis is the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway. Fluoride as well as static magnetic fields (SMF) are [...] Read more.
A redox imbalance disrupts the cellcycle and the proliferation process, and contributes to the initiation of programmed cell death. One of the pathways that are important for redox homeostasis is the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway. Fluoride as well as static magnetic fields (SMF) are associated with the concepts of oxidative stress, and thus programmed cell death. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the connection between oxidative stress and apoptosis in human cells co-exposed to fluoride and a SMF with a different magnetic induction and to determine whether the Nrf2-signaling pathway is involved in these effects. The research was realized using normal human dermal fibroblasts that had been co-exposed to fluoride (0.3 mmol/L) and a SMF with a different magnetic induction (0.45 T, 0.55 T, 0.65 T) for 12 h. The mRNA levels of the cellular antioxidant system-related genes and apoptosis-related genes were assessed using the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method. Our results indicated that the increased activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD1 (superoxide dismutase 1), SOD2 and GSR (glutathione reductase)) suggests the restoration of the cell redox homeostasis that had been disturbed by fluoride, and also that the genes whose expression is associated with the induction of apoptosis are down regulated as a result of exposure to a SMF. The SMF with a 0.65 T flux density had the strongest effect on the fibroblasts. Moreover, our findings demonstrated that the Nrf2 transcription factor plays a crucial role in the protective effect of a SMF against fluoride toxicity in human cells. The results of these studies can form the basis for developing therapeutic strategies for apoptosis and oxidative stress-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxic Effects of Fluoride)
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Review

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Review
Mechanisms of Fluoride Toxicity: From Enzymes to Underlying Integrative Networks
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7100; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207100 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2109
Abstract
Fluoride has been employed in laboratory investigations since the early 20th century. These studies opened the understanding of fluoride interventions to fundamental biological processes. Millions of people living in endemic fluorosis areas suffer from various pathological disturbances. The practice of community water fluoridation [...] Read more.
Fluoride has been employed in laboratory investigations since the early 20th century. These studies opened the understanding of fluoride interventions to fundamental biological processes. Millions of people living in endemic fluorosis areas suffer from various pathological disturbances. The practice of community water fluoridation used prophylactically against dental caries increased concern of adverse fluoride effects. We assessed the publications on fluoride toxicity until June 2020. We present evidence that fluoride is an enzymatic poison, inducing oxidative stress, hormonal disruptions, and neurotoxicity. Fluoride in synergy with aluminum acts as a false signal in G protein cascades of hormonal and neuronal regulations in much lower concentrations than fluoride acting alone. Our review shows the impact of fluoride on human health. We suggest focusing the research on fluoride toxicity to the underlying integrative networks. Ignorance of the pluripotent toxic effects of fluoride might contribute to unexpected epidemics in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxic Effects of Fluoride)
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Review
Fluoride and Pineal Gland
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2885; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082885 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6072
Abstract
The pineal gland is an endocrine gland whose main function is the biosynthesis and secretion of melatonin, a hormone responsible for regulating circadian rhythms, e.g., the sleep/wake cycle. Due to its exceptionally high vascularization and its location outside the blood–brain barrier, the pineal [...] Read more.
The pineal gland is an endocrine gland whose main function is the biosynthesis and secretion of melatonin, a hormone responsible for regulating circadian rhythms, e.g., the sleep/wake cycle. Due to its exceptionally high vascularization and its location outside the blood–brain barrier, the pineal gland may accumulate significant amounts of calcium and fluoride, making it the most fluoride-saturated organ of the human body. Both the calcification and accumulation of fluoride may result in melatonin deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxic Effects of Fluoride)
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