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Mechanisms of Fluoride Toxicity: From Enzymes to Underlying Integrative Networks

The Institute of Technology and Business, Okružní 517/10, 370 01 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
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Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7100; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207100
Received: 7 September 2020 / Revised: 29 September 2020 / Accepted: 30 September 2020 / Published: 13 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxic Effects of Fluoride)
Fluoride has been employed in laboratory investigations since the early 20th century. These studies opened the understanding of fluoride interventions to fundamental biological processes. Millions of people living in endemic fluorosis areas suffer from various pathological disturbances. The practice of community water fluoridation used prophylactically against dental caries increased concern of adverse fluoride effects. We assessed the publications on fluoride toxicity until June 2020. We present evidence that fluoride is an enzymatic poison, inducing oxidative stress, hormonal disruptions, and neurotoxicity. Fluoride in synergy with aluminum acts as a false signal in G protein cascades of hormonal and neuronal regulations in much lower concentrations than fluoride acting alone. Our review shows the impact of fluoride on human health. We suggest focusing the research on fluoride toxicity to the underlying integrative networks. Ignorance of the pluripotent toxic effects of fluoride might contribute to unexpected epidemics in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: autism spectrum disorders; aluminofluoride complexes; enzymes; fluoride toxicity; G proteins; IQ deficits; magnesium; neurotoxicity; phosphate autism spectrum disorders; aluminofluoride complexes; enzymes; fluoride toxicity; G proteins; IQ deficits; magnesium; neurotoxicity; phosphate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Strunecka, A.; Strunecky, O. Mechanisms of Fluoride Toxicity: From Enzymes to Underlying Integrative Networks. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 7100. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207100

AMA Style

Strunecka A, Strunecky O. Mechanisms of Fluoride Toxicity: From Enzymes to Underlying Integrative Networks. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(20):7100. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207100

Chicago/Turabian Style

Strunecka, Anna, and Otakar Strunecky. 2020. "Mechanisms of Fluoride Toxicity: From Enzymes to Underlying Integrative Networks" Applied Sciences 10, no. 20: 7100. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207100

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